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Asian Americans are Americansmarker of Asian descent. They include groups such as Chinese, Filipino, Indian, Vietnamese, Korean, Japanese, Cambodian/Khmer, Pakistani Americans and others whose national origin is from the Asian continent.

Overall, Asian Americans have the lowest poverty rate and the highest educational attainment levels, median household income, and median personal income of any racial demographic in the nation. Asian Americans make up the third largest minority group in the United States.

The term Asian American was used informally by activists in the 1960s who sought an alternative to the term Oriental, arguing that the latter was derogatory and colonialist. Formal usage was introduced by academics in the early 1970s, notably by historian Yuji Ichioka, who is credited with popularizing the term. Today, Asian American is the accepted term for most formal purposes, such as government and academic research, although it is often shortened to Asian in common usage.

As with other racial and ethnicity based terms, formal and common usage have changed markedly through the short history of this term. The most significant change occurred when the Hart-Celler Act of 1965 eliminated highly restrictive "national origins" quotas, designed, among other things, to restrict immigration of those of Asian racial background. The new system, based on skills and family connections to U.S. residents, enabled significant immigration from every nation in Asia, which led to dramatic and ongoing changes in the Asian American population. As a result of these population changes, the formal and common understandings of what defines Asian American have expanded to include more of the peoples with ancestry from various parts of Asia. Because of their more recent immigration, new Asian immigrants also have had different educational, economic and other characteristics than early 20th century immigrants. They also tend to have different employment and settlement patterns in the United States.


Early history

In 1763, Filipinos established the small settlement of Saint Malomarker in the bayous of current-day Louisiana, after fleeing mistreatment aboard Spanish ships. Since there were no Filipino women with them, the Manilamenmarker, as they were known, married Cajun and Native American women.

Chinese sailors first came to Hawaiimarker in 1778 , the same year that Captain James Cook came upon the island. Many settled and married Hawaiian women. Some Island-born Chinese can claim to be 7th generation. Most Chinese, Korean and Japanese immigrants in Hawaii arrived in the 19th century as laborers to work on sugar plantations. Later, Filipinos also came to work as laborers, attracted by the job opportunities, although they were limited.

Numerous Chinese and Japanese began immigrating to the U.S. in the mid-19th century for work, because of poor economic conditions in their home nations. Many of the immigrants worked as laborers on the transcontinental railroad. Although the absolute numbers of Asian immigrants in the late 19th century were small compared to that from other regions, much of it was concentrated in the West, and the increase caused some Americans to fear the change represented by the growing number of Asians. This fear was referred to as the "yellow peril." The United States passed laws such as Asian Exclusion Act and Chinese Exclusion Act to sharply restrict Asian immigration.

Effects of World War II

During World War II, the United States government declared Japanese Americans a risk to national security and undertook the Japanese American internment, authorized by President Franklin Roosevelt with United States Executive Order 9066. This controversial action forced the relocation of approximately 112,000 to 120,000 Japanese and Japanese Americans, taking them from the west coast of the United States to hastily constructed War Relocation Centers in remote portions of the nation's interior. This chapter in US history was a result of war hysteria, racial discrimination, and economic competition. Sixty-two percent of those forced to relocate were United States citizens. Starting in 1990, the government paid some reparations to the surviving internees in recognition of the harm it had caused them and their families.

Despite the internment, many Japanese American men served in World War II in the American forces. The 442nd Regimental Combat Team/100th Infantry Battalion, composed of Japanese Americans, is the most highly decorated unit in U.S. military history. The 442nd/100th fought valiantly in the European Theater even as many of their families remained in the detention camps stateside. The 100th was one of the first units to liberate the Nazi concentration camp at Dachaumarker.


The most commonly used definition of Asian American is the US Census Bureau definition of Asian, chiefly because the Census definitions determine many government classifications, notably for equal opportunity programs and measurements. People with origins in the Far East, Southeast Asia and the Indian Subcontinent are included in the Census definition of Asia. The use of a separate "Asian" category in the Census is a recent addition, beginning in 1990. Since then, the Census definitions have varied. The 2000 census divided the Asian/Pacific Islander group and created Pacific Islander ethnicities as a separate category.

In Oxfordmarker dictionary, "Asian person" in the United States is sometimes thought of as a person of East Asian descent. In vernacular "Asian" is often used to refer to those of East Asian descent or anyone else of Asian descent with epicanthic eyefolds. This lags behind the US government definition and general usage in many parts of the US and many consider those of East, South or Southeast Asian descent with or without epicanthic eyefolds to be "Asian". In the US Census, people who originate from the original peoples of the East Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia are classified as part of the Asian race; while peoples from Siberiamarker, Central Asia, Western Asia are classified as "White".

Before 1980, Census forms listed particular Asian ancestries as separate groups, along with White and Black or Negro. Asian Americans had also been classified as "other". The 1980 census marked the first classification of Asians as a large group, combining several individual ancestry groups into "Asian or Pacific Islander." By the 1990 census, Asian or Pacific Islander (API) was included as an explicit category, although respondents had to select one particular ancestry. In the 2000 census, people reporting Middle Eastern ancestry but not reporting race are presumed to be in the white race category rather than Asian.

The definition of Asian American has variations that derive from the use of the word American in different contexts. Immigration status, citizenship (by birthright and by naturalization), acculturation, and language ability are some variables that are used to define American for various purposes and may vary in formal and everyday usage. For example, restricting American to include only U.S. citizens conflicts with discussions of Asian American businesses, which generally refer both to citizen and non-citizen owners.

In a recent PBS interview, a panel of Asian American writers discussed how some groups include people from the Middle East in the Asian American category.Asian American author Stewart Ikeda has noted, "The definition of “Asian American” also frequently depends on who’s asking, who’s defining, in what context, and why...the possible definitions of "Asian-Pacific American" are many, complex, and shifting...some scholars in Asian American Studies conferences suggest that Russians, Iranians, and Israelis all might fit the field’s subject of study."


Metropolitan Areas with the Highest Population of Asian Americans (2000 Census)
Metropolitan Area Metropolitan population % Asian Americans
Honolulumarker, Hawaiimarker MSA (Oahumarker) 876,156 46.0
San Francisco Bay Areamarker 7,039,362 19.9
Sacramento Metropolitan Area 1,796,857 13.1
Greater Los Angeles Area 16,373,645 11.9
San Diegomarker, Californiamarker MSA (San Diego Countymarker) 2,813,833 10.1
New York Metropolitan Areamarker 21,199,865 9.9
Seattle Metropolitan Area 3,554,760 9.8
Las Vegas Metropolitan Area 1,863,282 6.9
Baltimore-Washington (AA demographics) 7,608,070 5.3
Greater Houston 5,543,936 5.2
Chicago Metropolitan Areamarker 9,098,316 4.3
Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex 5,487,956 3.6
The demographics of Asian Americans describe a heterogeneous group of people in the United States who can trace their ancestry to one or more countries in Asia. Because Asian Americans total less than 5% of the entire U.S. population, the diversity of the group is often disregarded in media and news discussions of "Asians" or of "Asian Americans." While there are some commonalities across ethnic sub-groups, there are significant differences among different Asian ethnicities that are related to each group's history.

