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Map of the Armenian diaspora.


The Armenian diaspora has created the communities of Armenians living outside of Armeniamarker, Nagorno-Karabakh and Javakhk. The total Armenian population living worldwide is estimated to be 11,000,000, but only about 3,150,000 live in Armenia, about 140,000 in Nagorno-Karabakh and approximately 120,000 in Javakhk. The Armenian diaspora population is estimated to be 8,000,000 (with the largest populations in Russia, United States, France, Turkey, Lebanon, Syria etc). (See chart of population breakdown by country). Only one-fifth of the world's Armenian population lives in the former Soviet republic of Armenia, and their pre-World War I homeland until the 1920s once covered five or six times that of present-day Armenia, including the eastern regions of Turkey, northern part of Iranmarker, southern part of Georgia, Nagorno-Karabakh and Nakhijevanmarker regions of Azerbaijanmarker.

History

Although an Armenian diaspora existed since the Armenian loss of statehood in 1375 (when the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia fell to the Mamelukes), it grew in size due to emigration from the Ottoman Empire and Russiamarker and the Caucasus.

The Armenian diaspora grew considerably during and after the First World War. Although many Armenians perished during the Armenian Genocide, some of the Armenians managed to escape, and established themselves in various Eastern European cities, such as Moscowmarker, Russiamarker; Sochimarker, Russia; Odessamarker, Ukrainemarker; Sevastopolmarker, Crimeamarker (Ukraine); Tbilisimarker, Georgiamarker; Batumimarker, Georgia; Plovdivmarker, Bulgariamarker.

Others emigrated to the The Balkans, such as Bulgariamarker and Athensmarker, Greecemarker.

Yet others emigrated to Middle Eastern cities, such as and Aleppomarker, Syriamarker and Beirutmarker, Lebanonmarker.

Armenians of the Middle East



Immediately after the Armenian Genocide, the Armenians of the diaspora lived in refugee camps in Lebanon, Syria, Egypt and elsewhere in the Middle East (Iraq, Jordan and Israel). Some emigrated to Greecemarker and further. However, as the financial situation of the refugee Armenians improved, the camps grew into towns, and these towns became cities.

This was the case of many of the Armenian-populated regions in Lebanonmarker like Bourj Hammoudmarker and Anjarmarker. In time, the Armenians organized themselves by building churches, schools, community centers, cultural associations, arts, sports clubs, etc. Various political parties and benevolent unions, such as the Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF or Dashnaktsutiun), the Social Democrat Hunchakian Party (Hunchakian Party), Liberal Democratic Party (Ramgavar Party) and the Armenian General Benevolent Union (AGBU), were established wherever there was a considerable number of Armenians.

Following the expansion of Pan-Arabism in Egypt and Syria, Islamism in Iran, and the Lebanese Civil War, tens of thousands of Armenians emigrated from the Middle East and established themselves in Europe, USAmarker, Canadamarker and Australia.

Some Armenians fought for Iraqmarker in the army under Saddam Hussein in the 1980s Iran-Iraq war, two countries known to have large Armenian communities until the 2000s. The Armenian community in Iraq has dwindled after the 2003 US invasion of Iraq and a scattering number of Armenians remain in east Asia. The Iranian Armenian community also shrank in size since the 1970s.

Israelmarker has a small Armenian community. There is an important Armenian presence in the Armenian Quartermarker in Jerusalemmarker. Some Armenians also live in the areas of the Palestinian Authority.

Cyprusmarker meanwhile has a small but vocal Armenian community, particularly in the southern portion of the island where the majority population is Greek-Cypriot and Orthodox Christian. The Armenian community is guaranteed a seat in the House of Parliament.

The Persian Gulfmarker region also has small Armenian communities from other Arab countries who work in the Gulf or run their businesses there. Countries with some Armenian populations include Kuwait, UAE, Qatar, Bahrain and Saudi Arabiamarker.

