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Arnold Ruge.
Arnold Ruge (13 September 1802 - 31 December 1880) was a Germanmarker philosopher and political writer.

Studies in university and prison

Born in Bergenmarker, he studied in Hallemarker, Jenamarker and Heidelbergmarker. As an advocate of a free and united Germany he was jailed for five years in 1825 in the fortress of Kolbergmarker, where he studied Plato and the Greek poets. Moving to Hallemarker on his release, he published a number of plays — including Schill und die Seinen, a tragedy — and translations of ancient Greek texts — e.g. Oedipus in Colonus.


He also became associated with the Young Hegelians. In 1837 with E. T. Echtermeyer he founded the Hallesche Jahrbücher für deutsche Kunst und Wissenschaft. In this periodical he discussed the questions of the time from the point of view of the Hegelian philosophy. According to Frederick Copleston:
“Ruge shared Hegel's belief that history is a progressive advance towards the realization of freedom, and that freedom is attained in the State, the creation of the rational General Will.[...] At the same time he criticized Hegel for having given an interpretation of history which was closed to the future, in the sense that it left no room for novelty.”
The Jahrbücher was detested by the orthodox party in Prussia; and was finally suppressed by the Saxonmarker government in 1843.

Revolutions of 1848

In Parismarker, Ruge co-edited the Deutsch–Französische Jahrbücher with Karl Marx briefly. He had little sympathy with Marx's socialistic theories, and soon left him. In the revolutionary movement of 1848, he organized the Extreme Left in the Frankfurt parliament, and for some time he lived in Berlinmarker as the editor of the Die Reform. The Prussian government intervened and Ruge soon afterwards left again for Paris, hoping, through his friend Alexandre Ledru-Rollin, to establish relations between German and French republicans; but in 1849 both Ledru-Rollin and Ruge had to take refuge in Londonmarker.


In London, in company with Giuseppe Mazzini and other advanced politicians, he formed a “European Democratic Committee.” From this Ruge soon withdrew, and in 1850, Ruge moved to Brightonmarker to live as a teacher and writer. In 1866, he vigorously supported Prussia against Austriamarker in the Austro-Prussian Warmarker, and in 1870, he supported Germany against Francemarker in the Franco-Prussian War. On a smaller scale, while in Brighton, he was chairman of the successful Park Crescent Residents' Association. In his last years he received from the German government a pension of 1000 marks.


Ruge was a leader in religious and political liberalism, but didnot produce any work of enduring importance. In 1846-48 hisGesammelte Schriften were published in ten volumes. After thistime he wrote, among other books, Unser System, Revolutionsnovellen,Die Loge des Humanismus, and Aus früherer Zeit (hismemoirs). He also wrote many poems, and several dramas andromances, and translated into German various English works,including the Letters of Junius and Buckle's History of Civilization.His Letters and Diary (1825-80) were published by Paul Nerrlich(Berlin, 1885-87). See A. W. Bolin's L. Feuerbach, pp. 127-52(Stuttgart, 1891).


  1. A History of Philosophy, volume VII, p. 301.
  2. Copleston p.307

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