Current estimates indicate that about 14.9 million people report themselves as having either full or partial Asian heritage, around 5.0% of the U.S. population. The largest ethnic subgroups are Chinese (3.53 million), Filipinos (3.05 million), Indians (2.77 million), Vietnamese (1.64 million), Koreans (1.56 million), and Japanese (1.22 million). Other sizable groups are Cambodians/Khmers (206,000), Pakistanis (204,000), Laotians (198,000), Hmong (186,000), and Thais (150,000).

The Asian American population is heavily urbanized, with nearly three-quarters of Asian Americans living in metropolitan areas with population greater than 2.5 million. The three metropolitan areas with the highest Asian American populations are the Greater Los Angeles Area (1.868 Million in 2007), the New York–Northern New Jersey–Long Island Areamarker (1.782 Million in 2007), and the San Francisco Bay Areamarker (979 Thousand in 2007). A large proportion of all Asian Americans live in Californiamarker (5 Million in 2007), New Yorkmarker (1.4 Million in 2007), Texasmarker (915 Thousand in 2007), New Jerseymarker, and Hawaiimarker. Census data shows that Asian American populations are developing more recently in major metropolitan areas away from the West Coast faster than on the West Coast.

In regions with large numbers of Asian Americans, suburban communities have developed that are heavily or predominantly Asian. The schools in these areas may offer languages such as Mandarin as a second language. Since the 1970s, in addition to Chinatowns, "Little Manila", "Koreatowns", "Little Saigons" and "Cambodia Town" have appeared in several cities.
Ten Cities with the Highest Percentage of Asian-Americans (2000 Census)
City % of Asian Americans alone or in combination % of Asian Americans alone
Honolulu, Hawaiimarker 67.7 55.9
Daly City, Californiamarker 53.6 50.7
Fremont, Californiamarker 39.8 37
Sunnyvale, Californiamarker 34.2 32.3
San Francisco, Californiamarker 32.6 30.8
Irvine, Californiamarker 32.3 29.8
Garden Grove, Californiamarker 32.2 30.9
Santa Clara, Californiamarker 31.4 29.3
Torrance, Californiamarker 31.1 28.6
San Jose, Californiamarker 28.8 26.9

Since the 1970s, populations of Asian Americans have been visible and are growing. Large Japantowns once existed up and down the West Coast because of extensive Japanese immigration. The ones that remain are vestiges of once vibrant pre-World War II communities whose members, like other Americans, moved out into the suburbs and larger communities. They are "underrepresented" (against the national aggregate) in several of the largest areas, including Chicagomarker, Philadelphiamarker, Bostonmarker, and Dallas-Fort Worth, although sizable concentrations (double the national percentage) can be found in some urban neighborhoods, such as Albany Parkmarker in Chicago and Olneymarker in Philadelphia. Additionally, similar Asian populations are found in suburbs of these cities such as Napervillemarker and Evanstonmarker near Chicago; Millbournemarker, King of Prussiamarker, and Cherry Hillmarker near Philadelphia; Lowellmarker and Lexingtonmarker near Boston and Las Vegasmarker. This pattern reflects their later arrival and response to changing economic conditions in some cities.

According to the 2005 Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement, Asian American households had the highest median income at $57,518. However 9.8 percent of Asians were in poverty in 2004, higher than the 8.2 percent rate for non-Hispanic whites, and much higher for some southeast Asian ethnic groups. Much of this poverty is concentrated in ethnic enclaves such as Chinatowns in the cities Census figures also show that a white male with a college diploma earns in excess of $66,000 a year, far more than similarly educated Asian men who earned more than $52,000 a year. Asians however are more likely to complete higher education particularly and most numerous the graduate degree.

The more prominent languages of the community include Cantonese, Hindi, Bengali,Telugu,Tamil, Hmong, Japanese, Korean, Mandarin, Tagalog, and Vietnamese. Currently, Chinese languages, Japanese, Korean, Tagalog, and Vietnamese are all used in elections in Alaskamarker, Californiamarker, Hawaiimarker, Illinoismarker, New Yorkmarker, Texasmarker, and Washingtonmarker.

Immigration trends

Immigration trends of recent decades have dramatically altered the statistical composition and popular understanding of who is an Asian American. This transformation of Asian America, and of America itself, is the result of legislation such as the McCarran-Walter Act of 1952 and the Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments of 1965. The McCarran-Walter Act repealed the remnants of "free white persons" restriction of the Naturalization Act of 1790, but it retained the quota system that effectively banned nearly all immigration from Asia (for example, its annual quota of Chinese was only fifty). Asian immigration increased significantly after the 1965 Immigration Act altered the quota system. The preference for relatives, initially designed to reduce the number of Asian immigrants, eventually acted to accelerate their numbers.

Historically, before 1965, Asian Americans were chiefly perceived as members of the two most numerous Asian ethnic groups, specifically Chinese and Japanese. Filipinosmarker were increasingly numerous in the US, having become colonial subjects in 1898 due to the Spanish-American War (also see Philippine-American War).

After the enactment of the 1965 Immigration Act, Asian American demographics changed rapidly. This act replaced exclusionary immigration rules of the Chinese Exclusion Act and its successors, such as the 1924 Immigration Act, which effectively excluded "undesirable" immigrants, including Asians. The 1965 rules set across-the-board immigration quotas for each country. It opened US borders to immigration from Asia for the first time in nearly half a century.

Immigration of Asian Americans were also affected by U.S. war involvement from the 1940s to the 1970s. In the wake of World War II, immigration preferences favored family reunification. This may have helped attract highly skilled workers to meet American workforce deficiencies. Another instance related to World War II was the Luce-Celler Act of 1946, which helped immigrants from Indiamarker and the Philippinesmarker.

The end of the Korean War and Vietnam War and the so-called "Secret Wars" in Southeast Asia brought a new wave of Asian American immigration, as people from Koreamarker, Vietnammarker, Laosmarker, and Cambodiamarker arrived. Some of the new immigrants were war brides, who were soon joined by their families. Others, like the Southeast Asians, were either highly skilled and educated, or part of subsequent waves of refugees seeking asylum. Some factors contributing to the growth of sub-groups such as South Asians and mainland Chinese were higher family sizes, higher use of family-reunification visas, and higher numbers of technically skilled workers entering on H-1 and H-1b visas.

