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Aruba ( ) is a -long island of the Lesser Antilles in the southern Caribbean Seamarker, north of the Paraguaná Peninsulamarker, Falcón State, Venezuelamarker. Together with Bonairemarker and Curaçaomarker, it forms a group referred to as the ABC islandsmarker of the Leeward Antillesmarker, the southern island chain of the Lesser Antilles.

An autonomous region within the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Aruba has no administrative subdivisions. Unlike much of the Caribbean region, Aruba has a dry climate and an arid, cactus-strewn landscape. This climate has helped tourism as visitors to the island can reliably expect warm, sunny weather. It has a land area of and lies outside the hurricane belt.

History

Aruba's first inhabitants are thought to have been Caquetíos Amerinds from the Arawak tribe, who migrated there from Venezuelamarker to escape attacks by the Caribs. Fragments of the earliest known Indian settlements date back from 1,000 AD. Sea currents made canoe travel to other Caribbean islandsmarker difficult, thus Caquetio culture remained closer to that of mainland South America.



Europeans first learned of Aruba when Amerigo Vespucci and Alonso de Ojeda happened upon it in August 1499. Vespucci, in one of his four letters to Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de' Medici, described his voyage to the islands along the coast of Venezuelamarker. He wrote about an island where most trees are of brazil wood and, from this island, he went to one ten leagues away, where they had houses built as in Venicemarker. In another letter he described a small island inhabited by very large people, which the expedition thought was not inhabited.

Aruba was colonized by Spain for over a century. The Cacique or Indian Chief in Aruba, Simas, welcomed the first priests in Aruba and received from them a wooden cross as a gift. In 1508, Alonso de Ojeda was appointed as Spain's first Governor of Aruba, as part of "Nueva Andalucía."

Another governor appointed by Spain was Juan Martinez de Ampíes. A "cédula real" decreed in November 1525 gave Ampíes, factor of Española, the right to repopulate the depopulated islands of Aruba, Curaçaomarker and Bonairemarker. The natives under Spanish rule enjoyed more liberty than the average northern European farmer of the period.

In 1528, Ampíes was replaced by a representative of the "House of Welser". Aruba has been under Dutch administration since 1636, initially under Peter Stuyvesant. Stuyvesant was on a special mission in Aruba in November and December 1642.Under the Dutch W.I.C. administration, as "New Netherland and Curaçao" from 1648 to 1664 and the Dutch government regulations of 1629, also applied in Aruba. The Dutch administration appointed an Irishman as "Commandeur" in Aruba in 1667.

The United Kingdom occupied Aruba from the years 1799 to 1802 and from 1805 to 1816.

In August 1806, General Francisco de Miranda and a group of 200 freedom fighters on their voyage to liberate Venezuela from Spain stayed in Aruba for several weeks.

In 1933 Aruba sent its first petition for Aruba's separate status and autonomy to the Queen.

During World War II, together with Curaçao the then world-class exporting oil refineries were the main suppliers of refined products to the Allies. Aruba became a British protectorate from 1940 to 1942 and a US protectorate from 1942 to 1945. On February 16, 1942, its oil processing refinery was attacked by a German submarine (U-156) under the command of Werner Hartenstein, but the mission failed. U-156 was later destroyed by a US plane as the crew was sunbathing; only one survived. In March 1944, Eleanor Roosevelt briefly visited American troops stationed in Aruba. In attendance were: His Excellency, Dr. P. Kasteel, the Governor of Curaçao, and his aide, Lieutenant Ivan Lansberg; Rear Admiral T. E. Chandler and his Aide, Lieutenant W. L. Edgington; Captain Jhr. W. Boreel and his aide, Lieutenant E. O. Holmberg; and the Netherlands aide to Mrs. Roosevelt, Lieutenant Commander v.d. Schatte Olivier.

The island's economy has been dominated by five main industries: gold mining, phosphate mining (The Aruba Phosphaat Maatschappij), aloe export, petroleum refineries (The Lago Oil & Transport Company and the Arend Petroleum Maatschappij Shell Co.), and tourism.

