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Arkansas ( ) is a state located in the southern region of the United Statesmarker. Its name is an Algonquin name of the Quapaw Indians. Arkansas shares a border with six states, with its eastern border largely defined by the Mississippi River. Its diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozarksmarker and the Ouachita Mountainsmarker, which make up the U.S. Interior Highlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River. The capital and most populous city is Little Rockmarker, located in the central portion of the state.

Origin of the name

The name "Arkansas" derives from the same root as the name for the state of Kansasmarker. The Kansas tribe of Native Americans are closely associated with the Sioux tribes of the Great Plainsmarker. The word "Arkansas" itself is a French pronunciation of a Quapaw (a related "Kaw" tribe) word meaning "land of downriver people" or "people of the south wind". The pronunciation of Arkansas was made official by an act of the state legislature in 1881 after a dispute between the two U.S. Senators from Arkansas. One wanted to pronounce the name and the other wanted .The name Arkansas has been pronounced and spelled in a variety of fashions. The region was organized as the Territory of Arkansaw on July 4, 1819, but the territory was admitted to the Unionmarker as the State of Arkansasmarker on June 15, 1836. The name was historically , and several other variants. In 1881, the Arkansas General Assembly passed the following concurrent resolution, now Arkansas Code 1-4-105 ( official text):
Whereas, confusion of practice has arisen in the pronunciation of the name of our state and it is deemed important that the true pronunciation should be determined for use in oral official proceedings.
And, whereas, the matter has been thoroughly investigated by the State Historical Society and the Eclectic Society of Little Rock, which have agreed upon the correct pronunciation as derived from history, and the early usage of the American immigrants.
Be it therefore resolved by both houses of the General Assembly, that the only true pronunciation of the name of the state, in the opinion of this body, is that received by the French from the native Indians and committed to writing in the French word representing the sound.
It should be pronounced in three (3) syllables, with the final "s" silent, the "a" in each syllable with the Italian sound, and the accent on the first and last syllables.
The pronunciation with the accent on the second syllable with the sound of "a" in "man" and the sounding of the terminal "s" is an innovation to be discouraged.
Citizens of the State of Kansasmarker often pronounce the Arkansas Rivermarker as , in a manner similar to the common pronunciation of the name of their state.

In 2007, the state legislature officially declared the possessive form of the state's name to be Arkansas's.

Geography

The Mississippi River forms most of Arkansas's eastern border, except in Claymarker and Greenemarker counties where the St. Francis River forms the western boundary of the Missouri Bootheelmarker, and in dozens of places where the current channel of the Mississippi has meandered from where it had last been legally specified. Arkansas shares its southern border with Louisianamarker, its northern border with Missourimarker, its eastern border with Tennesseemarker and Mississippimarker, and its western border with Texasmarker and Oklahomamarker.

Arkansas is a land of mountains and valleys, thick forests and fertile plains. The so-called Lowlands are better known by names of their two regions, the Delta and the Grand Prairie. The Arkansas Delta is a flat landscape of rich alluvial soils formed by repeated flooding of the adjacent Mississippi. Further away from the river, in the southeast portion of the state, the Grand Prairie consists of a more undulating landscape. Both are fertile agricultural areas.

The Delta region is bisected by an unusual geological formation known as Crowley's Ridgemarker. A narrow band of rolling hills, Crowley's Ridge rises from 250 to above the surrounding alluvial plain and underlies many of the major towns of eastern Arkansas.

Northwest Arkansas is part of the Ozark Plateaumarker including the Boston Mountains, to the south are the Ouachita Mountainsmarker and these regions are divided by the Arkansas Rivermarker; the southern and eastern parts of Arkansas are called the Lowlands. All of these mountains ranges are part of the U.S. Interior Highlands region, the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountainsmarker. The highest point in the state is Mount Magazinemarker in the Ozark Mountainsmarker; it rises to above sea level.