The contrasts between Japanese Americans and South Asian Americans are emblematic of the dramatic changes since the immigration reforms of the mid-20th century. Japanese Americans are among the most widely recognized of Asian American sub-groups. In 1970, there were nearly 600,000 Japanese Americans, making it the largest sub-group, but historically the greatest period of immigration was generations past. Today, given relatively low rates of births and immigration, Japanese Americans are only the sixth-largest Asian American group. In 2000, there were between 800,000 and 1.2 million Japanese Americans (depending on whether multi-ethnic responses are included). The Japanese Americans have the highest rates of native-born, citizenship, and assimilation into American values and customs.

In 1990, there were slightly fewer South Asians in the U.S. than Japanese Americans. By 2000, Indian Americans nearly doubled in population to become the third largest group of Asian Americans, with increasing visibility in high-tech communities such as the Silicon Valley and the Seattle area. Indian Americans have some of the highest rates of academic achievement among Americanmarker ethnic groups. Most immigrants speak English and are highly educated. South Asians are increasingly accepted by most Asian organizations as another significant Asian group. Currently, Indians, Chinese, and Filipinos are the largest Asian ethnic groups immigrating to the United States.

Some assert that high rates of immigration from some parts of Asia -especially those countries with poor economic bases- will make Asian Americans increasingly representative of some portion of the continent itself.

Illegal immigration

, Filipino Americans accounted for having the highest number of illegal immigrants for Asian Americans with an estimated 280,000 people living in the country illegally. This is followed by Indian Americans (270,000), Korean Americans (250,000), Chinese Americans (190,000) and Vietnamese Americans (160,000).

Statistics show that immigrants from India are among the fastest-growing groups of illegal and unauthorized aliens in the US. According to a report by the United States Department of Homeland Security, there was a 125 per cent increase between 2000 and 2006 of the unauthorized immigrant population, the highest out of any other ethnic group in that time period.

Notable contributions

Arts and entertainment

Asian Americans have been involved in the entertainment industry since the first half of the 19th century, when Chang and Eng Bunker (the original "Siamese Twins") became naturalized citizens. Acting roles in television, cinema, and theater have been relatively few, and many available roles are for narrow, stereotypical characters, while in recent times Asian Americans are making great strides. Early Asian American actors such as Sessue Hayakawa, Anna May Wong, and Bruce Lee encountered a movie-making culture that wanted to typecast them. Lee abandoned Hollywood and achieved worldwide fame in Hong Kongmarker. In 1965, a group of actors formed East West Players (EWP), to provide Asian American actors greater opportunity to perform in leading roles. Several other Asian American theater companies were formed in other cities, providing similar outlets there.

Margaret Cho won the American Comedy Award for Best Female Comedian in 1994. Wah Chang was the designer for many of the props on the Star Trek series as well as The Time Machine, which received an Academy Award for special effects. Many Asian Americans have also penetrated in the fashion world with Monique Lhuillier's dresses parading on the Hollywoodmarker red carpet and Chloe Dao winning Project Runway. Vera Wang and Anna Sui have been highly accomplished and rewarded fashion designers for years. Other designers include Phillip Lim, 2006 CFDA Emerging Talent Award Winner Doo-Ri Chung, and 2005 Winner Derek Lam. Comedian Byron Yee's show "Paper Son" was awarded "Outstanding Solo Show" at the New York International Fringe Festival.

In literature, Asian American writers have received numerous awards. Maxine Hong Kingston won the National Book Critics Circle award in 1976 for her memoir Woman Warrior. Bharati Mukherjee won the National Book Critics Circle Award in 1988 for her short story collection The Middleman and Other Stories. Chang-Rae-Lee received the Hemingway Foundation/PEN Award for his novel Native Speaker (1995). He has since written "A Gesture Life" and "Aloft." Amy Tan has received popular acclaim for her work. Ha Jin won a handful of awards including the National Book Award, Pushcart Prizes, a Kenyon Review Prize, the Flannery O'Connor Award for Short Fiction, the PEN/Hemingway Award, and the PEN/Faulkner Award, and he was a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize. Jhumpa Lahiri won the 2000 Pulitzer Prize for Fiction for her short story collection The Interpreter of Maladies. Kiran Desai won the Man Booker Prize (2006) and National Book Critics Circle Award (2006) for her second novel The Inheritance of Loss. Her mother Anita Desai was nominated for major awards for her novels. Naomi Hirahara won a 2007 Edgar Award for her novel Snakeskin Shamisen.

Jim Lee is considered to be one of the most popular comic book artists and is one of the founders of Image Comics. Adrian Tomine's cartoons are featured in The New Yorker.

Asian Americans have designed notable works of architecture, such as the Louvre Pyramidmarker and East Wing of the National Gallery, designed by the worldwide famous architect I. M. Pei, the World Trade Centermarker, designed by Minoru Yamasaki, and the Vietnam Veterans Memorialmarker and Civil Rights Memorial (1989) designed by Maya Lin. In commercial architecture, Gyo Obata, a founding partner of HOK, designed the National Air and Space Museummarker in Washington D.C.marker and the Taipei World Trade Centermarker.


Yo-Yo Ma, world renowned cellist

Cellist Yo-Yo Ma has performed internationally and made new recordings of world music, as in The Silk Road Project. The classical violinists Sarah Chang and Midori Gotō have each been awarded the prestigious Avery Fisher Prize, as has Ma. The composer Bright Chang has received extensive recognition for his work, including being invited to be composer-in-residence at the New York City Ballet. Tan Dun is a contemporary classical composer, well known for his Grammy and Oscar-award winning scores for the movies Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon and Hero.

In popular music, Amerie is a notable R&B singer, as is Ne-Yo and Cassie. Utada Hikaru is a world-famous pop artist, with two songs in the Kingdom Hearts video games, as is Lea Salonga who has performed for three U.S. presidents. Vanessa Hudgens and Nicole Scherzinger are also well-known recording artists. Tony Kanal is the bassist for the popular rock band No Doubt. James Iha is best-known as guitarist with The Smashing Pumpkins. Joey Santiago is the lead guitarist for the Pixies. Mike Shinoda and Joseph Hahn are members of the rap rock band Linkin Park. Kenny Choi is the lead singer and guitarist of the indie rock band Daphne Loves Derby, as well as his solo projects. In hip-hop, is a member of The Black Eyed Peas. A colorful video by rapper Jin spiraled him to fame in 2003. Asian American jazz is a musical movement in the United States begun in the 20th century by Asian American jazz musicians. Leehom Wang is a well-known musician in mainland China and Taiwan, and also played a part in Ang Lee's 2007 film Lust, Caution. In the heavy metal genre, Aja Kim, has achieved notoriety as lead vocalist in the role of Bruce 'Lee' Chickinson for the tribute band, The Iron Maidens.Don Ho was a Hawaiian pop singer and entertainer.