Politics

As a Constituent Country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Aruba's politics take place within a framework of a 21-member Parliament and an eight-member Cabinet. The governor of Aruba is appointed for a six-year term by the monarch, and the prime minister and deputy prime minister are elected by the Staten (or "Parlamento") for four-year terms. The Staten is made up of 21 members elected by direct, popular vote to serve a four-year term.

Together with the Netherlandsmarker, the country of the Netherlands Antillesmarker, and the country of Aruba form the Kingdom of the Netherlands. As they share the same Dutch citizenship, these three countries still also share the Dutch passport as the Kingdom of the Netherlands passport. As Aruba and the Antilles have small populations, the two countries had to limit immigration. To protect their population, they have the right to control the admission of people from the Netherlandsmarker. There is the supervision of the admission and expulsion of people from the Netherlandsmarker and the setting of general conditions for the admission and expulsion of aliens.

The move toward independence

In August 1947, Aruba presented its first "Staatsreglement" (constitution), for Aruba's "status aparte" as the status of an autonomous state within the Kingdom of the Netherlands. This would come to pass in 1986.

In November 1955, J. Irausquin of Aruba's PPA political party spoke in front of the United Nations Trust Committee. He ended his speech saying that in the future there will be changes to come.

In 1972, at a conference in Surinamemarker, Betico Croes (MEP) proposed a "sui-generis" Dutch Commonwealth of four states: Aruba, the Netherlands, Suriname and the Netherlands Antillesmarker, each with its own nationality. Mr. C. Yarzagaray, a parliamentary member representing the AVP political party, proposed a referendum for the people of Aruba to determine Aruba's separate status or "Status Aparte" as a full autonomous state under the crown. He proclaimed: "Aruba shall never accept a federation and a second class nationality."

Betico Croes worked in Aruba to inform and prepare the people of Aruba for independence. In 1976, a committee appointed by Croes introduced the national flag and anthem as the symbols of Aruba's sovereignty and independence, and he also set 1981 as a target for Aruba's independence. In March 1977, the first Referendum for Self Determination was held with the support of the United Nations and 82% of the participants voted for independence.

The Island Government of Aruba assigned the Institute of Social Studies in The Hague to prepare a study of Aruba's independence, which was published in 1978, titled "Aruba en Onafhankelijkheid, achtergronden, modaliteiten en mogelijkheden; een rapport in eerste aanleg".

At the conference in the Hague in 1981, Aruba's independence was then set for the year 1991.In March 1983, based on the Referendum, Aruba finally reached an official agreement within the Kingdom, for Aruba's Independence, first becoming an autonomous country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands, with its own constitution, unanimously approved and proclaimed in August 1985, and after an election held for Aruba's first parliament, Aruba seceded from the Netherlands Antilles and officially became a country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands on January 1, 1986, with full independence set for 1996. This achievement is largely due to Betico Croes and the political support of other nations like the USA, Panamamarker, Venezuela and various European countries. Croes was later proclaimed "Libertador di Aruba" after his death in 1986.

In 1990, movement toward independence was postponed upon the request of Aruba's Prime Minister, Nelson O. Oduber. The article scheduling Aruba’s complete independence was rescinded in 1995, although the process can begin again after a referendum.

Since January 1, 1986, the Kingdom has consisted of three countries: the Netherlands, the Netherlands Antilles, and Aruba.

Although the “equality” of the countries is explicitly laid down in the preamble to the Charter, which states "..considering that they have expressed freely their will to establish a new constitutional order in the Kingdom of the Netherlands, in which they will conduct their internal interests autonomously and their common interests on a basis of equality, and in which they will accord each other reciprocal assistance, have resolved by mutual consent", in practice, the Netherlands has considerably more power than either the Netherlands Antilles or Aruba.

Law

Legal jurisdiction lies with a Gerecht in Eerste Aanleg (Court of First Instance) on Aruba, a Gemeenschappelijk Hof van Justitie voor de Nederlandse Antillen en Aruba (Common Court of Justice of the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba) and the Hoge Raad der Nederlanden (Supreme Court of Justice of the Netherlands).