Armenians in Europe and the Americas



The Armenians in Eastern Europe have been an important and historical presence in the region going back to the 14th century.. From their first center in the lands of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and joined by emigrants from the later Russian Empiremarker and Soviet Unionmarker, the Armenian community is an integral part of the region in countries such as Poland, Russia, Ukraine, the Czech Republic and Lithuania.

Hundreds of thousands of Armenians also settled in Western Europe (i.e. France, Germany, Italy, the UK and the Netherlands); and in the Americas (North and South) as early as in the 1890s.

The Armenian communities in the United States and Canada are considerably younger. These two countries have seen an upsurge of Armenian immigration of later generations from the Middle East following the expansion of Pan-Arabism in Egypt and Syria, Islamism in Iran, the Lebanese Civil War. North American countries are also witnessing a considerable amount of immigration after the fall of the Soviet Unionmarker and as a result of economic conditions in the Republic of Armeniamarker.

For Latin America, there are active Armenian communities in the entire region. Argentina and Brazil, and to a lesser extent Uruguay contains considerably big number of Armenians. An estimated 10,000 Armenians are said to reside in Mexico.

Armenians in the Soviet Era

Substantial Armenian communities also exist in the Russian Far East as well as in the former Soviet republics of Central Asia. Some of these groups were encouraged to settle in the area by both Tsaristmarker and Sovietmarker authorities while others had no choice but to come, being part of Stalin's population deportations.

Armenians in Asia and the Far East

Armenian communities can also be found on the Asian Continent. Some of these communities have a very long history going back to many centuries.

In Asian countries, there were important communities in India, Pakistan, and as far east as Malaysiamarker, Singapore, Burma and Hong Kongmarker. Armenian exile communities even once thrived in China, Japan and the Philippinesmarker, but the status of Armenian culture in these countries has all but disappeared.

Armenians in Africa

In the African continent, Armenians held a presence very notably in (Sudan and Ethiopia), as Armenians lived in these countries for a few centuries. Armenians also live in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Africa (see South Africa).

Armenians in Oceania

There is a large Armenian community in Australia estimated between 45 and 50 thousand and comprising mainly of Armenian immigrants from the Middle East and Armenia. A much smaller Armenian community has settled in New Zealand.

Political and religious conflicts

In the 1940s and 1950s, the Soviet Union was trying to extend its influence throughout the world, and especially in the Middle East. The Social-Democrat Henchagian party, being ideologically close to communism, supported the Soviet Union in its struggle to expand in the Middle East. Partisans of the AGBU, supposedly being politically neutral, also supported the Soviet Union, because Armenia was part of the Soviet Union. The ARF, despite its socialist background was a nationalistic party, objected, as it propagated the idea of a free, independent, and united Armenia. As the ARF struggled to preserve the flag, coat of arms, and national anthem of the Independent Armenian Republicmarker of 1918-1922, others chose to support Soviet Armenia, seeing it as the only place in the world where Armenians could live safely as Armenians.

There was also a conflict between the leaders of the Armenian Apostolic Church. Armenians had 2 Catholicoses. One of them was located in Echmiadzinmarker, Armeniamarker and was supported by the Soviet authorities and in the Armenian diaspora by the Hunchaks, the Ramgavars and the Armenian communists, while the other was located in Anteliasmarker, Lebanonmarker and was supported by the Dashnaks, as they thought that the Catholicosate of Echmiadzin was a tool for propagation of communism. In the 1950s, during the climax of this conflict, there were armed clashes between partisans of the 2 "sides", and also assassination attempts, acts of desecration, etc.

Armenian Reconciliation in the Diaspora

Tensions eased out as in 1965, all the conflicting major parties came together with joint communique and plan of action to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide of 1915. They also agreed to set aside acrimonious aspects between them especially in the highly politicized and partisan media of the time.

In 1975 the inter-Armenian relations became even closer as, during the Lebanese Civil War, the Armenians had to stick together in a pact of "positive neutrality" in order to overcome opposing forces and keep the Armenians as far away as possible from the conflict between the Lebanese.