Flower Drum Song is based on the San Francisco nightclub Forbidden City. Rodgers and Hammerstein adapted it into a musical that was produced on Broadway in 1958 and on film in 1961. Largely remembered for the hit song "I Enjoy Being A Girl", it would not be produced with an all-Asian-American cast until a 2002 Broadway revival.

In 1988, Playwright David Henry Hwang's Broadway hit M. Butterfly won a Tony Award for Best Play, among other awards. Renowned singer and actress Lea Salonga is active in Broadwaymarker.


Miyoshi Umeki won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress in 1957 for Sayonara. Haing Ngor won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor in 1985 for The Killing Fields. Lucy Liu was one of the lead actresses in the popular Charlie's Angels movie series.

M. Night Shyamalan has directed a number of movies, including Signs, The Village, Unbreakable, and the Academy Award-nominated The Sixth Sense. Mira Nair has acclaimed movies like Salaam Bombay, Monsoon Wedding and The Namesake to her credit. Ang Lee is the world-renowned director of the critically acclaimed Brokeback Mountain, Eat Drink Man Woman, Sense and Sensibility, Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon. Director Justin Lin brought attention to the experiences of Asian Americans through his movie Better Luck Tomorrow, which included an almost exclusively Asian-American cast. He also directed The Fast and the Furious: Tokyo Drift and its prequel Fast & Furious. John Woo is famous for directing such films as Mission: Impossible 2, Windtalkers, and Paycheck.

Ming-Na Wen was the leading actress in Joy Luck Club and the voice actress for the leading role Mulan Fa in Mulan.

The international star Joan Chen (Chong Chen) was featured in numerous films from China, the USA, Australia, and some other countries. She won quite a number of awards for her acting.

Major films have been based on Asian American novels, such as Jhumpa Lahiri's The Namesake (2007) and Amy Tan's The Joy Luck Club and a Japanese turned Korean movie "Oldboy". Others have been created on stories about Asian American communities.

Pixar's Up is Pixar's first film to feature an Asian American boy, and Gran Torino was about a veteran and his Hmong neighbors.


Margaret Cho, comedienne
George Takei and Pat Morita became well-known from supporting roles in Star Trek and Happy Days, two of the best-known series of the 1960s and 1970s. Other Asian Americans who appeared on the small-screen during this time period include Jack Soo of Valentine's Day and Barney Miller, and Bruce Lee on the Green Hornet. In 1976, Morita starred in Mr. T and Tina, which was the first American sitcom centered on a person of Asian descent.

Margaret Cho, stand-up comedian and actress, had a leading role in her own TV comedy series All American Girl in the 1990s. Her character was a Korean-American (as Cho is), who struggled with her family and cultural issues in San Francisco. The show included other Asian-American actors such as Amy Hill, who starred in TV and movie roles throughout her life. Hill played Cho's grandmother. Despite being a breakthrough in prime-time television, All American Girl show was cancelled in two seasons due to low ratings.

Comedian Johnny Yune made many appearances on the "Tonight Show" in the late 70's. The late Thuy Trang is probably a familiar face to many children and young adults for her role as Trini Kwan, the original yellow ranger, in the hit youth television show Mighty Morphin Power Rangers.

SuChin Pak was a news correspondent frequently seen on MTV news and is now the host of G Word for Planet Green.

Lucy Liu had a big part in the Ally McBeal TV show from 1998 to 2002 before going on to lead roles in feature films. Daniel Dae Kim and Sendhil Ramamurthy have achieved some recognition as sex symbols from their respective roles on Lost and Heroes as has Jon Gosselin from the reality show Jon and Kate Plus 8; B. D. Wong currently stars on Law & Order: SVU after being featured in the critically acclaimed series Oz.

Brenda Song is a Thai-Hmong American actress. Known to younger audiences for starring in several Disney Channel productions including The Suite Life Of Zack and Cody, Wendy Wu: Homecoming Warrior 1 and 2, Stuck in the Suburbs and most recently ( ) The Suite Life on Deck.

Leyna Nguyen a news anchor, is also heavily portrayed in news anchor roles in major television shows and movies. Some examples include Boston Legal, Without a Trace, Las Vegas, Two and a Half Men and Austin Powers in Goldmember.

Parminder Nagra (actually British) is one of the lead actresses in the medical drama TV series ER; preceded on the series by Ming-Na.

Tila Tequila is the star of the MTV show A Shot at Love with Tila Tequila.

Kal Penn was one of the lead actors in medical drama House. He was one Dr. House's four fellows.

Masi Oka and James Kyson Lee are two lead Asian actors that are on the popular TV Series Heroes. Their characters are well known for being a duo one a goofy self righteous hero who's always naive and believe's entirely in good the other a normal person who does the normal things for a moronic sidekick, but after being swayed by his friend he has grown up to be a more responsible and well respected person that also does justice for the greater good. Masi Oka is also the only lead actor on the show to be nominated for either an Emmy or Golden Globe Award.

Recently ( ) the hit U.S. TV series Survivor created teams along racial lines during Survivor: Cook Islands. People of East and South East Asian ancestry composed the Asian American tribe. Asian American Yul Kwon won the season.


When Asian Americans were largely excluded from labor markets in the 19th century, they started their own businesses. They have started convenience and grocery stores, professional offices such as medical and law practices, laundries, restaurants, beauty-related ventures, hi-tech companies, and many other kinds of enterprises, becoming very successful and influential in American society. They have dramatically expanded their involvement across the American economy.

Compared to their population base, Asian Americans today are well represented in the professional sector and tend to earn higher wages.

Asian Americans have made major contributions to the American economy. The rest of this paragraph are notable examples. Fashion designer and mogul Vera Wang, who is famous for designing dresses for high-profile celebrities, started a clothing company, named after herself, which now offers a broad range of luxury fashion products. An Wang founded Wang Laboratories in June 1951. Amar Bose founded the Bose Corporation in 1964. Charles Wang founded Computer Associate, later became its CEO and chairman. Jen-Hsun Huang co-founded the NVIDIAmarker corporation in 1993. Jerry Yang co-founded Yahoo! Inc. in 1994 and became its CEO later. Andrea Jung serves as Chairman and CEO of Avon Products. Vinod Khosla was a founding CEO of Sun Microsystems and is a general partner of the prominent venture capital firm Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers. Steve Chen and Jawed Karim were co-creators of YouTube, and were beneficiaries of Google's $1.65 billion acquisition of that company in 2006. In addition to contributing greatly to other fields, Asian Americans have made considerable contributions in science and technology in the United States, in such prominent innovative R&D regions as Silicon Valleymarker and The Triangle.

