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Attila ( or ; 406 – 453), widely known as Attila the Hun, was the Emperor of the Huns from 434 until his death in 453. He was leader of the Hunnic Empire which stretched from Germanymarker to the Ural River and from the River Danube to the Baltic Seamarker (see map below). During his rule, he was one of the most fearsome of the Western and Eastern Roman Empires' enemies: he invaded the Balkans twice and marched through Gaul (modern Francemarker) as far as Orleansmarker before being defeated at the Battle of Chalons. He refrained from attacking either Constantinoplemarker or Romemarker. His story, that the Sword of Attila had come to his hand by miraculous means, was reported by the Roman Priscus.

In much of Western Europe, he is remembered as the epitome of cruelty and rapacity. However he is regarded as a hero and his name is revered and used in Hungarymarker, Turkeymarker and other Turkic-speaking countries in Central Asia. Some histories and chronicles describe him as a great and noble king, and he plays major roles in three Norse sagas: Atlakviða; Völsunga; and Atlamál.

He is reported as being "short of stature, with a broad chest and a large head; his eyes were small, his beard thin and sprinkled with grey; and he had a flat nose and tanned skin..."


The Huns were a group of Eurasian nomads who, appearing from beyond the Volga, migrated into Europe c. 370 and built up an enormous empire in Europe. Their main military technique was mounted archery. They were possibly the descendants of the Xiongnu who had been northern neighbours of Chinamarker three hundred years before and may be the first expansion of Turkic people across Eurasia. The origin and language of the Huns has been the subject of debate for centuries. The leading current theory is that their leaders at least may have spoken a Turkic language.

Shared kingship

The death of Rugila (also known as Rua or Ruga) in 434 left his nephews Attila and Bleda (also known as Buda), the sons of his brother Mundzuk ( , ), in control over all the united Hun tribes. At the time of their accession, the Huns were bargaining with Byzantine emperor Theodosius II's envoys over the return of several renegade (possibly Hunnic nobles not in agreement with the brothers' leadership) who had taken refuge within the Byzantine Empire. The following year Attila and Bleda met with the imperial legation at Margus (present-day Požarevacmarker) and, all seated on horseback in the Hunnic manner, negotiated a successful treaty: the Romans agreed not only to return the fugitives, but also to double their previous tribute of 350 Roman pounds (ca. 115 kg) of gold, open their markets to Hunnish traders, and pay a ransom of eight solidi for each Roman taken prisoner by the Huns. The Huns, satisfied with the treaty, decamped from the empire and returned to their home in the Hungarian Great Plain, perhaps to consolidate and strengthen their empire. Theodosius used this opportunity to strengthen the walls of Constantinoplemarker, building the city's first sea wall, and to build up his border defenses along the Danube.

The Huns remained out of Roman sight for the next few years as a Hunnic force invaded the Sassanid Empire. A defeat in Armeniamarker by the Sassanids caused them to abandon this attempt and return their attentions to Europe. In 440 they reappeared in force on the borders of the Roman Empire, attacking the merchants at the market on the north bank of the Danube that had been established by the treaty. Crossing the Danube, they laid waste to Illyrian cities and forts on the river, among them, according to Priscus, Viminaciummarker, which was a city of Moesia. Their advance began at Margus, whose bishop they had demanded for retaining property which Attila regarded as his; when the Romans discussed handing over the offending bishop, he slipped away secretly to the Huns and betrayed the city to them.
As the Huns conquered the Danube defences, the Vandals, under the leadership of Geiseric, captured the Western Roman province of Africa with its capital of Carthagemarker in 440 and the Sassanid Shah Yazdegerd II invaded Armeniamarker in 441. Stripping the Balkan defenses of forces requested by the West Romans, in order to launch an attack on the Vandals in Africa (which was the richest province of the Western empire and a main source of the food supply of Rome) left Attila and Bleda a clear path through Illyria into the Balkans, which they invaded in 441. The Hunnish army, having sacked Margus and Viminacium, took Singidunummarker (modern Belgrademarker) and Sirmiummarker before halting. A lull followed in 442 and during this time Theodosius recalled his troops from Sicily and ordered a large new issue of coins to finance operations against the Huns. Having made these preparations, he thought it safe to refuse the Hunnish kings' demands.