Arkansas is home to many caves, such as Blanchard Springs Cavernsmarker.It is currently the only U.S. state in which diamonds are mined (near Murfreesboromarker).

Arkansas is home to many areas protected by the National Park System. These include:



The Trail of Tears National Historic Trail also runs through Arkansas.

Climate

Arkansas generally has a humid subtropical climate, which borders on humid continental in some northern highland areas. While not bordering the Gulf of Mexicomarker, Arkansas is still close enough to this warm, large body of water for it to be the main weather influence in the state. Generally, Arkansas has very hot, humid summers and mild, slightly drier winters. In Little Rock, the daily high temperatures average around in the summer and close to in winter. Annual precipitation throughout the state averages between about ; somewhat wetter in the south and drier in the northern part of the state. Snowfall is not uncommon, but not excessive in most years, as the average snowfall is approximately five inches (13 cm).

Despite its subtropical climate, Arkansas is known for occasional extreme weather. Between both the Great Plainsmarker and the Gulf States, Arkansas receives around 60 days of thunderstorms. As a part of Tornado Alley, tornadoes are not an uncommon occurrence in Arkansas, and a few of the most destructive tornadoes in U.S. history have struck the state. While being sufficiently away from the coast to be safe from a direct hit from a hurricane, Arkansas can often get the remnants of a tropical system which dumps tremendous amounts of rain in a short time and often spawns smaller tornadoes.

High water pouring down the White River caused historic flooding in cities along its path in eastern Arkansas.

Monthly normal high and low temperatures for various Arkansas cities
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Fort Smith 48/28 55/33 64/41 73/49 80/59 88/67 93/71 93/70 85/63 75/50 61/40 51/31
Little Rock 50/31 56/35 64/43 73/50 81/59 89/68 93/72 92/70 85/64 75/52 62/42 52/34


History

The first European to reach Arkansas was the Spanishmarker explorer Hernando de Soto at the end of the 16th century. Arkansas is one of several U.S. states formed from the territory purchased from Napoleon Bonaparte in the Louisiana Purchase. The early Spanish or French explorers of the state gave it its name, which is probably a phonetic spelling of the Illinois tribe's name for the Quapaw people, who lived downriver from them. Other Native American tribes who lived in Arkansas prior to westward movement were the Quapaw, Caddo, and Osage nations. In their forced move westward (under U.S. Indian removal policies), the Five Civilized Tribes inhabited Arkansas during its territorial period.

The Territory of Arkansaw was organized on July 4, 1819. On June 15, 1836, the State of Arkansas was admitted to the Unionmarker as the 25th state and the 13th slave state. Planters settled in the Delta to cultivate cotton; this was the area of the state where most enslaved African Americans were held. Other areas had more subsistence farmers and mixed farming.

Arkansas played a key role in aiding Texas in its war for independence from Mexico; it sent troops and materials to Texas to help fight the war. The proximity of the city of Washingtonmarker to the Texas border involved the town in the Texas Revolution of 1835-36. Some evidence suggests Sam Houston and his compatriots planned the revolt in a tavern at Washington in 1834. When the fighting began, a stream of volunteers from Arkansas and the southeastern states flowed through the town toward the Texas battle fields.

When the Mexican-American War began in 1846, Washington became a rendezvous for volunteer troops. Governor Thomas S. Drew issued a proclamation calling on the state to furnish one regiment of cavalry and one battalion of infantry to join the United States Army. Ten companies of men assembled here, where they were formed into the first Regiment of Arkansas Cavalry.

The state developed a cotton culture in the east in lands of the Mississippi Delta. This was where enslaved labor was used most extensively, as planters brought with them or imported slaves from the Upper South. On the eve of the Civil War in 1860, enslaved African Americans numbered 111,115 people, just over 25% of the state's population.