Government and politics

Continental United States

State government
In 1996 Gary Locke was elected governor of the state of Washingtonmarker, becoming the first Chinese American to be elected governor in the United Statesmarker history and the first Asian American governor on the mainland. In 2000, Locke was re-elected to a second term.

Bobby Jindal served in various executive positions in Louisianamarker and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services before being elected to the Congress in 2004, and finally winning the Louisiana gubernatorial elections in 2007 (thereby becoming the first non-white governor of Louisiana since Reconstruction), the first elected Indian American governor in U.S. history, as well as the second Asian American governor to serve in the continental United States

Angie Chen Button was the first Asian American elected to the Texas House of Representatives (Republican, 2008).


Asian Americans have a high level of political incorporation in terms of their actual voting population. However, as a result of this group's historically low voting rates, overall political incorporation of the general population is relatively low. Although the population of this group has increased in size by 600% in 30 years due to immigration, heavy naturalization and voter outreach efforts have provided this primarily foreign-born community with less than 1% of voters but 1.25% of congressional population. However, as 4.4% of the total population in the United States, this 1.25% still represents less than one-third of the total Asian American population.

Benito Legarda y Tuason and Pablo Ocampo joined the House in 1907 as Resident Commissioners, becoming the first Asian Americans to serve in the Congress, and beginning the representation of the Philippines which ended in 1947.

Dalip Singh Saund (served 1957-63), an Indian American from Imperial County, Californiamarker, was the first South Asian American elected into Congress and is one of only two Indian Americans to have been elected. Hiram Fong, who served three decades in the Senate from 1959 to 1977, became the first Chinese American member of Congress. Daniel Inouye (serving since 1959) was the first Japanese American in the House and later the first in Senate. Patsy Mink (served 1965-77 and again from 1990-2002) was the first Asian American woman in Congress. Bobby Scott, elected in 1993, is the first US born member of Congress to have Filipino ancestry.

There are eight members of this group in the House and two in the Senate, four of whom represent Hawaii. Senator Daniel Inouye and Representatives Mike Honda, Doris Matsui, and Mazie Hirono are all Japanese Americans. Joseph Cao of Louisianamarker is Vietnamese American and is the first of his ethnicity to be elected to congress. Judy Chu of Californiamarker became the first Chinese American woman in Congress when she won a special election in 2009. She joins David Wu, a Taiwanese American from Oregonmarker. Bobby Scott of Virginiamarker, who is also half African American, has Filipino American ancestry; in 2001 he was joined by John Ensign of Nevadamarker, and in 2009 he was joined by Steve Austria of Ohiomarker enlarging the number of those who claim to be Filipino American in Congress to the highest point since the Philippine Islands had been represented.

Norman Mineta became the first Asian American cabinet member, serving as Secretary of Commerce in 2000, then was appointed Secretary of Transportation between 2001 and 2006. Elaine Chao was selected as a White House Fellow, and then served in a series of appointed posts prior to becoming the Secretary of Labor from 2001 to 2009.

Gary Locke became the first Chinese American Secretary of Commerce, and the third Asian American in the present cabinet. He joining Energy Secretary Steven Chu and Veteran Affairs Secretary Eric Shinseki, the most Asian Americans in any administration in United States history.

Rachel Paulose was a counselor in the Office of Legal Policy of the United States Department of Justice. She is the former U.S. Attorney for the District of Minnesota. She was the first Indian American woman, the youngest attorney, and the first woman in Minnesota to hold this post.


With a majority Asian-Pacific American population for most of its history, Hawaiimarker has a long history of Asian political participation at all levels of government, and its Congressional delegation has been held by Asian Americans for most of its history. Former Governor of Hawaii George Ryoichi Ariyoshi became the first U.S. state governor elected of Asian descent and holds the record as the longest-serving state governor in Hawaii.


Connie Chung was one of the first Asian-American national correspondents for a major TV news network, reporting for CBS in 1971. She later co-anchored the CBS Evening News from 1993 to 1995. At ABC, Ken Kashiwahara began reporting nationally in 1974. Ann Curry joined NBC News as a reporter in 1990, later becoming prominently associated with The Today Show in 1997. Carol Lin is perhaps best known for being the first to break the news of 9-11 on CNN. Dr. Sanjay Gupta is currently CNN's chief health correspondent. Lisa Ling, a former co-host on The View, now provides special reports for CNN and The Oprah Winfrey Show, as well as hosting National Geographic Channel's Explorer. Fareed Zakaria, a naturalised Indian-born immigrant, is a prominent journalist, and author specialising in international affairs. He is the editor of Newsweek International, and the host of Fareed Zakaria GPS on CNN. Recently ( ), Juju Chang, James Hatori, John Yang, Veronica De La Cruz, Betty Nguyen, and Julie Chen have become familiar faces on television news. John Yang won a Peabody Award.


Since the War of 1812 Asian Americans have served and fought on behalf of the United States. Serving in both segregated and non-segregated units until the desegregation of the US Military in 1948, 31 have been awarded the nation's highest award for combat valor, the Medal of Honor.

Science and technology

Asian Americans have made many notable contributions to science and technology. Chien-Shiung Wu was known to many scientists as the "First Lady of Physics" and played a pivotal role in experimentally demonstrating the violation of the law of conservation of parity in the field of particle physics. Tsung-Dao Lee and Chen Ning Yang received the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for theoretical work demonstrating that the conservation of parity did not always hold and later became American citizens. Samuel Chao Chung Ting received the 1976 Nobel Prize in physics for discovery of the subatomic particle J/ψ. Yoichiro Nambu received the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the consequences of spontaneously broken symmetries in field theories. Har Gobind Khorana shared the 1968 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work in genetics and protein synthesis. The Chinese American mathematician Shing-Tung Yau won the Fields Medal in 1982, as well as other important awards. The geometer Shiing-Shen Chern received the Wolf Prize in Mathematics in 1983.Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar shared the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physics and had the Chandra X-ray Observatory named after him. In 1984, Dr. David D. Ho first reported the "healthy carrier state" of HIV infection, which identified HIV-positive individuals who showed no physical signs of AIDS. Steven Chu shared the 1997 Nobel Prize in Physics for his research in cooling and trapping atoms using laser light. Daniel Tsui shared the 1998 Nobel Prize in Physics in 1998 for helping discover the fractional Quantum Hall effect. In 2008, biochemist Roger Tsien won the Nobel in Chemistry for his work on engineering and improving the green fluorescent protein (GFP) that has become a standard tool of modern molecular biology and biochemistry.

In 2009, Charles K. Kao was awarded Nobel Prize in Physics "for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibres for optical communication" and Venkatraman Ramakrishnan won the the prize in Chemistry "for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome".