Attila responded with a campaign in 443. Striking along the Danube, the Huns overran the military centres of Ratiara and successfully besieged Naissus (modern Nišmarker) with battering rams and rolling siege towers—military sophistication that was new to the Hun repertoire. Then, pushing along the Nisava River, they took Serdica (Sofiamarker), Philippopolis (Plovdivmarker), and Arcadiopolismarker. They encountered and destroyed a Roman army outside Constantinople and were stopped by the double walls of the Eastern capital. A second army was defeated near Callipolis (modern Gallipoli) and Theodosius, now without any armed forces to respond, admitting defeat, sent the court official Anatolius to negotiate peace terms. These were harsher than the previous treaty: the Emperor agreed to hand over 6,000 Roman pounds (ca. 2000 kg) of gold as punishment for having disobeyed the terms of the treaty during the invasion; the yearly tribute was tripled, rising to 2,100 Roman pounds (ca. 700 kg) in gold; and the ransom for each Roman prisoner rose to 12 solidi.

Their demands met for a time, the Hun kings withdrew into the interior of their empire. According to Jordanes (following Priscus), during the peace following the Huns' withdrawal from Byzantium (probably around 445), Bleda died (killed in a hunting accident arranged by his brother, according to the classical sources), Attila took the throne for himself, and became the sole ruler of the Huns.

Sole ruler

In 447 Attila again rode south into the Eastern Roman Empire through Moesia. The Roman army under the Gothic magister militum Arnegisclus met him in the Battle of the Utusmarker and was defeated, though not without inflicting heavy losses. The Huns were left unopposed and rampaged through the Balkans as far as Thermopylaemarker. Constantinople itself was saved by the intervention of the prefect Flavius Constantinus who organized the reconstruction of the walls that had been previously damaged by earthquakes, and, in some places, to construct a new line of fortification in front of the old. An account of this invasion survives:

The barbarian nation of the Huns, which was in Thrace, became so great that more than a hundred cities were captured and Constantinople almost came into danger and most men fled from it.
… And there were so many murders and blood-lettings that the dead could not be numbered.
Ay, for they took captive the churches and monasteries and slew the monks and maidens in great numbers.
(Callinicus, in his Life of Saint Hypatius)

In the west

In 450 Attila proclaimed his intent to attack the powerful Visigoth kingdom of Toulousemarker, making an alliance with Emperor Valentinian III in order to do so. He had previously been on good terms with the Western Roman Empire and its de facto ruler Flavius Aëtius. Aëtius had spent a brief exile among the Huns in 433, and the troops Attila provided against the Goths and Bagaudae had helped earn him the largely honorary title of magister militum in the west. The gifts and diplomatic efforts of Geiseric, who opposed and feared the Visigoths, may also have influenced Attila's plans.

However Valentinian's sister was Honoria, who, in order to escape her forced betrothal to a Roman senator, had sent the Hunnish king a plea for help – and her engagement ring – in the spring of 450. Though Honoria may not have intended a proposal of marriage, Attila chose to interpret her message as such. He accepted, asking for half of the western Empire as dowry. When Valentinian discovered the plan, only the influence of his mother Galla Placidia convinced him to exile, rather than kill, Honoria. He also wrote to Attila strenuously denying the legitimacy of the supposed marriage proposal. Attila sent an emissary to Ravennamarker to proclaim that Honoria was innocent, that the proposal had been legitimate, and that he would come to claim what was rightfully his.

The general path of the Hun forces in the invasion of Gaul.

Attila interfered in a succession struggle after the death of a Frankish ruler. Attila supported the elder son, while Aëtius supported the younger. Attila gathered his vassalsGepids, Ostrogoths, Rugians, Scirians, Heruls, Thuringians, Alans, Burgundians, among others and began his march west. In 451 he arrived in Belgica with an army exaggerated by Jordanes to half a million strong. J.B. Bury believes that Attila's intent, by the time he marched west, was to extend his kingdom – already the strongest on the continent – across Gaul to the Atlantic Oceanmarker.

On April 7, he captured Metzmarker. Other cities attacked can be determined by the hagiographic vita written to commemorate their bishops: Nicasius was slaughtered before the altar of his church in Rheimsmarker; Servatus is alleged to have saved Tongerenmarker with his prayers, as Saint Genevieve is to have saved Parismarker. Lupus, bishop of Troyesmarker, is also credited with saving his city by meeting Attila in person.