Arkansas refused to join the Confederate States of America until after United States President Abraham Lincoln called for troops to respond to the Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter, South Carolinamarker. The State of Arkansas declared its secession from the Unionmarker on May 6, 1861. While not often cited in historical accounts, the state was the scene of numerous small-scale battles during the American Civil War. Arkansans of note who contributed to the Civil War included Confederate Major General Patrick Cleburne. Considered by many to be one of the most brilliant Confederate division commanders of the war, Cleburne was often referred to as "The Stonewall of the West." Also of note was Major General Thomas C. Hindman. A former United States Representative, Hindman commanded Confederate forces at the Battle of Cane Hill and Battle of Prairie Grove.

Under the Military Reconstruction Act, Congress restored Arkansas to the Union in June 1868. The Reconstruction legislature established universal male suffrage, a public education system, and other general issues to improve the state and help more of the population. Years later, after conservative Democrats regained political power, they passed a new state constitution in 1874.

In 1874, the Brooks-Baxter War, a political struggle between factions of the Republican Party shook Little Rock and the state governorship. It was settled only when President Ulysses S. Grant ordered Joseph Brooks to disperse his militant supporters.

In 1881, the Arkansas state legislature enacted a bill that adopted an official pronunciation of the state's name, to combat a controversy then simmering. (See Law and Government below).

After Reconstruction, the state began to receive more immigrants and migrants. Chinese, Italian, and Syrianmarker men were recruited for farm labor in the developing Delta region. None of these nationalities stayed long at farm labor; the Chinese especially quickly became small merchants in towns around the Delta. Some early 20th century immigration included people from eastern Europe. Together, these immigrants made the Delta more diverse than the rest of the state. In the same years, some black migrants moved into the area because of opportunities to develop the bottomlands and own their own property. Many Chinese became such successful merchants in small towns that they were able to educate their children at college.

Construction of railroads enabled more farmers to get their products to market. It also brought new development into different parts of the state, including the Ozarks, where some areas were developed as resorts. In a few years at the end of the 19th century, for instance, Eureka Springsmarker in Carroll Countymarker grew to 10,000 people, rapidly becoming a tourist destination and the fourth largest city of the state. It featured newly constructed, elegant resort hotels and spas planned around its natural springs, considered to have healthful properties. The town's attractions included horse racing and other entertainment. It appealed to a wide variety of classes, becoming almost as popular as Hot Springs.

In the late 1880s, the worsening agricultural depression catalyzed Populist and third party movements, leading to interracial coalitions. Struggling to stay in power, in the 1890s the Democrats in Arkansas followed other Southern states in passing legislation and constitutional amendments that disfranchised blacks and poor whites. Democrats wanted to prevent their alliance. In 1891 state legislators passed a requirement for a literacy test, knowing that many blacks and whites would be excluded, at a time when more than 25% of the population could neither read nor write. In 1892 they amended the state constitution to include a poll tax and more complex residency requirements, both of which adversely affected poor people and sharecroppers, and forced them from electoral rolls.

By 1900 the Democratic Party expanded use of the white primary in county and state elections, further denying blacks a part in the political process. Only in the primary was there any competition among candidates, as Democrats held all the power. The state was a Democratic one-party state for decades, until after the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965 were passed.

Between 1905 and 1911, Arkansas began to receive a small migration of German, Slovak, and Irish immigrants. The German and Slovak peoples settled in the eastern part of the state known as the Prairie, and the Irish founded small communities in the southeast part of the state. The Germans were mostly Catholic and the Slovaks were Lutheran. The Irish were mostly Protestant from Ulster.

After the case of Brown v. Topeka Board of Education in 1954, the Little Rock Nine brought Arkansas to national attention when the Federal government intervened to protect African-American students trying to integrate a high school in the Arkansas capital. Governor Orval Faubus ordered the Arkansas National Guard to aid segregationists in preventing nine African-American students from enrolling at Little Rock's Central High School. After attempting three times to contact Faubus, President Dwight D. Eisenhower sent 1000 troops from the active-duty 101st Airborne Division to escort and protect the African-American students as they entered school on September 25, 1957. In defiance of federal court orders to integrate, the governor and city of Little Rock decided to close the high schools for the remainder of the school year. By the fall of 1959, the Little Rock high schools were completely integrated.

