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Depiction of an atlatl


An atlatl (from Nahuatl ahtlatl, ; or ) or spear-thrower is a tool that uses leverage to achieve greater velocity in dart-throwing, and includes a bearing surface which allows the user to temporarily store energy during the throw. It consists of a shaft with a cup or a spur, which may be integrated into the weapon or made separately and attached, in which the butt of the projectile, properly called a dart, rests. It is held near the end farthest from the cup, and the dart is thrown by the action of the upper arm and wrist. An atlatl can readily achieve ranges of greater than 100 meters and speeds of over 150 km/h.

Design

Atlatl designs may include improvements such as thong loops to fit the fingers, the use of flexible shafts, stone balance weights and thinner, highly flexible darts for added power and range. Darts resemble large arrows or thin spears and are typically from 1.2 to 2.7 meters (4 to 9 feet) in length and 9 to 16 millimetre (3/8” to 5/8”) in diameter.

Another important improvement to the atlatl's design was the introduction of a small weight (between 60 and 80 grams) strapped to its midsection. Some atlatlists maintain that stone weights add mass to the shaft of the device, causing resistance to acceleration when swung, which results in a more forceful and accurate launch of the dart. Other atlatlists claim that atlatl weights add only stability to a cast which results in greater accuracy.

Based on previous work done by William S. Webb, William R. Perkins claims that atlatl weights, commonly called "bannerstones," are artifacts characterized by a centered hole in a symmetrically shaped carved or ground stone, shaped wide and flat with a drilled hole a little like a large wing nut, are a rather ingenious improvement to the design that created a silencing effect when swung, lowering the frequency of the telltale "zip" of an atlatl in use to a more subtle "woof" sound that did not travel as far and was less likely to alert prey or other humans. Robert Berg’s theory is that the bannerstone was carried by hunters as a spindle weight to produce string from natural fibers gathered while hunting, for the purpose of tying on fletching and hafting stone or bone points.

History

Reindeer Age articles
Wooden dart were known at least since the Middle Paleolithic (Schöningenmarker, Torralba, Clacton-on-Seamarker and Kalambo Fallsmarker). While the atlatl is capable of casting a dart well over 100 meters, it is most accurately used at distances of 20 meters or less. Seven spears were found in the Schöningenmarker 13 II-4 layer, dating from about 400,000 years ago and thought to represent activities of Homo heidelbergensis. The atlatl is believed to have been in use by Homo sapiens since the Upper Paleolithic (c. 30,000 BC). Most stratified European finds come from the Magdalenian (late upper Palaeolithic). In this period, elaborate pieces, often in the form of animals, are common. The earliest known example is a 27,000 year-old atlatl made of reindeer antler and found in France.

In Europe, the atlatl and dart were replaced by the bow and arrow in the Epi-Paleolithic. Along with improved ease-of-use, the bow offered the advantage that the bulk of elastic energy is stored in the throwing device, rather than the projectile; arrow shafts can therefore be much smaller, and have looser tolerance for spring constant and weight distribution than atlatl darts. This allowed for more forgiving flint knapping: dart heads designed for a particular spear thrower tend to differ in mass by only a few percent.

The atlatl has been used by early Native American as well. It seems to have been introduced during the immigration across the Bering Land Bridge, and despite the later introduction of the bow, atlatl use was very widespread at the time of first European contact. Complete wooden spearthrowers have been found on dry sites in the western USA, and in waterlogged environments in Floridamarker and Washingtonmarker.

The people of New Guineamarker and Australian Aborigines used spearthrowers as well. Australian Aboriginal spearthrowers are known as woomera.

As well as its practical use as a hunting weapon, it may also have had social effects. John Whittaker, an anthropologist at Grinnell College, Iowa, suggests the device was a social equaliser in that it requires skill rather than muscle power alone. Thus women and children would have been able to participate in hunting.

Modern times

In modern times, some people have resurrected the spearthrower for sports, throwing either for distance and/or for accuracy. Throws of almost 260 m (850 ft) have been recorded. There are numerous tournaments, with spears and spearthrowers built with both ancient and with modern materials. Similar devices are available to throw tennis balls for dogs to chase, and in the sport of jai alai.

Atlatl are sometimes used in modern times for hunting. There are meetings and events where people can throw darts. A few examples of the locations of such competitions are in Oregon, Rhode Islandmarker and in Lexingtonmarker held yearly. In the U.S., the Pennsylvaniamarker Game Commission has given preliminary approval for the legalization of the atlatl for hunting certain animals.The animals that would be allowed to atlatl hunters have yet to be determined, but attention is focused on deer. Currently, only Alabamamarker allows the atlatl for deer hunting, while a handful of other states list the device as legal for rough fish (those not sought for sport or food), some game birds and non-game mammals.Missouri allows use of the Atlatl for hunting wildlife except deer and turkey.

The woomera is still used today by some Australian Aborigines for hunting in remote parts of Australia. Yup'ik Eskimo hunters still use the Atlatl, known locally as "nuqaq" (nook-ak), in villages near the mouth of the Yukon River for seal hunting.

Northeast Open Atlatl Championship

Chimney Point state historic sitemarker in Addison, Vermont hosts the annual Northeast Open Atlatl Championship. In 2009, the Fourteenth Annual Open Atlatl Championship will be held on Saturday and Sunday, September 19 and 20. On the Friday before the Championship, a workshop is open to teach modern and traditional techniques of atlatl and dart construction, flint knapping, hafting stone points, and cordage making.

The World Atlatl Association stages an annual event of spear-throwing.

See also



Notes

  1. atlatl. Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.0.1), Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2006. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/atlatl (accessed: October 12, 2006).
  2. atlatl. Dictionary.com. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. [1] (accessed: October 12, 2006)
  3. The Economist, April 12, 2008.
  4. From the First Humans to the Mesolithic Hunters in the Northern German Lowlands, Current Results and Trends - THOMAS TERBERGER. From: Across the western Baltic, edited by: Keld Møller Hansen & Kristoffer Buck Pedersen, 2006, ISBN 87-983097-5-7, Sydsjællands Museums Publikationer Vol. 1 [2]
  5. Thundebird Atlatl
  6. An ISAC Competition at an Ancestral Living Skills Gathering
  7. North American Atlatl Competition Events for 2009
  8. hunting regulations 2008
  9. Chimney Point State Historic Site - Atlatl Championship, http://www.historicvermont.org/chimneypoint/atlatl/index.htm


References

  • D. Garrod, Palaeolithic spear throwers. Proc. Prehist. Soc. 21, 1955, 21-35.
  • W. Perkins, "Atlatl Weights, Function and Classification", Bulletin of Primitive Technology, No. 5, 1993.
  • U. Stodiek, Zur Technik der jungpaläolithischen Speerschleuder (Tübingen 1993).
  • W. Hunter, "Reconstructing a Generic Basket Maker Atlatl", Bulletin of Primitive Technology, No. 4, 1992.


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