Aëtius moved to oppose Attila, gathering troops from among the Franks, the Burgundians, and the Celts. A mission by Avitus, and Attila's continued westward advance, convinced the Visigoth king Theodoric I (Theodorid) to ally with the Romans. The combined armies reached Orleansmarker ahead of Attila, thus checking and turning back the Hunnish advance. Aëtius gave chase and caught the Huns at a place usually assumed to be near Catalaunum (modern Châlons-en-Champagnemarker). The two armies clashed in the Battle of Chalons, whose outcome is commonly considered to be a Pyrrhic victory for the Visigothic-Roman alliance. Theodoric was killed in the fighting and Aëtius failed to press his advantage, according to Edward Gibbon and Edward Creasy, because he feared the consequences of an overwhelming Visigothic triumph as much as he did a defeat. From Aëtius' point of view, the best outcome was what occurred: Theodoric died, Attila was in retreat and disarray, and the Romans had the benefit of appearing victorious.

Invasion of Italy and death

Raphael's The Meeting between Leo the Great and Attila

Attila returned in 452 to claim his marriage to Honoria anew, invading and ravaging Italymarker along the way. The city of Venicemarker was founded as a result of these attacks when the residents fled to small islands in the Venetian Lagoonmarker. His army sacked numerous cities and razed Aquileiamarker completely, leaving no trace of it behind. Legend has it he built a castle on top of a hill north of Aquileiamarker to watch the city burn, thus founding the town of Udinemarker, where the castle can still be found. Aëtius, who lacked the strength to offer battle, managed to harass and slow Attila's advance with only a shadow force. Attila finally halted at the River Pomarker. By this point disease and starvation may have broken out in Attila's camp, thus helping to stop his invasion.

At the wish of Emperor Valentinian III, Pope Leo I, accompanied by the Consul Avienus and the Prefect Trigetius, met Attila at Minciomarker in the vicinity of Mantuamarker, and obtained from him the promise that he would withdraw from Italy and negotiate peace with the emperor. Prosper of Aquitaine gives a short, reliable description of the historic meeting. The later anonymous account, a pious "fable which has been represented by the pencil of Raphael and the chisel of Algardi" (as Gibbon called it) says that the Pope, aided by Saint Peter and Saint Paul, convinced him to turn away from the city. According to a later mediaeval Hungarian chronicle, the Pope promised Attila that if he left Rome in peace, one of his successors would receive a holy crown. Priscus reports that superstitious fear of the fate of Alaric—who died shortly after sacking Rome in 410—gave him pause.

After Attila left Italy and returned to his palace across the Danube, he planned to strike at Constantinople again and reclaim the tribute which Marcian had stopped. (Marcian was the successor of Theodosius and had ceased paying tribute in late 450 while Attila was occupied in the west; multiple invasions by the Huns and others had left the Balkans with little to plunder.) However Attila died in the early months of 453. The conventional account, from Priscus, says that at a feast celebrating his latest marriage to the beautiful and young Ildico (if uncorrupted, the name suggests a Gothic origin) he suffered a severe nosebleed and choked to death in a stupor. An alternative theory is that he succumbed to internal bleeding after heavy drinking or a condition called esophageal varices, where dilated veins in the lower part of the esophagus rupture leading to death by haemorrhage.

Another account of his death, first recorded 80 years after the events by the Roman chronicler Count Marcellinus, reports that "Attila, King of the Huns and ravager of the provinces of Europe, was pierced by the hand and blade of his wife." The Volsunga saga and the Poetic Edda also claim that King Atli (Attila) died at the hands of his wife, Gudrun. Most scholars reject these accounts as no more than hearsay, preferring instead the account given by Attila's contemporary Priscus. Priscus' version, however, has recently come under renewed scrutiny by Michael A. Babcock. Based on detailed philological analysis, Babcock concludes that the account of natural death, given by Priscus, was an ecclesiastical "cover story" and that Emperor Marcian (who ruled the Eastern Roman Empire from 450-457) was the political force behind Attila's death.

Jordanes says: "The greatest of all warriors should be mourned with no feminine lamentations and with no tears, but with the blood of men." His horsemen galloped in circles around the silken tent where Attila lay in state, singing in his dirge, according to Cassiodorus and Jordanes: "Who can rate this as death, when none believes it calls for vengeance?"

Then they celebrated a strava (lamentation) over his burial place with great feasting. Legend says that he was laid to rest in a triple coffin made of gold, silver, and iron, along with some of the spoils of his conquests. His men diverted a section of the river, buried the coffin under the riverbed, and then were killed to keep the exact location a secret.

