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Artemisia ( ) is a large, diverse genus of plants with between 200 to 400 species belonging to the daisy family Asteraceae. It comprises hardy herbs and shrubs known for their volatile oils. They grow in temperate climates of the Northern Hemispheremarker and Southern Hemispheremarker, usually in dry or semi-dry habitats. The fern-like leaves of many species are covered with white hairs. Some botanists split the genus into several genera, but DNA analysis does not support the maintenance of the genera Crossostephium, Filifolium, Neopallasia, Seriphidium, and Sphaeromeria; three other segregate genera Stilnolepis, Elachanthemum, and Kaschgaria are maintained by this evidence.

Common names used for several species include wormwood, mugwort, sagebrush and sagewort, while a few species have unique names, notably Tarragon (A. dracunculus) and Southernwood (A. abrotanum). Occasionally some of the species are called sages, causing confusion with the Salvia sage in the family Lamiaceae.

Most species have strong aromas and bitter tastes from terpenoids and sesquiterpene lactones, which exists as an adaptation to discourage herbivory. The small flowers are wind-pollinated.

Artemisia species are used as food plants by the larvae of a number of Lepidoptera species. See List of Lepidoptera that feed on Artemisia.

Cultivation and uses

The aromatic leaves of many species of Artemisia are medicinal, and some are used for flavouring. Most species have an extremely bitter taste. A. dracunculus (Tarragon) is widely used as a herb, particularly important in French cuisine.

Artemisia absinthium (Absinth Wormwood) was used to repel fleas and moths, and in brewing (wormwood beer, wormwood wine). The aperitif vermouth (derived from the German word Wermut, "wormwood") is a wine flavored with aromatic herbs, but originally with wormwood. The highly potent spirits absinthe and Malört also contain wormwood. Wormwood has been used medicinally as a tonic, stomachic, febrifuge and anthelmintic.

Some have taken dried Wormwood, placed it inside a coffee filter to form a sort of "pod" and then placed them under furniture and such as a natural way of repelling fleas from their home.

Artemisia arborescens (Tree Wormwood, or Sheeba in Arabic) is a very bitter herb indigenous to the Middle East that is used in tea, usually with Mentha also known as mint. It may have some hallucinogenic properties.

Within such religious practices as Wicca, both Wormwood and Mugwort are believed to have multiple effects on the psychic abilities of the practitioner. Because of the power believed to be inherent in certain herbs of the genus Artemisia, many believers cultivate the plants in a "moon garden".

The beliefs surrounding this genus are founded upon the strong association between the herbs of the genus Artemisia and the moon goddess Artemis, who is believed to hold these powers.

In Israel Artemisia is sometimes referred to by the name "Shiva", the Queen of Sheba.In Hinduism Shiva is the name of a god.

It is also said that the genus Artemisia (which includes over 400 plants) may be named after an ancient botanist. Artemisia was the wife and sister of the Greek/Persian King Mausolus from the name of whose tomb we get the word mausoleum. Artemisia, who ruled for three years after the king's death, was a botanist and medical researcher, and died in 350 B.C. .

The bitterness of the plant led to its use by wet-nurses for weaning infants from the breast, as in this speech by Shakespeare from Romeo and Juliet Act I, Scene 3:

Nurse: ...
:And she [Juliet] was wean'd, – I never shall forget it, –
:Of all the days of the year, upon that day:
:For I had then laid wormwood to my dug,
:...


A few species are grown as ornamental plants, the fine-textured ones used for clipped bordering. All grow best in free-draining sandy soil, unfertilized, and in full sun.

Artemisinin (from Sweet wormwood, Artemisia annua) is the active ingredient in the anti-malarial combination therapy 'Coartem', produced by Novartis and the World Health Organization.

Artemisia in popular culture

Artemisia has been mentioned and used in popular culture for centuries. As few examples are listed below.
  • In the Roald Dahl novel Matilda and its 1996 movie adaptation, Matilda's last name is Wormwood.
  • Shakespeare often refers to wormwood in Hamlet.
  • Wormwood (Apsinthos in the Greek text) is the "name of the star" in the Book of Revelation (8:11) (kai to onoma tou asteros legetai ho Apsinthos) that John the Evangelist envisions as cast by the angel and falling into the waters, making them undrinkably bitter. Outside the Book of Revelation, there are up to eight further references in the Bible, showing that wormwood was a common herb of the era and that its awful taste was known, as a drinkable preparation applied for specific reasons.
  • Wormwood is a junior devil in The Screwtape Letters, a novel by C. S. Lewis on human temptation.
  • Miss Wormwood is the name of Calvin's teacher in Calvin and Hobbes, a former daily comic strip by Bill Watterson. This character is named after the Screwtape Letters character.
  • In Russian culture, the fact that Artemisia species are commonly used in medicine, and their bitter taste is associated with medicinal effects, has caused wormwood to be seen as a symbol for a "bitter truth" that must be accepted by a deluded (often self-deluded) person. This symbol has acquired a particular poignancy in modern Russian poetry, which often deals with the loss of illusory beliefs in various ideologies.
  • Fort Collins, Coloradomarker based New Belgium brewerymarker produced a Spring Ale called "Springboard" containing Wormwood, Lycium. and Schisandra.


Selected species



Classification

Classification of Artemisia is difficult. Pre-2000 divisions of Artemisia into subgenera or sections have not been backed up by molecular data, but much of the molecular data, as of 2006, is not especially strong. The following identified groups do not include all the species in the genus.

Section Tridentatae

Section Tridentatae consists of nine to eleven species of shrubs, which are very prominent parts of the flora in western North America. In some classifications they are part of the genus or subgenus Seriphidium, although they do not seem to be closely related to the Asian Seriphidium species. To be monophyletic, section Tridentatae should exclude Artemisia bigelovii and Artemisia palmeri.



Old World Seriphidium

The Old World species which different classifications put into the genus or subgenus Seriphidium consist of about 125 species native to Europe and temperate Asia, with the largest number of species in Central Asia. Some classifications, such as that of the Flora of North America, exclude any New World plants from Seriphidium. They are herbaceous plants or small shrubs.

Subgenus Dracunculus

One group which is well-supported by molecular data is subgenus Dracunculus. It consists of 80 species found in both North America and Eurasia, of which the best-known is perhaps Artemisia dracunculus, the spice tarragon.

Notes

  1. Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  2. L.E. Watson, 2002
  3. Etymology
  4. Etymology


References



External links




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