Education

Aruba’s educational system, patterned after the Dutch system, provides for education at all levels. The Government finances the national education system, except for private schools, such as the International School of Aruba (ISA), which finance their own activities. The percentage of money earmarked for education is higher than the average for the Caribbean/Latin American region.

Arubans benefit from a strong primary school education. A segmented secondary school program includes vocational training (VMBO), basic education (MAVO), college prep (HAVO) and advanced placement (VWO).

Higher education goals can be pursued through the Professional Education program (EPI), the teachers college (IPA) as well as through the University of Aruba (UA) which offers bachelors and masters programs in law, finance and economics and hospitality and tourism management. Since the choice for higher education on the island itself is limited, many students choose to study abroad in countries in North America, South America as well as Europe.

There are 68 schools for primary education, 12 schools for secondary education, and 5 universities. In 2007, there were 22,930 fulltime students registered.

There are also two main private medical schools in Aruba, All Saints University of Medicinemarker and Xavier University, School of Medicine . All courses are presented in English. Both school curricula are based on the United States medical school model and will lead to a Doctor of Medicine degree that is recognized in North America.

Geography

Map of Aruba
Natural bridge in Aruba


Aruba is a generally flat, riverless island in the Leeward Antillesmarker island arc of the Lesser Antilles. Aruba is renowned for its white, sandy beaches on the western and southern coasts of the island, relatively sheltered from fierce ocean currents, and this is where most tourist development has taken place. The northern and eastern coasts, lacking this protection, are considerably more battered by the sea and have been left largely untouched by humans. The hinterland of the island features some rolling hills, the best known of which are called Hooiberg at 165 meters (541 ft) and Mount Jamanotamarker, the highest on the island at 188 metres (617 ft) above sea level. Oranjestad, the capital, is located at .

To the east of Aruba are Bonairemarker and Curaçaomarker, two island territories which form the southwest part of the Netherlands Antillesmarker; Aruba and these two Netherlands Antilles islands are sometimes called the ABC islandsmarker.

The isothermal temperature of Aruba's pleasantly tropical marine climate attracts tourists to the island all year round. Temperature varies little from 28 °C (82 °F), moderated by constant trade winds from the Atlantic Oceanmarker. Yearly precipitation barely reaches 500 mm (19.7 in), most of it falling in late autumn.

Economy

Aruba enjoys one of the highest standards of living in the Caribbean region; the low unemployment rate is also positive for Aruba. About three quarters of the Aruban gross national product is earned through tourism or related activities. Most of the tourists are from Venezuela and the United Statesmarker (predominately from eastern and southern states), Aruba's largest trading partner. Before the "Status Aparte" (a separate completely autonomous country/state within the Kingdom), oil processing was the dominant industry in Aruba despite expansion of the tourism sector. Today, the influence of the oil processing business is minimal. The size of the agriculture and manufacturing sectors also remains minimal.

The GDP per capita for Aruba is calculated to be $23,831 in 2007; among the highest in the Caribbean and the Americas. Its main trading partners are Venezuela, the U.S and the Netherlands.

Deficit spending has been a staple in Aruba's history, and modestly high inflation has been present as well. Recent efforts at tightening monetary policy are correcting this and will have its first balanced budget in 2009. Aruba receives some development aid from the Dutch government each year, which will cease in 2009 as part of a deal (signed as "Aruba's Financial Independence") in which the Netherlands gradually reduces its financial help to the island each successive year. The Aruban florin is pegged to the United States dollar, with a fixed exchange rate where 1.77 Florin equals 1 U.S. dollar. In most stores near Oranjestad, the exchange rate is 1.75 florin equals U.S 1 dollar

In 2006 the Aruban government has also changed several tax laws in order to further reduce the deficit. Direct taxes have been converted to indirect taxes as proposed by the IMFmarker. A 3% tax has been introduced on sales and services, while income taxes have been lowered and revenue taxes for business reduced with 20%. The government compensated workers with 3.1% for the effect that the B.B.O. would have on the inflation for 2007. The inflation on Aruba in 2007 was 8,7%.