Bill Clinton, the 42nd President of the United States, was born in Hope, Arkansasmarker. Before his presidency, Clinton served nearly twelve years as the 40th and 42nd Governor of Arkansas.

Demographics

As of 2006, Arkansas has an estimated population of 2,810,872, which is an increase of 29,154, or 1.1%, from the prior year and an increase of 105,756, or 4.0%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 52,214 people (that is 198,800 births minus 146,586 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 57,611 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 21,947 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 35,664 people. It is estimated that about 48.8% is male, and 51.2% is female. From 2000 through 2006 Arkansas has had a population growth of 5.1% or 137,472. The population density of the state is 51.3 people per square mile.

The center of population of Arkansas is located in the far northeast corner of Perry Countymarker.

As of the 2005-2007 American Community Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau, White Americans made up 78.6% of Arkansas' population. African Americans made up 15.6% of Arkansas' population. American Indians made up 0.7% of the state's population while Asian Americans made up 1.1% of the state's population. Pacific Islander Americans made up only 0.1% of the population. Individuals from some other race made up 2.3% of Arkansas' population while individuals from two or more races made up 1.6% of the state's population. In addition, Hispanics and Latinos made up 5.0% of Arkansas' population.

People of Irish, German, and English background comprise a plurality of Arkansas' European American residents.

People of European ancestry have a strong presence in the northwestern Ozarksmarker and the central part of the state. African Americans live mainly in the fertile southern and eastern parts of the state. Arkansans of Irish, English and German ancestry are mostly found in the far northwestern Ozarks near the Missouri border. Ancestors of the Irish in the Ozarks were chiefly Scotch-Irish, Protestants from Northern Irelandmarker and the Scottishmarker lowlands, part of the largest group of immigrants from Great Britainmarker and Ireland before the American Revolution. Scots-Irish settled throughout the backcountry of the South and in the more mountainous areas.

As of the 2005-2007 American Community Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau, 93.9% of Arkansas' population spoke only English at home. About 4.4% of the state's population spoke Spanish at home. About 0.8% of the state's population each spoke any other Indo-European language and an Asian language at home. And 0.2% spoke other languages.

In 2006, Arkansas has a larger percentage of tobacco smokers than the national average, with 24.0% of adults smoking.

Religion

Arkansas, like most other Southern states, is part of the Bible Belt and is predominantly Protestant. The religious affiliations of the people are as follows:
Arkansas Population Density Map
The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2000 were the Southern Baptist Convention with 665,307; the United Methodist Church with 179,383; the Roman Catholic Church with 115,967; and the American Baptist Association with 115,916.

Economy

The quarter for Arkansas, released October 20 2003.


The state's gross domestic product for 2005 was $87 billion. Its per capita household median income (in current dollars) for 2004 was $35,295, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. The state's agriculture outputs are poultry and eggs, soybeans, sorghum, cattle, cotton, rice, hogs, and milk. Its industrial outputs are food processing, electric equipment, fabricated metal products, machinery, paper products, bromine, and vanadium.

Several global companies are headquartered in the northwest corner of Arkansas, including Wal-Martmarker (the world's largest public corporation by revenue in 2007), J.B. Hunt and Tyson Foods. This area of the state has experienced an economic boom since the 1970s as a result.

In recent years, automobile parts manufacturers have opened factories in eastern Arkansas to support auto plants in other states.

Tourism is also very important to the Arkansas economy; the official state nickname "The Natural State" was originally created (as "Arkansas Is A Natural") for state tourism advertising in the 1970s, and is still regularly used to this day.

According to Forbes.com Arkansas currently ranks 21st for The Best States for Business, 9th for Business Cost, 40th for Labor, 22nd for Regulatory Environment, 17th for Economic Climate, 9th for Growth Prospects, 34th in Gross Domestic Product, and positive economic change of 3.8% or ranked 22nd.