His sons Ellac (his appointed successor), Dengizich, and Ernakh fought over the division of his legacy, specifically which vassal kings would belong to which brother. As a consequence they were divided, defeated and scattered the following year in the Battle of Nedao by the Ostrogoths and the Gepids under Ardaric who had been Attila's most prized chieftain.

Attila's many children and relatives are known by name and some even by deeds, but soon valid genealogical sources all but dry up and there seems to be no verifiable way to trace Attila's descendants. This has not stopped many genealogists from attempting to reconstruct a valid line of descent for various medieval rulers. One of the most credible claims has been that of the khans of Bulgariamarker (see Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans). A popular, but ultimately unconfirmed, attempt tries to relate Attila to Charlemagne.

Appearance, character

There is no surviving first-person account of Attila's appearance. There is, however, a possible second-hand source, provided by Jordanes, who claimed Priscus described Attila as:

Attila has been portrayed in various ways, sometimes as a noble ruler, sometimes as a cruel barbarian. Attila is known in Western history and tradition as the grim flagellum dei (Latin: "Scourge of God"), and his name has become a byword for cruelty and barbarism. Some of this may have arisen from confusion between him and later steppe warlords such as Genghis Khan (Timuchin) and Timur (Tamerlane). All have been regarded as cruel, clever, and blood-thirsty lovers of battle and pillage; all have been recorded mainly by their enemies. The reality of his character is probably more complex. Priscus also recounts his meeting with an eastern Roman captive who admired Hunnic governance over Roman, so that he had no desire to return to his former country, and the Byzantine historian's description of Attila's humility and simplicity is unambiguous in its admiration.

The origin of Attila's name is not known with confidence. Most suggestions assume Turkish roots. The etymology "oceanic (universal) [ruler]" has been proposed, supposing that the Hunnic language was Danube-Bulgarian.Alternatively the word might originate from Turkic Atyl/Atal/Atil/Itil meaning water, river (also, ancient name of Volga river), with adjective suffix -ly. (Compare also Turkic medieval notable title atalyk – "senior as father"). Old-Turkic might have used the word atta ("father") (as in Atatürk) then added the diminutive suffix -ila, which means ("little father") from Attaila 'Attila' has many variants: Atli and Atle in Norse, Ætla, Attle and Atlee in English, Attila/Atilla/Etele in Hungarian (all the three name variants are used in Hungarymarker; Attila is the most popular variant), Etzel in the German Nibelungenlied, or Attila, Atila or Atilla in modern Turkish. In Hungary and in Turkey "Attila" is commonly used as a male first name. In Turkey sometimes the name is spelled with double ll rather than double tt (Atilla).

The Polish Chronicle represents Attila's name as Aquila derived from the Latin aqua. Others believe that the name may have a connection to Hungarian ítélet meaning judgement.


  • Babcock, Michael A. (2005) The Night Attila Died: Solving the Murder of Attila the Hun (Berkley Publishing Group, ISBN 0-425-20272-0)
  • Blockley, R.C. (1983) The Fragmentary Classicising Historians of the Later Roman Empire, vol. II (ISBN 0-905205-15-4). This is a collection of fragments from Priscus, Olympiodorus, and others, with original text and translation.
  • Gordon, C. D. (1960) The Age of Attila: Fifth-century Byzantium and the Barbarians (Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, ISBN 0472061119). This is a translated collection, with commentary and annotation, of ancient writings on the subject, including Priscus.
  • Heather, Peter (2005) The Fall of the Roman Empire—A New History of Rome and the Barbarians (Oxford University Press, ISBN 0195159543)
  • Howarth, Patrick (1994) Attila, King of the Huns: The Man and the Myth (ISBN 0786709308).
  • Maenchen-Helfen, J. Otto (1973) The World of the Huns: Studies in Their History and Culture (Berkeley, University of California Press, ISBN 0520015967)
  • Man, John (2005) Attila: The Barbarian King Who Challenged Rome (Bantam Press, ISBN 0-593-05291-9)
  • Thompson, E. A. (1948) A History of Attila and the Huns (London, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0837176409). This is the authoritative English work on the subject. It was reprinted in 1999 as The Huns in the Peoples of Europe series (ISBN 0-631-21443-7). Thompson did not enter controversies over Hunnic origins and considers that Attila's victories were achieved only when there was no concerted opposition.