LTC Ellison Onizuka became the first Asian American (and third person of Asian descent) when he made his first space flight aboard STS-51-C in 1985. Onizuka later died aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger in 1986. Taylor Gun-Jin Wang became the first person of Chinese ethnicity and first Chinese American, in space in 1985; he has since been followed by Leroy Chiao in 1994, and Ed Lu in 1997. In 1986, Franklin Chang-Diaz became the first Asian Latin American in space. Eugene H. Trinh became the first Vietnamese American in space in 1992. In 2001, Mark L. Polansky, a Jewish Korean American, made his first of three flights into space. In 2003, Kalpana Chawla became the first Indian American in space, but died aboard the ill fated Space Shuttle Columbia. She has since been followed by CDR Sunita Williams in 2006.


Wataru Misaka broke the NBA color barrier when he played for the New York Knicks in the 1947–48 season.

Asian Americans first made an impact in Olympic sports in the late 1940s and in the 1950s. Sammy Lee became the first Asian American to earn an Olympic Gold Medal, winning in platform diving in both 1948 and 1952. Harold Sakata won a weightlifting silver medal in the 1948 Olympics, while Japanese Americans Tommy Kono (weightlifting), Yoshinobu Oyakawa (100-meter backstroke), and Ford Konno (1500-meter freestyle) each won gold and set Olympic records in the 1952 Olympics. Konno won another gold and silver swimming medal at the same Olympics and added a silver medal in 1956, while Kono set another Olympic weightlifting record in 1956. Also at the 1952 Olympics, Evelyn Kawamoto won two bronze medals in swimming.

Amy Chow was a member of the gold medal women's gymnastics team at the 1996 Olympics; she also won an individual silver medal on the uneven bars. Gymnast Mohini Bhardwaj won a team silver medal in the 2004 Olympics. Hapa Bryan Clay won the decathlon gold medal in the 2008 Olympics, the silver medal in the 2004 Olympics, and was the sport's 2005 world champion.

Since Tiffany Chin won the women's US Figure Skating Championship in 1985, Asian Americans have been prominent in that sport. Kristi Yamaguchi won three national championships, two world titles, and the 1992 Olympic Gold medal. Michelle Kwan has won nine national championships and five world titles, as well as two Olympic medals (silver in 1998, bronze in 2002).

In football, Asian Americans' contributions are also gaining notice. Norm Chow is currently the offensive coordinator for UCLA after a short stint with the Tennessee Titans of the NFL, after 23 years of coaching other college teams, including four successful years as offensive coordinator at USCmarker. Dat Nguyen was an NFL middle linebacker who was an all-pro selection in 2003. In 1998, he was named an All-American and won the Bednarik Award as well as the Lombardi Award, while playing for Texas A&Mmarker. Hines Ward is an NFL wide receiver who was the MVP of Super Bowl XL.

Michael Chang was a top-ranked tennis player for most of his career. He won the French Open in 1989. Erik Spoelstra is a Filipino-Dutch-Irish who became the youngest coach ever in NBA history. He is currently the head coach of Miami Heat.

In golf, Tiger Woods is rank as the most successful golfer of all time. In Skateboard, Eric Koston is rank one of the top street skateboarder and places first in the 2003 X-games street competition.

Cultural influence

Health and medicine

Origins of foreign doctors in the US
Country of Origin Percentage of Total IMGs in US
Indiamarker 19.9% (47,581)
Philippinesmarker 8.8% (20,861)
Pakistanmarker 4.8% (11,330)
South Koreamarker 2.1% (4,982)
Chinamarker 2.0% (4,834)
Origins of foreign dentists in the US
Country of Origin Percentage of Total IDGs in US
Indiamarker 25.8
Philippinesmarker 11.0
Chinamarker 3.2
South Koreamarker 3.2
Pakistanmarker 2.9
Origins of foreign nurses in the US
Country of Origin Percentage of Total INGs in US
Philippinesmarker 50.2
Indiamarker 1.3
Hong Kongmarker 1.2
Israelmarker 1.0
South Koreamarker 1.0
Asian immigrants are also changing the American medical landscape through increasing number of Asian medical practitioners in this country. Beginning in the 1960s and 70s, the US government invited a number of foreign physicians particularly from India and the Philippines to address the acute shortage of physicians in rural and medically-underserved urban areas. The trend in importing foreign medical practitioners, however, became a long-term, chronic solution as US medical schools failed to produce enough physicians to match the increasing American population. Amid decreasing interest in medicine among American college students due to high rates job dissatisfaction, loss of moral, stress, and lawsuits, Asian American immigrants maintained a supply of healthcare practitioners for millions of Americans. It is well documented that Asian American international medical graduates including highly skilled guest workers using the J1 Visa program for medical workers, tend to serve in health professions shortage areas (HPSA) and specialties that are not filled by US medical graduates especially primary care and rural medicine. Thus, Asian American immigrants are play a key role in averting a medical crisis in the US.

A lasting legacy of Asian American involvement in medicine is the forcing of US medical establishment to accept minority medical practitioners. One could speculate that the introduction of Asian physicians and dentists to the American society could have triggered an acceptance of other minority groups by breaking down stereotypes and encouraging trust.

Traditional Asian concepts and practices in health and medicine have attracted greater acceptance and are more widely adopted by American doctors. India’s Ayurveda and traditional Chinese medicine (which also includes acupuncture) are two alternative therapy systems that have been studied and adopted to a great extent. For instance, in the early 1970s the US medical establishment did not believe in the usefulness of acupuncture. Since then studies have proven the efficacy of acupuncture for different applications, especially for treatment of chronic pain. and

It is now covered by many health insurance plans.

Meditation and mindfulness practices are taught in mainstream medical schools and hospitals. Increasingly they are seen as part of a holistic approach to health. Doctors and hospitals treating diseases such as heart disease and cancer have adopted meditation as a practice recommended for patients.

Herbalism and massage therapy (from Ayurveda) are sweeping the spas across America. Meditation and yoga have also been widely adopted by health spas, and spiritual retreats of many religious bases. They are also part of the spiritual practice of the many Americans who are not affiliated with a mainline religious group.


Educational Attainment: 2004 (25 and Older) (Figure 11, p.15)
Ethnicity High School

Graduation Rate
Bachelor's Degree

or More
Indians 90.2% 67.9%
Filipinos 90.8% 47.9%
Chinese 80.8% 50.2%
Japanese 93.4% 43.7%
Koreans 90.2% 50.8%
Vietnamese 70.0% 23.5%
Total US Population 83.9% 27.0%

Among America's major racial categories, Asian Americans have the highest educational qualifications. This varies, however, for individual ethnic groups. Dr. C.N. Le, Director of the Asian & Asian American Studies Certificate Program at the University of Massachusetts, writes that although 42% of all Asian American adults have at least a college degree, Vietnamese Americans have a degree attainment rate of only 16% while Laotians and Cambodians only have rates around 5%. A Closer Look at Asian Americans and Education, C.N. Le

^ About me, C.N. Le, According to the US Census Bureau, while the high school graduation rate for Asian Americans is on par with those of other ethnic groups, 48% of Asian Americans have attained at least a bachelor's degree as compared with the national average of 27%, and 29% for non-Hispanic Whites. Indian Americans have some of the highest education rates, with nearly 68% having attained at least a bachelor's degree.