Taxation

A map of Arkansas with county boundaries drawn
Arkansas imposes a state income tax with six brackets, ranging from 1.0% to 7.0%. The first $9,000 of military pay of enlisted personnel is exempt from Arkansas tax; officers do not have to pay state income tax on the first $6,000 of their military pay. Retirees pay no tax on Social Security, or on the first $6,000 in gain on their pensions (in addition to recovery of cost basis). Residents of Texarkana, Arkansasmarker are exempt from Arkansas income tax; wages and business income earned there by residents of Texarkana, Texasmarker are also exempt. Arkansas's gross receipts (sales) tax and compensating (use) tax rate is currently 6%. The state has also mandated that various services be subject to sales tax collection. They include wrecker and towing services; dry cleaning and laundry; body piercing, tattooing and electrolysis; pest control; security and alarm monitoring; self-storage facilities; boat storage and docking; and pet grooming and kennel services.

In addition to the state sales tax, there are more than 300 local taxes in Arkansas. Cities and counties have the authority to enact additional local sales and use taxes if they are passed by the voters in their area. These local taxes have a ceiling or cap; they cannot exceed $25 for each 1% of tax assessed. These additional taxes are collected by the state, which distributes the money back to the local jurisdictions monthly. Low-income taxpayers with a total annual household income of less than $12,000 are permitted a sales tax exemption for electricity usage.

Sales of alcoholic beverages account for added taxes. A 10% supplemental mixed drink tax is imposed on the sale of alcoholic beverages (excluding beer) at restaurants. A 4% tax is due on the sale of all mixed drinks (except beer and wine) sold for "on-premises" consumption. And a 3% tax is due on beer sold for off-premises consumption.

Property taxes are assessed on real and personal property; only 20% of the value is used as the tax base.

Transportation

Highways

Map of Arkansas Interstates and U.S.
Highways.


Interstate Highways

U.S. Routes

State highways

Arkansas state welcome sign


In March 2008, The American State Litter Scorecard, presented at the American Society for Public Administration national conference, rated Arkansas a national Worst state for removing litter and debris from highways and public properties. The state has an above national average fatality rate from litter/debris-related vehicle accidents, based on NHTSA statistics.

Airports

Little Rock National Airportmarker (Adams Field) and Northwest Arkansas Regional Airportmarker in Highfillmarker in Benton Countymarker are Arkansas's main air terminals. Passenger service is also available at Fort Smithmarker, as well as limited service at Texarkanamarker, Russellvillemarker, Pine Bluffmarker, Harrisonmarker, Ozark Regional Airport Mountain Homemarker, Hot Springsmarker, El Doradomarker and Jonesboromarker. Many air travelers in eastern Arkansas use Memphis International Airportmarker.

Rail

The Amtrak Texas Eagle passenger train makes several stops in Arkansas daily on its run from Chicagomarker to San Antoniomarker to Los Angelesmarker.

Law and government

The current Governor of Arkansas is Mike Beebe, a Democrat, who was elected on November 7, 2006.

Both of Arkansas's U.S. Senators are Democrats: Blanche Lincoln and Mark Pryor. The state has four seats in U.S. House of Representatives. Three seats are held by Democrats—Robert Marion Berry ( map), Vic Snyder ( map), and Mike Ross ( map). The state's lone Republican congressman is John Boozman ( map).