Armenians per country

Note: Armenia, Nagorno Karabakh and Armenians of Samtskhe-Javakheti (Javakhk in Armenian) are not considered Armenian diaspora, and thus are listed separately.

Most of this data is based on estimates. Many - especially in the United States - identify with multiple ethnics or cultures mostly being their decent and the country they are currently living in.

For countries of Armenian populations less than 100 people, rankings have been removed as they become counter-productive to rank.

Non-Diaspora Armenians (Armenia, Nagorno-Karabakh and Samtskhe-Javakheti)
Rank Country or territory Centres of Armenian population (Capital italicized) Armenian population (official census) Population of Armenians (current estimates - most reliable/probable bold (used for sorting)) Dialect(s) spoken Country or regional page of Armenian presence List of famous Armenians
1 Armeniamarker The entire country

Armenian Statistical Service, 2001: 3,145,354



CIA, July 2008: 2,906,245

Eastern
2 Nagorno-Karabakh Republicmarker (de jure part of Azerbaijanmarker) The entire country

National Statistical Service of Nagorno-Karabach Republic, 2005: 137,380



NationMaster.com: 119,424

Eastern Armenians in AzerbaijanArmenians in Nagorno-Karabakh Republicmarker Armenians in Nakhchivan Famous Armenians from Azerbaijan
3 Samtskhe-Javakhetimarker part of Georgiamarker

See also Georgia below
Samtskhe-Javakhetimarker State Department for Statistics of Georgia, 2004: 113,347 120,000 Eastern Armenians in Samtskhe-Javakheti List of Famous Armenians in Georgia


Armenian Diaspora per country
Rank Country or territory Centres of Armenian population (Capital italicized) Armenian population (official census) Population of Armenians (current estimates - most reliable/probable bold (used for sorting)) Dialect(s) spoken Country page of Armenian presence List of famous Armenians
1 Russiamarker Moscowmarker, Krasnodar Krai, Stavropol Krai, Rostov Oblast, Volgograd Oblast, Saratov Oblastmarker

2002: 1,130,491



2,225,000
Both.

Mainly Eastern
Armenians in Russia List of Armenian-Russians
2 United Statesmarker Los Angelesmarker, Glendalemarker, Fresnomarker, Bostonmarker, Watertownmarker, Detroitmarker, Chicagomarker, New York Citymarker, Northern New Jerseymarker, Las Vegas

2000: 446,032



3noor project: 1,000,000

Armenian Embassy in Canadamarker : 1,000,0001,270,000
Both.

Western


Eastern
Armenians in the United States List of Armenian Americans
3 Iranmarker Tehranmarker, Isfahanmarker (New Julfamarker quarter), Tabrizmarker, Urmiamarker, Fereydan/Peria, Bourvari, Makumarker, Khoymarker, Northern Iran

Tore Kjeilein: 170,000

Tore Kjeilein: 200,000

Encyclopedia of the Orient: 400,000

Tore Kjeilein: 502,500

Eastern Armenians in Iran

New Julfamarker
List of Armenian-Iranians
4 Francemarker Parismarker, Marseillemarker, Lyonmarker, Nicemarker, Valencemarker

3noor project: 250,000

BBC News, 12 October 2006: 500,000

Both

Mainly Western
Armenians in France List of Armenian-French people
5 Georgiamarker Tbilisimarker

See also Samtskhe-Javakhetimarker (in Non-diaspora section)

See also Abkhaziamarker


State Department for Statistics of Georgia, 2004: 248,900



CIA, July 2008: 263,959

NationMaster.com:265,704

400,000
Eastern Armenians in Georgia, Armenians in Samtskhe-Javakheti, Armenians in Abkhazia List of Famous Armenians in Georgia
6 Syriamarker Damascusmarker, Aleppomarker, Kamishlimarker

looklex Encyclopedia: 190,000

looklex Encyclopedia: 320,000

Western Armenians in Syria List of Syrian Armenians
7 Lebanonmarker Beirutmarker, Bourj Hammoudmarker, Anjarmarker, Anteliasmarker

looklex Encyclopedia: 140,000

looklex Encyclopedia: 300,000

Western Armenians in Lebanon List of Lebanese Armenians
8 Argentinamarker Buenos Airesmarker, Córdobamarker