Religious trends

Some scholars see a movement of religions, as Buddhism, Hinduism and Sikhism have moved into American culture, and Christianity has been adopted by more East Asians. Many South Koreans, especially, are already Christian when they immigrate to the US, and hence most Korean Americans are born into Christian families. Most Filipinos are also already Christian (specifically Catholic) when they immigrate. Besides Dharmic religions, there has also been strong influence of the American adoption of yoga, meditation, Ayurveda and vegetarianism from India.

Beats on the West Coast were among those attracted to Buddhism in the 1950s. American Buddhist groups established then and in the 1970s have built temples, ordained numerous American Buddhist monks, and taught generations of new practitioners. Buddhist concepts and practices such as mindfulness have penetrated mainstream culture.

While much West Coast practice was first influenced by Japanese Zen Buddhism, which originated in China (known as Ch'an Buddhism), more recent generations throughout the country have been influenced also by Vietnamese and Tibetan Buddhist monks who have lived and taught in the West.

As a historic first, President Barack Obama appointed two Indian Americans, Eboo Patel (a Muslim) and Anju Bhargava (a Hindu), to the President’s Advisory Council on Faith-Based and Neighborhood Partnerships. The Advisory Council is part of the White House Office of Faith Based and Neighborhood Partnerships and is composed of religious and secular leaders and scholars from different backgrounds.

Cultural issues

Until the late 20th century, the term "Asian American" was adopted mostly by activists, while the average person of Asian ancestries identified with his specific ethnicity. The murder of Vincent Chin in 1982 was a pivotal civil rights case, and it marked the emergence of Asian Americans as a distinct group in United States.

Study has indicated that most non-Asian Americans do not generally differentiate between Asian Americans and Chinese Americans. Stereotypes of both groups are nearly identical. A 2002 survey of Americans' attitudes toward Asian Americans and Chinese Americans indicated that 24% of the respondents disapprove of intermarriage with an Asian American, second only to African Americans; 23% would be uncomfortable supporting an Asian-American presidential candidate, compared to 15% for an African American, 14% for a woman and 11% for a Jew; 17% would be upset if a substantial number of Asian Americans moved into their neighborhood; 68% had somewhat or very negative attitude toward Chinese Americans in general. The study did find several positive perceptions of Chinese Americans: strong family values (91%); honesty as business people (77%); high value on education (67%).

There is a widespread perception that Asian Americans are not "American" but are instead "perpetual foreigners". Asian Americans often report being asked the question, "Where are you really from?" by other Americans, regardless of how long they or their ancestors have lived in United States. Many Asian Americans are themselves not immigrants but rather born in the United States. Many are asked if they are Chinese or Japanese, an assumption based on major groups of past immigrants.


Model minority

Some refer to Asian Americans as a model minority because the Asian American culture contains a high work ethic, respect for elders, high degree of professional and academic success, high valuation of family, education and religion. Statistics such as high household income and low incarceration rate, low rates of many diseases and higher than average life expectancy are also discussed as positive aspects of Asian Americans.

This concept appears to elevate Asian Americans by portraying them as an elite group of successful, highly educated, highly intelligent, and wealthy individuals, but it can also be considered an overly narrow and overly one-dimensional portrayal of Asian Americans, leaving out other human qualities such as vocal leadership, negative emotions, risk taking, ability to learn from mistakes, and desire for creative expression. Furthermore, Asian Americans who do not fit into the model minority mold can face challenges when people's expectations based on the model minority myth do not match with reality. Traits outside of the model minority mold can be seen as negative character flaws for Asian Americans despite those very same traits being positive for the general American majority (e.g., risk taking, confidence, empowered). For this reason, some believe Asian Americans encounter a "bamboo ceiling," the Asian American equivalent of the glass ceiling in the workplace.

The model minority concept can also affect Asians' public education. By comparison with other minorities, Asians often achieve higher test scores and grades compared to other Americans. Stereotyping Asian American as over-achievers can lead to harm if school officials or peers expect all to perform higher than average.

Furthermore, the model minority concept can even be emotionally damaging to Asian Americans, particularly since they are expected to live up to their peers who are part of the model minority. Studies have shown that Asian Americans suffer from higher rates of stress, depression, mental illnesses, and suicide attempts in comparison to other races. The pressures to achieve and live up to the model minority image have taken a mental and psychological toll on Asian Americans.


Asian Americans are politically diverse, and tend to vary by ethnicity. "Unlike most African Americans nationally and Latinos in California, who tend to vote for Democrats, Asian Americans have diffused their potential political voice because they are more inclined to vote on the basis of candidates and issues, regardless of party." In 2004, it was found that Chinese and Indian Americans were more likely to support John Kerry; whereas Vietnamese and Filipino Americans supported George Bush. Other ethnicities such as Japanese, leaning towards Kerry, and Korean, leaning towards Bush, American populations were more evenly divided between the two candidates. Overall, Asian Americans as a whole tend to vote for Democrats, but this trend has been fairly recent. As recently as 2000 polling number had difficulty determining Asian American voter affiliation. With some polls indicating a tendency to vote Republican, while other polls indicated a trend to vote Democrat. Due to the smaller size of the groups population, in comparison to the population as a whole, it remains difficult to get an adequate sampling to forecast voter outcomes for Asian Americans. In 2008, polls indicated that 35% considered themselves non-partisan, 32% Democrats, 19% independents, and 14% Republicans. Political affiliation aside, Asian Americans have trended to become more politically active as a whole, with 2008 seeing an increase of voter participation by 4% to a 49% voting rate.

In the 1992 presidential election Republican George H. W. Bush received 55% of the Asian-American vote compared to 31% for Democrat Bill Clinton. The Asian American vote has slowly shifted since then with Democrat John Kerry winning 56% of the Asian American vote in the 2004 U.S. Presidential Election and Democrat Barack Obama winning 62% of the Asian American vote in the 2008 U.S. Presidential Election. Election results, America Votes 2004, CNN;

^ [22955], CNN.

In the early 1990s the vast majority of Asian Americans were anti-communist refugees such as Vietnamese Americans and Chinese Americans and conservative Filipino Americans. Since then, more socially liberal Asian-American groups such as newer Chinese and Indian immigrants have greatly changed the Asian American political demographics, as well as a larger proportion of younger Asian Americans, many of whom have completed college degrees. There has also been evidence that Filipino Americans are becoming more socially liberal, partly due to the group's increasingly younger age average.