Presidential elections results
Year Republican Democratic
2008 58.72% 638,017 38.86% 422,310
2004 54.31% 572,898 44.55% 469,953
2000 51.31% 472,940 45.86% 422,768
1996 36.80% 325,416 53.74% 475,171
1992 35.48% 337,324 53.21% 505,823
1988 56.37% 466,578 42.19% 349,237
1984 60.47% 534,774 38.29% 338,646
1980 48.13% 403,164 47.52% 398,041
1976 34.93% 268,753 64.94% 499,614
1972 68.82% 445,751 30.71% 198,899
1968* 31.01% 189,062 30.33% 184,901
1964 43.41% 243,264 56.06% 314,197
1960 43.06% 184,508 50.19% 215,049
*State won by George Wallace
of the American Independent Party,
at 38.65%, or 235,627 votes



The Democratic Party holds super-majority status in the Arkansas General Assembly. A majority of local and statewide offices are also held by Democrats. This is rare in the modern South, where a majority of statewide offices are held by Republicans. Arkansas had the distinction in 1992 of being the only state in the country to give the majority of its vote to a single candidate in the presidential election—native son Bill Clinton—while every other state's electoral votes were won by pluralities of the vote among the three candidates. Arkansas has become more reliably Republican in presidential elections in recent years. The state voted for John McCain in 2008 by a margin of 20 percentage points, making it one of the few states in the country to vote more Republican than it had in 2004. (The others being Louisiana, Tennessee, Oklahoma and West Virginia.) Obama's relatively poor showing in Arkansas was likely due to a lack of enthusiasm from state Democrats following former Arkansas First Lady Hillary Clinton's failure to win the nomination, and his relatively poor performance among rural white voters. However, the Democratic presence remains strong on the state level; in 2006, Democrats were elected to all statewide offices by the voters in a Democratic sweep that included the Arkansas Democratic Party regaining the governorship, and in 2008, Mark Pryor was re-elected with nearly 80% of the vote against Green candidate Rebekah Kennedy with no Republican opposition.

Most Republican strength lies mainly in the areas around Fort Smithmarker and Bentonville, as well as North Central Arkansas around the Mountain Homemarker area. In the latter area, Republicans have been known to get 90 percent or more of the vote. The rest of the state is more Democratic. Arkansas has only elected one Republican to the U.S. Senate since Reconstruction, Tim Hutchinson, who was defeated after one term by Mark Pryor. The General Assembly has not been controlled by the Republican Party since Reconstruction and is the fourth most heavily Democratic Legislature in the country, after Massachusetts, Hawaii, and Connecticut. Arkansas is one of only two states among the states of the former Confederacy that sends two Democrats to the U.S. Senate (the other being Virginiamarker).

Although Democrats have an overwhelming majority of registered voters, the Democratic Party of Arkansas is more conservative than the national entity. Two of Arkansas' three Democratic Representatives are members of the Blue Dog Coalition, which tends to be more pro-business, pro-military, and socially conservative than the center-left Democratic mainstream. Reflecting the state's large evangelical population, the state has a strong social conservative bent. Under the Arkansas Constitution Arkansas is a right to work state, its voters passed a ban on same-sex marriage with 74% voting yes, and the state is one of a handful that has legislation on its books banning abortion in the event Roe vs. Wade is ever overturned.

In Arkansas, the lieutenant governor is elected separately from the governor and thus can be from a different political party.

Each officer's term is four years long. Office holders are term-limited to two full terms plus any partial terms prior to the first full term. Arkansas gubernatorial terms became four years with the 1986 general election; before this, the terms were two years long.

Some of Arkansas's counties have two county seats, as opposed to the usual one seat. The arrangement dates back to when travel was extremely difficult in the state. The seats are usually on opposite sides of the county. Though travel is no longer the difficulty it once was, there are few efforts to eliminate the two seat arrangement where it exists, since the county seat is a source of pride (and jobs) to the city involved.

Arkansas is the only state to specify the pronunciation of its name by law (AR-kan-saw).

Article 19 (Miscellaneous Provisions), Item 1 in the Arkansas Constitution is entitled "Atheists disqualified from holding office or testifying as witness," and states that "No person who denies the being of a God shall hold any office in the civil departments of this State, nor be competent to testify as a witness in any Court." However, this provision is invalid according to the United States Supreme Courtmarker in Torcaso v. Watkins (1961), which held that a similar requirement in Marylandmarker violated the First and Fourteenth Amendments to the US Constitution.

