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The Auckland metropolitan area (commonly ), in the North Islandmarker of New Zealandmarker, is the largest and most populous urban area in the country with a population approaching 1.4 million residents, percent of the country's population. Demographic trends indicate that it will continue to grow faster than the rest of the country. Increasingly cosmopolitan, Auckland also has the largest Polynesian population of any city in the world, and has seen many people of Asian ethnicity move there in the last two decades. In Māori Auckland's name is Tāmaki-makau-rau, or the transliterated version of Auckland, Ākarana.

The 2009 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranked Auckland 4th place in the world on its list.In 2008, Auckland was classified as an Alpha-City in the World Cities Study Group’s inventory by Loughborough Universitymarker.

Auckland lies between the Hauraki Gulfmarker of the Pacific Oceanmarker to the east, the low Hunua Ranges to the south-east, the Manukau Harbourmarker to the south-west, and the Waitakere Rangesmarker and smaller ranges to the west and north-west. The central part of the urban area occupies a narrow isthmus between the Manukau Harbour on the Tasman Seamarker and the Waitemata Harbourmarker on the Pacific Oceanmarker. It is one of the few cities in the world to have harbours on two separate major bodies of water.

History

Main article History of Auckland


Early Māori and Europeans

The isthmus was first settled around 1350 and was valued for its rich and fertile land. Many (fortified villages) were created, mainly on the volcanic peaks. Māori population in the area is estimated at about 20,000 people before the arrival of Europeans. The subsequent introduction of firearms, which began in Northland, upset the balance of power and led to devastating inter-tribal warfare, causing iwi who lacked the new weapons to seek refuge in areas less exposed to coastal raids. As a result, the region had relatively low numbers of Māori when European settlement of New Zealand began. There is, however, nothing to suggest that this was the result of a deliberate European policy. On 27 January 1832, Joseph Brooks Weller, eldest of the Weller brothers of Otago and Sydneymarker bought land including the sites of the modern cities of Auckland and North Shore and part of Rodney District, for "one large cask of powder" from "Cohi Rangatira".

After the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in February 1840, the new Governor of New Zealand, William Hobson, chose the area as his new capital, and named it after George Eden, Earl of Auckland, then Viceroy of India. Auckland was officially declared New Zealand's capital in 1841, and the transfer of the administration from Russellmarker in the Bay of Islands was completed in 1842. However, even in 1840 Port Nicholsonmarker (later Wellingtonmarker) was seen as a better choice for an administrative capital because of its proximity to the South Islandmarker, which was being settled much more rapidly, and Wellington became the capital in 1865. Auckland was the principal city of the Auckland Provincemarker until the provincial system was abolished in 1876.

Growth up to today

In the early 1860s, Auckland became a base against the Māori King Movement. This, and continued road building towards the south into the Waikatomarker, enabled Pākehā (European New Zealanders) influence to spread from Auckland. Its population grew fairly rapidly, from 1,500 in 1841 to 12,423 by 1864. The growth occurred similarly to other mercantile-dominated cities, mainly around the port and with problems of overcrowding and pollution.

Trams and railway lines shaped Auckland's rapid expansion in the early first half of the 20th century, but soon afterward the dominance of the motor vehicle emerged and has not abated since; arterial roads and motorways have become both defining and geographically dividing features of the urban landscape. They also allowed further massive expansion that resulted in the growth of associated urban areas like the North Shoremarker (especially after the construction of the Auckland Harbour Bridgemarker), and Manukau Citymarker in the south.

A large percentage of Auckland is dominated by a very suburban style of building, giving the city a very low population density. Some services like public transport are costlier than in other higher-density cities, but Aucklanders are still able to live in single-family dwellings similar to the rest of the New Zealand population, although lot sizes tend to be smaller than many other centres.

Geography and climate

Volcanoes

Auckland straddles the Auckland Volcanic Field, which has produced approximately 50 volcanoes. These take the form of cones, lakes, lagoons, islands and depressions, and several have produced extensive lava flows. Most of the cones have been partly or completely quarried away. The individual volcanoes are all considered extinct, although the volcanic field itself is merely dormant.

Unlike the explosive subduction-driven volcanism in the central North Island, such as at Mount Ruapehumarker and Lake Taupomarker, Auckland's volcanoes are fueled entirely by basaltic magma. The most recent and by far the largest volcano, Rangitoto Islandmarker, was formed within the last 1000 years, and its eruptions destroyed the Māori settlements on neighbouring Motutapu Islandmarker some 700 years ago. Rangitoto's size, its symmetry, its position guarding the entrance to Waitemata Harbourmarker and its visibility from many parts of the Auckland region make it Auckland's most iconic natural feature. Few birds and insects inhabit the island because of the rich acidic soil and the type of flora growing out of the rocky soil.


Harbours and Gulf

Auckland lies on and around an isthmus, less than two kilometres wide at its narrowest point, between Mangere Inlet and the Tamaki Rivermarker. There are two harbours in the Auckland urban area surrounding this isthmus: Waitemata Harbourmarker to the north, which opens east to the Hauraki Gulfmarker, and Manukau Harbourmarker to the south, which opens west to the Tasman Seamarker.

Bridges span parts of both harbours, notably the Auckland Harbour Bridgemarker crossing the Waitemata Harbour west of the Auckland Central Business Districtmarker (CBD). The Mangere Bridge and the Upper Harbour Bridgemarker span the upper reaches of the Manukau and Waitemata Harbours, respectively. In earlier times, portage paths crossed the narrowest sections of the isthmus.