ArmeniaDiaspora.com: 130,000

Western Armenians in Argentina Notable Armenians in Argentina
9 Ukrainemarker Kievmarker, Odessamarker, Crimeamarker, Dnipropetrovskmarker, Donetskmarker, Zaporizhzhiamarker, Lvivmarker, Luhanskmarker, Kharkivmarker

State Statistics Committee of Ukraine, 2001: 99,900

Eastern Armenians in Ukraine
10 Polandmarker Gliwicemarker, Gdanskmarker, Krakówmarker

ArmeniaDiaspora.com: 94,000

Both.

Mainly Eastern
Armenians in Poland Notable Poles of Armenian descent
11 Turkeymarker Istanbulmarker, with remaining communities in Vakıflımarker and Sasonmarker as well as Hamshenis who have retained their Armenian dialect (Homshetsi) in the Artvin Provincemarker.

bolsohays.com:40,000 to 70,000

Western Armenians in Turkey List of Turkish-Armenians
List of Ottoman-Armenians
List of Armenian Patriarchs of Constantinople

12 Uzbekistanmarker

ArmeniaDiaspora.com: 70,000

Eastern Armenians in Uzbekistan
13 Germanymarker Berlinmarker, Köln, Mannheimmarker, Hamburgmarker, Hanaumarker

ArmeniaDiaspora.com: 42,000

68,000
Both.

Mainly Eastern
Armenians in Germany
14 Canadamarker Ottawamarker, Montrealmarker, Lavalmarker, Torontomarker, Cambridgemarker, Vancouvermarker

Canada's national statistical agency, 2001: 40,505

Canada's national statistical agency, 2006: 50,500

Armenian Embassy in Canadamarker : 100,000 Both.

Mainly Western
Armenians in Canada List of Armenian Canadians
15 Greecemarker Athensmarker, Thessalonikimarker, Piraeusmarker 35,000 (estimates to 55,000) Both.

Mainly Western
Armenians in Greece
16 Brazilmarker Greater São Paulo area 40,000 (there are estimates up to 80,000) Western Armenians in Brazil
17  Australia Melbournemarker, Sydneymarker 45,000 to 60,000 Both.

Mainly Western
Armenians in Australia Notable Armenian Australians
-  Abkhaziamarker (de jure part of  Georgiamarker) Sukhumi, Gagra and Gulripsh districts 44,869 (2003 census) Both.

Mainly Eastern
Armenians in Abkhazia
18 Spainmarker Madridmarker, Barcelonamarker, Sevillemarker, Valenciamarker 50,000 Western Armenians in Spain
19 Turkmenistanmarker 30,000-44,000 Eastern Armenians in Turkmenistan
20 Afghanistanmarker Fayzabadmarker, Mazari Sharifmarker, Maymanamarker, Heratmarker 35,000 Eastern Armenians in Afghanistan
21 Bulgariamarker Sofiamarker, Plovdivmarker 30,000 to more of 45,000 Both

Western

Eastern
Armenians in Bulgaria
22 Belarusmarker 25,000 Eastern Armenians in Belarus
23 Kazakhstanmarker 25,000 to 80,000 Eastern Armenians in Kazakhstan
24 Iraqmarker Baghdadmarker, Mosulmarker, Zakhomarker, Basramarker, Avzrogmarker, Kirkukmarker. 20,000 or more up to 22,000 Western Armenians in Iraq List of Notable Armenian-Iraqis
25 Uruguaymarker 19,000 to 25,000 Western Armenians in Uruguay
26 United Kingdommarker Londonmarker, Manchestermarker 18,001 (there are estimates up to 100,000 ) Both. Mainly Western Armenians in the United Kingdom List of notable British-Armenians
27 Hungarymarker Budapestmarker and Pest countymarker 15,000 to 30,000 Western Armenians in Hungary
28 Czech Republicmarker 10,000 to 15,000 Both.