Metropolitan areas

The Little Rock-North Little Rock-Pine Bluff Combined Statistical Area had 850,761 people in the 2008 census estimates. It is the largest in Arkansas.

The Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers metropolitan areamarker is increasingly important to the state and its economy. The US Census estimated the population of the MSA to be 443,976 in 2008 (up from 347,045 in 2000), making it one of the fastest growing areas in the nation.

Texarkana, TX-Texarkana, AR Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of 134,215.

See also Arkansas Metropolitan Areas.

Largest Cities Above 10,000 as of 2007

Rank City 2007–2008 Pop.
1. Little Rock 189,515 Central
2. Fort Smith 84,716 Northwest
3. Fayetteville 73,372 Northwest
4. Springdale 68,180 Northwest
5. Jonesboro 63,690 Northeast
6. North Little Rock 59,430 Central
7. Conway 57,544 Central
8. Rogers 56,726 Northwest
9. Pine Bluff 50,408 Southeast
10. Hot Springs 39,467 Southwest
11. Bentonville 35,526 Northwest
12. Jacksonville 31,351 Central
13. Texarkana 30,087 Southwest
14. Benton 29,452 Central
15. Russellville 27,602 Northwest
16. West Memphis 27,070 Northeast
17. Paragould 24,800 Northeast
18. Sherwood 24,542 Central
19. Cabot 23.614 Central
20. Van Buren 22,543 Northwest
21. Searcy 22,299 Central
22. El Dorado 19,905 Southeast
23. Bella Vista 16,388 Northwest
24. Maumelle 16,201 Central
25. Blytheville 16,105 Northeast
26. Bryant 15,040 Central
27. Siloam Springs 14,825 Northwest
28. Forrest City 13,281 Northeast
29. Harrison 13,108 Northwest
30. Mountain Home 12,592 Northwest
31. Marion 12,217 Northeast
32. Magnolia 11,766 Southwest
33. Camden 11,512 Southeast
34. Arkadelphia 11,130 Southwest
35. Hope 10,378 Southwest
These population numbers are according to the US Census of July 2008. They are the current city population numbers.

Important cities and towns

Little Rock is Arkansas' capital and most populous city
Fort Smith
Fayetteville


Names in bold have populations greater than 20,000.


Education

Public school districts



Centers of research



Colleges and universities



Notable residents

Joey Lauren Adams, Kris Allen, Maya Angelou, Daisy Bates, Lou Brock, Frank Broyles, Dee Brown, Paul "Bear" Bryant, Glen Campbell, Hattie Caraway, Johnny Cash, Wesley Clark, Bill Clinton, Hillary Rodham Clinton, "Dizzy" Dean, Bill Dickey, Beth Ditto, Orval Faubus, James W. Fulbright, John Grisham, Levon Helm, Mike Huckabee, Johnnie Bryan Hunt, Torii Hunter, Joe Jackson, Keith Jackson , Travis Jackson, Joe Johnson, John H. Johnson, Scott Joplin, George Kell, Amy Lee, Cliff Lee, Sonny Liston, Douglas MacArthur, Mark Martin, John L. McClellan, James S. McDonnell, Wilbur Mills, Ben Moody, Albert Pike, Scottie Pippen, Charles Portis, Dick Powell, Brooks Robinson, Winthrop Rockefeller, Shaffer Smith, Mary Steenburgen, Edward Durell Stone, Billy Bob Thornton, Don Tyson, Arky Vaughan, Sam Walton, Archibald Yell, Duggar family, Jermain Taylor, Jerry Jones, Barry Switzer

