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For the village in Azerbaijan, see Atabəymarker.
Atabeg, Atabek, or Atabey is a hereditary title of nobility of Turkic origin, indicating a governor of a nation or province who was subordinate to a monarch and charged with raising the crown prince. First instance of the title's appearance was with early Seljuqs It later became used in the Kingdom of Georgia, first with the Armenomarker-Georgian family of Zakarid-Mxargrzeli as a military title.

Title origins and meanings

The word atabeg is a compound of two Turkic words: from ata, "ancestor", and beg or bey, "leader, prince". When a Seljuk prince died, leaving minor heirs, a guardian would be appointed to protect and guide the young princes. These guardians would often marry their ward's widowed mothers, thus assuming a sort of surrogate fatherhood.

The title of Atabeg was common during the Seljuk rule of the Near East starting in the 12th century. It was also common in Mesopotamia (Iraqmarker).

Amongst the Turkmen tribes, as in Persia, the rank was senior to a Khan.

The title atabeg was also in use for officers in Mameluk Egypt; some of them even were proclaimed Sultan before the incorporation into the Ottoman empire. After the end of Seljuk rule, the title was used only intermittently.

When describing the Azerbaijani Atabegs of the Ildeniz (Ildegoz) dynasty, the title Atabeg-e-Azam (Great Atabeg) was used, to denote their superior standing, power and influence on the Seljuk Sultans.

In Persian, the style Atabeg-e-Azam ('Great Atabeg) was occasionally used as an alternative title for the Shah's Vazir-e-Azam (Grand Vizier), notably in 1834-35 for Mirza Abolghasem Farahani, Gha'em Magham, in 1848-51 for Mirza Mohammed Taghi Khan, Amir-e Kabir, in 1906-07 for Mirza Ali Asghar Khan, Amin-ol Soltan, and finally in 1916 for a Qajar prince, Major-General Shahzadeh Sultan 'Abdu'l Majid Mirza, Eyn-ol Douleh.

Atabeg dynasties

In the Near East

Beginning in the twelfth century the atabegs formed a number of dynasties, and displaced the descendants of the Seljukid emirs in their various principalities. These dynasties were founded by emancipated Mamluks, who had held high office at court and in camp under powerful emirs. When the emirs died, they first became stadtholders for the emirs' descendants, and then usurped the throne of their masters. There was an atabeg dynasty in Damascusmarker founded by Toghtekin (1103-1128).

Other atabeg "kingdoms" sprang up to the north east, founded by Sokman (Sökmen), who established himself at Kaifa in Diyarbakırmarker about 1101, and by his brother Ilghazi. The city of Mosulmarker was under Mawdud ibn Altuntash, and was later ruled by atabegs such as Aksunkur and Zengi. Zengi became Atabeg of Mosulmarker in 1128 and soon established himself as an independent ruler of much of northern Mesopotamia and Syriamarker (including Aleppomarker).

The northern part of Luristanmarker, formerly known as Lurikuchik ('Little Luristan'), was governed by independent princes of the Khurshidi dynasty, styled atabegs, from the beginning of the 17th century when the last atabeg, Shah Verdi Khan, was removed by Persian Shah Abbas I and the government of the province given to Husain Khan, the chief of a rival tribe. Husain, however, was given the gubernatorial title of vali instead of atabeg. The descendants of Husain Khan retained the title.

Great Luristan, in the southern part of Luristan, was an independent state under the Fazlevieh atabegs from 1160 until 1424 . Its capital was Idaj, now only represented by mounds and ruins at Malamirmarker, 100 km south east of Shushtarmarker.

In the Caucasus

Shams al-Din Eldiguz (1137–1175), the Great Atabeg of the Seljuk sultan of Baghdad, established an independent dynastic state in Azerbaijan and northwestern Iran that lasted until 1225.

In the Kingdom of Georgia, atabeg ( , atabagi) was one of the highest court titles created by Queen Tamar of Georgia in 1212 for her powerful subjects of the Mkhargrdzeli (Zachariad) family. The atabeg of Georgia was a vizier and a Lord High Tutor to Heir Apparent. Not infrequently, the office of atabeg was combined with that of amirspasalar (commander-in-chief). In 1334, the title became hereditary in the Jaqeli family who ruled the Principality of Samtskhemarker. Therefore, this entity came to be denominated as Samtskhe-Saatabago, the latter part of this portmanteau meaning "of the atabags".

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