Demographics



Aruba is situated in the deep southern part of the Caribbean. Because it has almost no rainfall, Aruba was saved from plantation and the economics of the slave trade.

Aruba's population is estimated to be 80% mestizo and 20% other ethnicities. Arawaks spoke the "broken Spanish" which their ancestors had learned on Hispaniola. The Dutch took control 135 years after the Spanish, left the Arawaks to farm and graze livestock, and used the island as a source of meat for other Dutch possessions in the Caribbean. The Arawak heritage is stronger on Aruba than on most Caribbean islands. Although no full-blooded Aboriginals remain, the features of the islanders clearly indicate their genetic Arawak heritage. Most of the population is descended mostly from Arawak, and to a lesser extent Spanish, Italian, ,Dutch, and a few French, Portuguese, British, and African ancestors.

Recently there has been substantial immigration to the island from neighboring American and Caribbean nations, possibly attracted by the higher paid jobs. In 2007, new immigration laws were introduced to help control the growth of the population by restricting foreign workers to a maximum of 3 years residency on the island.

The demographics of Aruba far more than neighboring Curaçao and Bonaire has been impacted by its proximity to Venezuela. Much of Aruba's families are present by way of Venezuela and there is a seasonal increase of Venezuelans living in second homes.

Towns

The island with population just over 100,000, of course, does not have many real cities.

  • Oranjestad (33,000 in 2008)
  • Barcadera
  • Saint Nicolaas
  • Noord
  • Santa Cruz
  • Savaneta
  • Seru Colorado


Culture

On March 18 Aruba celebrates its National Day. In 1976, Aruba presented its National Anthem (Aruba Dushi Tera) and Flag.

The origins of the population and location of the island give Aruba a mixed culture. Dutch influence can still be seen, as in the celebration of "Sinterklaas" on December 5 and 6 and other national holidays like April 30, when in Aruba and the rest of the Kingdom of the Netherlands the Queen's birthday or "Dia di La Reina" (Koninginnedag) is celebrated.

Christmas and New Year are celebrated with the typical music and songs of gaitas for Christmas and the Dande for New Year, and the "ayaca", the "ponchi crema" and "ham", and other typical foods and drinks. Millions of dollars worth of fireworks are burnt at midnight on New Year's.

On January 25, Betico's Croes birthday is celebrated.

The holiday of Carnival is also an important one in Aruba, as it is in many Caribbean and Latin American countries, and, like Mardi Gras, that goes on for weeks. Its celebration in Aruba started, around the 1950s, influenced by the inhabitants from the nearby islands (Venezuela, St Vincent, Trinidad, Barbados, St. Maarten and Anguilla) who came to work for the Oil refinery. Over the years the Carnival Celebration has changed and now starts from the beginning of January till the Tuesday before Ash Wednesday with a large parade on the last Sunday of the festivities (Sunday before Ash Wednesday).

In June there is the celebration of the "Dia di San Juan", with the song of "Dera Gai".

Tourism from the United States has recently also increased the visibility of American culture on the island, with such celebrations as Halloween and Thanksgiving Day in November.

Religion also has its influences; the days of Ascension and Good Friday are also two holidays on the island.

According to the Bureau Burgelijke Stand en Bevolkingsregister (BBSB), as of 2005 there are ninety-two different nationalities living on the island.

Language

Language can be seen as an important part of island culture in Aruba. The cultural mixture has given rise to a linguistic mixture known as Papiamento, the predominant language on Aruba. The official language is Dutch. The local language used by its inhabitants is Papiamento and is a language that has been evolving through the centuries and absorbed many words from other languages like Dutch, English, French, diverse African dialects, and most importantly, from Portuguese and Spanish. However, like many islands in the region, Spanish is also often spoken. English has historical connections (with the British Empire) and is known by many; English usage has also grown due to tourism. Other common languages spoken based on the size of their community are Portuguese, Chinese, German and French. The latter is offered in high school and college, since a high percentage of Aruban students continue their studies in Europe.