Epic poetry

Historical fiction

  • Hungarian poet János Arany wrote an epic poem about Attila and his brother Bleda called Buda halála (The Death of King Buda) which is part of a larger work titled A Csaba-trilógia (The Csaba Trilogy).
  • Burgess, Anthony. This British writer wrote a biographical novella about Attila entitled Hun which was published in the story collection The Devil's Mode (1989).
  • Costain, Thomas. (1959) The Darkness and Dawn is written from the point of view of Nicolan, carried into slavery from his home on the Danube and after many adventures becoming Attila's aide – but also becoming romantically involved with the beautiful Ildico, which is quite dangerous.
  • Dahn, Felix. Attila (1834-1912), historical novel, 1939, Full-Text online
  • Dietrich, William. (2005) The Scourge of God: A Novel of the Roman Empire (HarperTorch, ISBN 978-0060735081) Set in the final days of the Roman Empire, Dietrich's fifth novel follows the attempt of Attila the Hun to conquer the West.
  • Ford, Michael Curtis (2005) The Sword of Attila: A Novel of the Last Years of Rome St. Martin's ISBN 978-0312939151.
  • Hungarian Géza Gárdonyi's novel A láthatatlan ember (1901) (published in English as Slave of the Huns and largely based on Priscus) offered a sympathetic portrait of Attila as a wise and beloved leader. This reflects the positive way in which Attila, his last wife Ildikó and his brother Bleda are viewed in Hungarymarker and Turkeymarker.
  • The Death of Attila by Cecelia Holland (1973) takes place in 453, with the tensions and uncertainty of Attila's last year being the background for an unlikely friendship between Tacs, a young, ne'er-do-well Hun warrior, and Dietric, son of a Germanic subject king.
  • Napier, William. Attila is a powerful and charismatic figure in William Napier's ongoing trilogy, Attila
    • Attila (Orion Books Ltd, 2005, ISBN 0-7528-7787-9).
    • The Gathering of the Storm (Orion Books Ltd, 2007, ISBN 978-0-75287-433-3)
    • Attila: Judgement (2008).
  • Paty, Little. (2003) Secret of Attila is a fictional account of the fall of the Huns based on the lives of Attila's offspring.
  • Seredy, Kate wrote the novel The White Stag, the Newbery Medal winning book of 1938, which is a retelling of the legend of the rise of Attila the Hun written in lyric prose.

Other fiction

  • Count Dracula in Bram Stoker's novel Dracula claims to be descended from Attila: "What devil or what witch was ever so great as Attila, whose blood is in these veins?"
  • R.K. Narayan's Malgudi Days has a chapter on a mongrel dog named after Attila, King of the Huns.
  • Wess Roberts has used Attila as a fictional mouthpiece for his thoughts on management, "Leadership Secrets of Attila the Hun" and "Victory Secrets of Attila the Hun".

Film and television

  • A TV miniseries, Attila, which was produced in 2000 and was broadcast in 2001, stars Gerard Butler as Attila and Powers Boothe as Flavius Aëtius. Directed by Dick Lowry and written by Robert Cochran. Winner of 2002 ASC award and nominated for 2 Golden Reel awards.
  • Anthony Quinn played the title role in Attila, a 1954 Franco-Italian film, co-starring Sophia Loren as Honoria.
  • Attila was portrayed by Jack Palance in Douglas Sirk's Sign of the Pagan (1954).
  • Patrick Gallagher played Attila in the 2006 movie Night at the Museum, as a misunderstood and abused man looking for someone to reach out to. In the film he appears to be of Asian ancestry, having more in common with the Mongols. Gallagher reprised the role in the 2009 sequel, Night at the Museum: Battle of the Smithsonian.
  • Monty Python in one episode, presented a parody of a sitcom entitled, The Attila the Hun Show! and later an animated Attila the Bun Show.
  • Attila the Hun appeared in an episode of Johnny Test, who was brought by Johnny and Dukey to help the weakest hockey team, The Porkbelly Ice Pigs, along with a caveman, vikings, a Mongolian warrior, and a knight.
  • In the movie "Lionheart", Jean-Claude Van Damme's final opponent is a huge fighter named Attila, who is played by Abdel Qissi. Attila is not only a large fighter, he is known for first toying with his opponents, then tearing them apart ruthlessly.
  • In the episode Kif Gets Knocked Up a Notch of Futurama, Attila was one of several simulations of evil characters accidentally brought to life (others included Jack the Ripper and Professor Moriarty).
  • In the anime Pokémon, two members of Team Rocket are named Attila and Hun.
  • The History Channel's Ancients Behaving Badly episode Attila the Hun (History Channel, A&E Television Networks, original airdate 2009-11-13) features Attila, naming him "history's first great terrorist" interested only in "naked power and money", "creating nothing, building nothing" and scoring the highest (worst) score on the show's "psycho-meter", finding Attila one of the greatest psychopaths in history.