See also



References

  1. Jones, Daniel. (1997) English Pronouncing Dictionary, 15th ed. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-45272-4
  2. Gambrell, John. "Senate gives support to possessive form of Arkansas." Arkansas Democrat Gazette, March 13, 2007.
  3. Arkansas State Boundaries from the Encyclopedia of Arkansas
  4. Crater of Diamonds: History of diamonds, diamond mining in Arkansas
  5. http://geology.com/gemstones/united-states-diamond-production.shtml
  6. Average Annual Precipitation - Arkansas. Spatial Climate Analysis Service, Oregon State University. Published 2000. Last Retrieved 2007-10-26.
  7. [1] NCDC at NOAA.
  8. http://www.ustravelweather.com/weather-arkansas/
  9. Linguist list 14.4
  10. Historical Census Browser, 1860 US Census, University of Virginia, accessed March 21, 2008
  11. William D. Baker, Minority Settlement in the Mississippi River Counties of the Arkansas Delta, 1870–1930, Arkansas Preservation Commission [2], accessed 14 May 2008
  12. http://www.oldstatehouse.com/educational_programs/classroom/arkansas_news/detail.asp?id=800&issue_id=36&page=3 "White Primary" System Bars Blacks from Politics - 1900", The Arkansas News, Old State House, Spring 1987, p.3, accessed March 22, 2008
  13. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ACSSAFFFacts?_event=Search&geo_id=&_geoContext=&_street=&_county=&_cityTown=&_state=04000US05&_zip=&_lang=en&_sse=on&pctxt=fph&pgsl=010
  14. http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/05000.html
  15. David Hackett Fischer, Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America, New York: Oxford University Press, 1989, pp.633-639
  16. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=04000US05&-qr_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_DP3YR2&-ds_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_&-_lang=en&-redoLog=false&-_sse=on
  17. CDC's State System - State Comparison Report Cigarette Use (Adults) – BRFSS for 2006, lists the state as having 23.7% smokers. The national average is 20.8% according to Cigarette Smoking Among Adults --- United States, 2006 article in the CDC's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
  18. American Religious Identification Survey, 2001
  19. http://www.thearda.com/mapsReports/reports/state/05_2000.asp
  20. Arkansas QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau
  21. Staff Writer. " Fortune Global 500." CNN/Fortune. 2007. Retrieved on November 8, 2007.
  22. Table: The Best States For Business - Forbes.com
  23. S. Spacek, The American State Litter Scorecard
  24. Winners in '06 Governors races
  25. Arkansas.gov Administration page for Governor
  26. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/54/Election-state-04-08.png


Further reading

  • Blair, Diane D. & Jay Barth Arkansas Politics & Government: Do the People Rule? (2005)
  • Deblack, Thomas A. With Fire and Sword: Arkansas, 1861–1874 (2003)
  • Donovan, Timothy P. and Willard B. Gatewood Jr., eds. The Governors of Arkansas (1981)
  • Dougan, Michael B. Confederate Arkansas (1982),
  • Duvall, Leland. ed., Arkansas: Colony and State (1973)
  • Fletcher, John Gould. Arkansas (1947)
  • Hamilton, Peter Joseph. The Reconstruction Period (1906), full length history of era; Dunning School approach; 570 pp; ch 13 on Arkansas
  • Hanson, Gerald T. and Carl H. Moneyhon. Historical Atlas of Arkansas (1992)
  • Key, V. O. Southern Politics (1949)
  • Kirk, John A., Redefining the Color Line: Black Activism in Little Rock, Arkansas, 1940–1970 (2002).
  • McMath, Sidney S. Promises Kept (2003)
  • Moore, Waddy W. ed., Arkansas in the Gilded Age, 1874–1900 (1976).
  • Peirce, Neal R. The Deep South States of America: People, Politics, and Power in the Seven Deep South States (1974)
  • Thompson, George H. Arkansas and Reconstruction (1976)
  • Whayne, Jeannie M. et al. Arkansas: A Narrative History (2002)
  • Whayne, Jeannie M. Arkansas Biography: A Collection of Notable Lives (2000)
  • White, Lonnie J. Politics on the Southwestern Frontier: Arkansas Territory, 1819–1836 (1964)
  • Williams, C. Fred. ed. A Documentary History Of Arkansas (2005)
  • WPA., Arkansas: A Guide to the State (1941)


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