Western


Eastern
Armenians in the Czech Republic
29 Serbiamarker 10,000 Western Armenians in the Serbia
30 Israelmarker

Jerusalemmarker (Armenian Quartermarker) 9,800 Western Armenians in Israel

Armenian Quartermarker
31 Egyptmarker Cairomarker, Alexandriamarker 8,200 to 12,500 Western Armenians in Egypt List of Egyptian Armenians
32 Swedenmarker Stockholmmarker, Uppsalamarker 8,000 to 12,000 both Armenians in Sweden
33 Moldovamarker 7,000 Eastern Armenians in Moldova
34 Netherlandsmarker Amsterdammarker, Dordrechtmarker, The Haguemarker, Leidenmarker, Rotterdammarker, Almelomarker 6,000 to 10,000 Western Armenians in the Netherlands
35 Tajikistanmarker Dushanbemarker, Khujandmarker, Chkalovskmarker, and Qurghonteppamarker 2000 Census:

995
Eastern Armenians in Tajikistan
36 Latviamarker 5,000 to 6,300 Eastern Armenians in Latvia
37 Switzerlandmarker Zurich 5,000 to 9,000 Western Armenians in Switzerland
38 Kuwaitmarker 5,000 to 10,000 Western Armenians in Kuwait
39 Jordanmarker Ammanmarker 5,000 (there are estimates up to 65,000 )( Western Armenians in Jordan
40 Kyrgyzstanmarker 3,285 . Current estimate between 4,000-4,700 Eastern Armenians in Kyrgyzstan
41 United Arab Emiratesmarker Dubaimarker, Abu Dhabimarker 4,600 Western Armenians in the United Arab Emirates
42 Denmarkmarker Aarhusmarker, Copenhagenmarker, Odensemarker 4,300 Western Armenians in Denmark
43 Austriamarker 3,000 to more of 7,000 Western Armenians in Austria
44 Nicaraguamarker 2,907 Western Armenians in Nicaragua
45 Cyprusmarker Nicosiamarker, Limassolmarker and Larnacamarker 1987: 2,740 6,000 Western Armenians in Cyprus
46 Venezuelamarker 3,000 Western Armenians in Venezuela
47 Lithuaniamarker 2,736 Eastern Armenians in Lithuania
48 Italymarker Milanmarker, Romemarker, Venicemarker 2,500 to 4,000 Western Armenians in Italy
49 Estoniamarker 2,300 Eastern Armenians in Estonia
50 Romaniamarker 1,780 to 3,000 Western Armenians in Romania List of Notable Romanians of Armenian Descent
51 Norwaymarker 1,000-2,000 Western Armenians in Norway
52 Finlandmarker 1,000-2,000 Western Armenians in Finland
53 Serbiamarker Belgrademarker, Valjevomarker, Vrnjačka Banjamarker 1,500 Western Armenians in Serbia
54 Chilemarker 1,000 Western Armenians in Chile
55 Sudanmarker 1,000-1,500 Western Armenians in Sudan
56 Thailandmarker 1,000 Western Armenians in Thailand
57 Hondurasmarker 900 Western Armenians in Honduras
58 New Zealandmarker 600-1,000 Western Armenians in New Zealand
59 Mexicomarker Guadalajaramarker, Pueblamarker, Tijuanamarker 560 (there are estimates up to 15,000) Western Armenians in Mexico
60 Albaniamarker Tiranamarker, Durrësmarker 576 Western Armenians in Albania
61 Indiamarker Kolkatamarker 500 to 900 Both Armenians in India
62 Myanmarmarker Mandalaymarker, Yangonmarker