  • In 1812 Beethoven intended to compose an opera about Attila and approached August von Kotzebue to write the libretto. This plan was, however, never implemented.

  • In 1981, American progressive-jazz-rock group Dixie Dregs released Unsung Heroes, voted best guitar album of 1981 by the readers of Guitar Player magazine. Track 6 is called "Attila the Hun".

  • In 2004, American heavy-metal group Iced Earth released the album The Glorious Burden which chronicled American military history. Despite the American focus, the album featured a track entitled "Attila", which glorified the Hunnic leader's encounters with the Roman Empire.

  • In 2007, British heavy metal band Saxon brought out their seventeenth album The Inner Sanctum, on which features the track "Attila the Hun", a song that acclaims how Attila almost destroyed the Roman Empire.



  • In Age of Empires II: The Conquerors expansion, Attila the Hun is a campaign hero.
  • In the game The Dig (LucasArts) the asteroid is named Attila after the leader of the Huns.
  • Attila appears on Rome Total War Barbarian invasion on the historical battle of Chalons.


In Hungarymarker, several public places are named after Attila; for instance, in Budapestmarker there are 10 Attila Streets and an Attila Lane, one of which is an important street behind the Buda Castlemarker.

In Turkey many military operations were named after Attila. When the Turkish army intervened in Cyprus in 1974 the operation was nicknamed Attila as well. Turks also named hundreds of streets and regions after his name in different cities and towns across Turkey.


Primary sources


  1. The Goths by Jordanes. Translated by Charles Gaius Mierow. Chapter 35: Attila the Hun.
  2. Transylvania through the age of migrations
  3. Calise, J.M.P. (2002). 'Pictish Sourcebook: Documents of Medieval Legend and Dark Age History'. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. p279, ISBN 0313322953
  4. Peckham, D. Paulston, C. B. (1998). Linguistic Minorities in Central and Eastern Europe. Clevedon, UK : Multilingual Matters. p100, ISBN 1853594164
  5. Canfield, R.L. (1991). Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p49, ISBN 0521522919
  6. Frazee, C.A. (2002). Two Thousand Years Ago: The World at the Time of Jesus. Wm. B. Eerdmans
  7. Priscus of Panium: fragments from the Embassy to Attila
  8. The location and identity of these kings is not known and subject to conjecture.
  9. J.B. Bury, The Invasion of Europe by the Barbarians, lecture IX (e-text)
  10. The vitae are summarized in Thomas Hodgkin, Italy and Her Invaders (New York: Russell & Russell, 1967 reprint of the original 1880–89 edition), volume II pp. 128ff.
  11. St. Lupus – Saints & Angels – Catholic Online
  12. Later accounts of the battle site the Huns either already within the city or in the midst of storming it when the Roman-Visigoth army arrived; Jordanes mentions no such thing. See Bury, ibid.
  13. Medieval Sourcebook, Leo I and Attila
  14. Chronicon Pictum, this is the first occasion when an artist presented an angel graphically
  15. Thompson, The Huns, p. 164.
  16. Marcellinus Comes, Chronicon (e-text), quoted in Hector Munro Chadwick: The Heroic Age (London, Cambridge University Press, 1926), p. 39 n. 1.
  17. Volsunga Saga, Chapter 39; Poetic Edda, Atlamol En Grönlenzku, The Greenland Ballad of Atli
  18. Babcock, Michael A. The Night Attila Died: Solving the Murder of Attila the Hun, Berkley Books, 2005 ISBN 0-425-20272-0
  19. The Goths by Jordanes. Translated by Charles Gaius Mierow. Chapter 35: Attila the Hun.
  20. "Europe: The Origins of the Huns", by Kessler Associate, based on conversations with Kemal Cemal, Turkey, 2002
  21. The World of the Huns. Chapter IX. Language – O. Maenchen-Helfen
  22. Gene Expression
  23. Dracula by Bram Stoker, 1897, Ch. 3, para. 5

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