See also


  1. K. Connie Kang, "Yuji Ichioka, 66; Led Way in Studying Lives of Asian Americans," Los Angeles Times, September 7, 2002. Reproduced at by the Asian American Studies Center.
  2. Gabriel J. Chin, "The Civil Rights Revolution Comes to Immigration Law: A New Look at the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965," 75 North Carolina Law Review 273(1996)
  3. Manilamen: Filipino Roots in America
  4. Gabriel J. Chin, "Segregation's Last Stronghold: Race Discrimination and the Constitutional Law of Immigration," 46 UCLA Law Review 1(1998)
  5. U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 Summary File 1 Technical Documentation, 2001, at Appendix B-14. "A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam. It includes ‘‘Asian Indian,’’ ‘‘Chinese,’’ ‘‘Filipino,’’ ‘‘Korean,’’ ‘‘Japanese,’’ ‘‘Vietnamese,’’ and ‘‘Other Asian.’’"
  6. U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census of Population, Public Law 94-171 Redistricting Data File. Race Retrieved September 18, 2006
  7. U.S. Census data on ancestry is based on self-identification; the data on ancestry represent self-classification by people according to the ancestry group(s) with which they most closely identify.
  8. Cornell Asian American Studies; contains mentions to South Asians
  9. UC Berkeley - General Catalog - Asian American Studies Courses; South and Southeast Asian courses are present
  10. 1980 Census: Instructions to Respondents, republished by Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, Minnesota Population Center, University of Minnesota at Accessed 19 November 2006.
  11. Lee, Gordon. Hyphen Magazine. The Forgotten Revolution. 2003. January 28, 2007.
  12. 1990 Census: Instructions to Respondents, republished by Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, Minnesota Population Center, University of Minnesota at Accessed 19 November 2006.
  13. Reeves, Terrance Claudett, Bennett. United States Census Bureau. Asian and Pacific Islander Population: March 2002. 2003. September 30, 2006.
  14. Wood, Daniel B. "Common Ground on who's an American." Christian Science Monitor. January 19, 2006. Accessed 16 February 2007.
  15. Searching For Asian America. Community Chats | PBS
  16. Jessica S. Barnes and Claudette E. Bennett. The Asian Population: 2000. Census Bureau publication c2kbr01-16. Issued February 2002.
  17. Asian American Population Estimates United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 7 June 2009
  18. Chinese American Population Estimates United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 7 June 2009
  19. Filipino American Population Estmates United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 7 June 2009
  20. Asian Indian Population Estimates United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 7 June 2009
  21. Vietnamese American Population Estimates United States Census Bureau. Retrived 7 June 2009
  22. Korean American Population Estimates United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 7 June 2009
  23. Japanese American Population Estimates United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 7 June 2009
  24. US Census
  25. Financing Affordable Housing: A Primer By Rick Liu, Sampan
  26. MSNBC March. 27, 2005 "Black, Asian women make income gains"
  27. Jim Lobe, Asian-Americans lean toward Kerry, Asia Times. September 16, 2004.
  28. EAC Issues Glossaries of Election Terms in Five Asian Languages Translations to Make Voting More Accessible to a Majority of Asian American Citizens. Election Assistance Commission. 06/20/2008.
  29. Leyna Nguyen
  30. Survivor: Micronesia | Fans vs. Favorites
  31. Meet new Miami Heat coach Erik Spoelstra
  32. International Medical Graduates by Country, American Medical Association.
  33. Sweis, L, and Guay, A. (2007) Foreign-trained dentists licensed in the United States: Exploring their origins. J Am Dent Assoc 2007;138;219-224
  34. Koehn NN, Fryer GE Jr, Phillips RL, Miller JB, Green LA. (2007) The increase in international medical graduates in family practice residency programs. Journal of Family Medicine, 34(6):468-9.
  35. Mick SS, Lee SY. (2007) Are there need-based geographical differences between international medical graduates and U.S. medical graduates in rural U.S. counties? J Rural Health. 1999 Winter;15(1):26-43.
  36. Somnath Saha, MD, MPH; Gretchen Guiton, PhD; Paul F. Wimmers, PhD; LuAnn Wilkerson, EdD. (2008) Student Body Racial and Ethnic Composition and Diversity-Related Outcomes in US Medical Schools. JAMA. 2008;300(10):1135-1145
  37. Fe del Mundo
  38. Religious Demographic Profile South Korea [1]
  39. Religious Demographic Profile Philippines
  40. Bureau of Justice Statistics: Criminal Offenders Statistics, November 13, 2005.
  41. The Soft Bigotry of Life Expectancy By William Saletan March 16, 2005 "Asian-Americans were beating white life expectancy by six years among men and 6.5 years among women"
  42. "Asian Americans outperform whites in terms of their overall or average grades (GPA), grades in math, and test scores in math", School Performance, Tseng, V., Chao, R. K., & Padmawidjaja, I. (2007). Asian Americans educational experiences. In F. Leong, A. Inman, A. Ebreo, L. Yang, L. Kinoshita, & M. Fu (Eds.), Handbook of Asian American Psychology, (2nd Edition) Racial and Ethnic Minority Psychology (REMP) Series (pp. 102-123). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications (MS Word format, via Multicultural Families and Adolescents Study, Publications).
  43. "Mental Health and Depression in Asian Americans"
  44. "Push to achieve tied to suicide in Asian American women"

Further reading


  • Pierre Moulin U.S. Samurais in Bruyeres: People of France and Japanese Americans: Incredible story Luxembourg: CPL Edition, 1993. ISBN 2-959-9984-05.

  • Pierre Moulin Fort DeRussy - U.S. Army Museum of Hawaii Hawaii: Mutual Publishing LLC, 2007. ISBN 978-1-56647-850-2.

  • Helen Zia Asian American Dreams: The Emergence of an American People New York: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, 2000. ISBN 0-374-52736-9.
  • Sucheng Chan Asian Americans: an interpretive history Boston: Twayne, c1991. ISBN 978-0805784374
  • Gabriel J. Chin, Ed., U.S. Commission on Civil Rights: Reports on Asian Pacific Americans (2005) ISBN 978-0837731056
  • Pyong Gap Min Asian Americans: Contemporary Trends and Issues Thousand Oaks, Ca.: Pine Science Press, 2005. ISBN 1-4129-0556-7
  • Frank H. Wu Yellow: Race in American Beyond Black and White New York: Basic Books, 2002. ISBN 0-465-00639-6
  • Ronald Takaki Strangers from a Different Shore: A History of Asian Americans New York: Little, Brown, 1998. ISBN 0-316-83130-1
  • Lisa Lowe Immigrant Acts: On Asian American Cultural Politics Durham: Duke University Press, 1996. ISBN 978-0822318644


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