1881: 466

Both Armenians in Burma
63 Qatarmarker 400 Western Armenians in Qatar
64 Colombiamarker 400–500? Western Armenians in Colombia
65 Monacomarker 400 Western Armenians in Monaco
66 Ecuadormarker Quitomarker 200-300? Western Armenians in Ecuador
67 Perumarker Limamarker, Arequipamarker 200-250? Western Armenians in Peru
68 South Africa 200-400? Western Armenians in South Africa
69 Pakistanmarker 200 Western Armenians in Pakistan
70 Cubamarker 165 Western Armenians in Cuba
71 Ethiopiamarker 100 to 300 Western Armenians in Ethiopia
72 Chinamarker 16 to 350 Western Armenians in China
73 Zimbabwemarker 82 to 230 Western Armenians in Zimbabwe
74 Hong Kongmarker 16 to 150 Western Armenians in Hong Kong
75 Guatemalamarker 50 to 150 Western Armenians in Guatemala
76 Bahrainmarker 74 to 120 Western Armenians in Bahrain
77 Irelandmarker 120

Western Armenians in Ireland
78 Côte d'Ivoiremarker 20 to 100 Western Armenians in Côte d'Ivoire
- Japanmarker 30-60 Western Armenians in Japan
- Dominican Republicmarker -75 Western Armenians in the Dominican Republic
- Costa Ricamarker - 20 Western Armenians in Costa Rica
- Singaporemarker - 35 Western Armenians in Singapore
- Indonesiamarker 10 Western Armenians in Indonesia
- Slovakiamarker 78 Western Armenians in Slovakia
- Bangladeshmarker 50-80 Western Armenians in Bangladesh
- Ghanamarker 15 Western Armenians in Ghana
- Senegalmarker 15 Western Armenians in Senegal
- Luxembourgmarker 10 Western Armenians in Luxembourg
- Vietnammarker 8 Western Armenians in Vietnam
- South Koreamarker 12 to 50 Western Armenians in South Korea
- Zambiamarker 10 to 80 Western Armenians in Zambia
- Philippinesmarker 8-30 Western Armenians in the Philippines
- Swazilandmarker 8 Western Armenians in Swaziland
- Boliviamarker 12 Western Armenians in Bolivia
- Puerto Rico 7 Western Armenians in Puerto Rico
- Bahamasmarker 5 Western Armenians in Bahamas


Notes



See also



References

  1. ArmeniaDiapora.com
  2. The National Statistical Service of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic
  3. ETHNIC GROUPS BY MAJOR ADMINISTRATIVE-TERRITORIAL UNITS OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA
  4. The First Large Emigration of the Armenians - History of Armenia
  5. 97.9% of est. 2,968,586 people living in Armenia
  6. Wikipedia: Eastern Armenian language
  7. According to NationMaster almost all Armenians in de jure Azerbaijan live in Nagorno-Karabakh and 1.5% of 7,961,619 people in Azerbaijan are Armenian
  8. 2002 Russian census
  9. , see
  10. 3noor project - Armenians in the USA by education for development institute
  11. “Noravank” Scientific-Research Foundation
  12. Language
  13. , see
  14. Religion
  15. 500,000 Armenian Orthodox + 2,500 Armenian Catholics
  16. 3noor project - Armenians in France by education for development institute
  17. 5.7% of est. 4,630,841 people living in Georgia
  18. 5.7% of est. 4,661,473 people living in Georgia
  19. 160,000 Armenian Orthodox + 30,000 Armenian Catholics
  20. 120,000 Armenian Orthodox + 20,000 Armenian Catholics
  21. Hamshenis are not included
  22. 27,175 reported "Armenian" as their only ethnicy; 13,330 reported multiple ethnicies
  23. 32,530 reported "Armenian" as their only ethnicy; 17,970 reported multiple ethnicies
  24. 41,265 are more than 15 years old
  25. The Armenian-Greek Community website.
  26. 2003 Census results
  27. Turkmenistan: Focus on Armenian migrants
  28. Radio Free Europe
  29. Demographic information of Hungary.
  30. The . About 5,000 Armenians live in Jordan.
  31. Armenians in the United Arab Emirates
  32. Armenians in Burma
  33. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/dyb/dybcensus/V3_table4.xls
  34. US census bureau, Puerto Rico


External links

Armenian diaspora

Armenian Diaspora Political Organizations




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