In recent years, the government of Aruba has shown an increased interest in acknowledging the cultural and historical importance of its native language. Although spoken Papiamento is fairly similar among the several Papiamento-speaking islands, there is a big difference in written Papiamento. The orthography differs per island and even per group of people. Some are more oriented towards the Portuguese roots and use the equivalent spelling (e.g. "y" instead of "j"), where others are more oriented towards the Dutch roots.

In a book The Buccaneers of America, first published in 1678, it is stated by eyewitness account that the Indians on Aruba spoke "Spanish". The oldest government official statement written in Papiamento dates from 1803.

Aruba has four newspapers published in Papiamento: Diario, Bon Dia, Solo di Pueblo and Awe Mainta and two in English : Aruba Today and The News. Amigoe is the newspaper published in Dutch.Aruba also has 18 radio stations (2 AM and 16 FM) and three local television stations (Tele-Aruba, Aruba Broadcast Company and Channel 22).

Infrastructure

Aruba's Queen Beatrix International Airportmarker is located near Oranjestad. This airport has daily flights to various cities across the United States, to San Juan, Puerto Rico; Miami, Florida; Chicago, Illinois; Philadelphia and Pittsburgh Pennsylvania; Houston, Texas; Atlanta, Georgia; Charlotte, North Carolina; Washington DC; New York City; and Boston, Massachusetts. It also connects Aruba with Torontomarker, Ontariomarker, and South America, with daily flights to the international airports of Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Germany, France, Spain, U.K and most of Europe through the Schiphol Airportmarker in the Netherlandsmarker. Direct flights from Italy started in November 2008.

According to the Aruba Airport Authority, almost 1.7 million travelers used the airport in 2005, of which 61% were Americans.

In cooperation with the United States government, and for the facilitation for the passengers that arrive into the United States, the United States Department of Homeland Securitymarker (DHS), U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) full pre-clearance facility in Aruba has been in effect since February 1, 2001 with the expansion in the Queen Beatrix Airport, United States and Aruba have the agreement since 1986 that begins as a USDA and Customs post, and since 2008, the only island to have this service for private flights. In 1999, the U.S.marker Department of Defensemarker established a Forward Operating Location (FOL) at the airport.

Aruba has two ports Barcadera and Playa (this one) which is located in Oranjestad, The Port of Playa welcomes all the cruise-ship lines, including Royal Caribbean, Carnival Cruise Lines, NCL, Holland America Line, Disney Cruiseships and many more; an estimated almost one million tourists enter in this port per year, Aruba Ports Authority, owned and operated by the Aruban government is the authority in these seaports.

Aruba's public buses transportation services is in charge of Arubus, a government based company which operates from 3:30am until 12:30am 365 days a year. Small private vans also provide the transportation services in certain areas such Hotel Area, San Nicolaas, Santa Cruz and Noord.

Aruba also counts two telecommunications providers, Setar the government based company and Digicel Irish ownership company based in Kingston, Jamaicamarker. Setar is the provider of services such as Internet, video vonference, GSM wireless tech and land lines and offer the latest in telecom services, Digicel is the Setar competitor in wireless technology using the GSM platform.

Utilities on the island

WEB also produces potable industrial water, at the world's third largest desalination plant. Average daily consumption in 2005 was about 37,043 metric tons.

Places of interest

Palm Beach


* Collapsed September 2, 2005 


Notable Arubans



See also



References

  1. Aruba from the CIA World Factbook
  2. IMED - FAIMER International Medical Education Directory - Search IMED
  3. All Saints University | Discover All Saints University of Medicine, Aruba
  4. Aruba Today
  5. Aruba Hosts International Desalination Conference 2007 | Official Travel News from Aruba
  6. Coral bridge, natural Aruba tourist spot, collapses


External links

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General information


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