Several islands of the Hauraki Gulfmarker are administered as part of Auckland City, though they are not officially part of the Auckland metropolitan area. Parts of Waiheke Islandmarker effectively function as Auckland suburbs, while various smaller islands near Auckland are mostly zoned 'recreational open space' or are nature sanctuaries.

Climate



Auckland has a warm-temperate climate, with warm, humid summers and mild, damp winters. It is the warmest main centre of New Zealand and is also one of the sunniest, with an average of 2060 sunshine hours per annum The average daily maximum temperature is 23.7 °C in February, and 14.5 °C in July, the absolute maximum recorded temperature is 32.4 °C, while the absolute minimum is -2.5. High levels of rainfall occur almost year-round with an average of 1240 mm per year spread over 137 'rain days'. Climatic conditions vary in different parts of the city owing to geography such as hills, land cover and distance from the sea, hence unofficial temperature records exist, such as a maximum of 34°C in west Auckland. On 27 July 1939 Auckland received its only recorded snowfall.

The early morning calm on the isthmus during settled weather, before the sea breeze rises, was described as early as 1853: "In all seasons, the beauty of the day is in the early morning. At that time, generally, a solemn stillness holds, and a perfect calm prevails..." Many Aucklanders used this time of day to walk and run in parks.Auckland, the Capital of New Zealand - Swainson, William, Smith Elder, 1853

As car ownership rates are very high and emissions controls relatively weak, Auckland suffers from some air pollution, especially in regards to fine particles emissions. There are also occasional breaches of guideline levels of carbon monoxide. While maritime winds normally disperse the pollution relatively quickly it can sometimes become visible as smog, especially on calm winter days.

People

Cultures



Auckland is home to many cultures. The majority of inhabitants claim European - predominantly British - descent, but substantial Māori, Pacific Islander and Asian communities exist as well. Auckland has the largest Polynesian population of any city in the world and a higher proportion of people of Asian origin than the rest of New Zealand. Ethnic groups from all corners of the world have a presence in Auckland, making it by far the country's most cosmopolitan city.

Demographics

The proportion of Asians and other Non-European immigrants has increased during the last decades due to immigration, and the removal of restrictions directly or indirectly based on race. Immigration to New Zealand is heavily concentrated towards Auckland (partly for job market reasons). This strong focus on Auckland has led the immigration services to award extra points towards immigration visa requirements for people intending to move to other parts of New Zealand.

The following table shows the ethnic profile of Auckland's population, as recorded in the 2001 and 2006 New Zealand Census. The percentages add up to more than 100%, as some people counted themselves as belonging to more than one ethnic group. Figures for 2006 refer to the whole Auckland Region, not just the urban area. The substantial percentage drop of 'Europeans' was mainly caused by the increasing numbers of people from this group choosing to define themselves as 'New Zealanders' - even though this was not one of the groups listed on the census form.

Ethnic Group 2001 (%) 2001 (people) 2006 (%) 2006 (people)
New Zealand European 66.9 684,237 56.5 698,622
Pacific Island 14.9 152,508 14.4 177,936
Asian 14.6 149,121 18.9 234,222
Māori 11.5 117,513 11.1 137,133
Middle Easterners/Latin Americans/Africans n/a n/a 1.5 18,555
Others 1.3 13,455 0.1 648
'New Zealanders' n/a n/a 8.0 99,258
Total giving their ethnicity 1,022,616 (individuals) 1,237,239 (individuals)


The 2006 Census also provides information about the multilinguality of the region. 867,825 people in the Auckland Region spoke one language only, 274,863 spoke two, and 57,051 three or more.


Religion

Similar to the rest of the country, over half of Aucklanders profess Christianity, but fewer than 10% regularly attend church and almost 40% profess no religious affiliation (2001 census figures). The main denominations are Roman Catholic, Anglican and Presbyterian. Pentecostal and charismatic churches are the fastest growing. A small community of Coptic Orthodox Christians is also present.

Recent immigration from Asia has added to the religious diversity of the city, and about 10% of the population follow such beliefs as Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam and Sikhism, although there are no figures on religious attendance. There is also a small, long-established Jewish community.

Lifestyle

Positive aspects of Auckland life are its mild climate, plentiful employment and educational opportunities, as well as numerous leisure facilities. Meanwhile, traffic problems, the lack of good public transport, and increasing housing costs have been cited by many Aucklanders as among the strongest negative factors of living there, together with crime. Nonetheless, Auckland currently ranks 4th equal in a survey of the quality of life of 215 major cities of the world (2009 data). Quality of Living global city rankings 2009 (Mercer Management Consulting, Accessed 2 May 2009).In 2006, Auckland placed 23rd on the UBS list of the world's richest cities.

Auckland - Skyline from Westhaven Marina.
Auckland - Skyline from Symonds street.


Leisure

Auckland is popularly known as the "City of Sails" because the harbour is often dotted with hundreds of yachts and has more per capita than any other city in the world, with around 135,000 yachts and launches. Around 60,500 of the country's 149,900 registered yachtsmen come from the Auckland Region. Viaduct Basinmarker also hosted two America's Cup challenges (2000 Cup and 2003 Cup), and its cafes, restaurants, and clubs add to Auckland's vibrant nightlife. With the sheltered Waitemata Harbour at its doorstep, Auckland sees many nautical events, and there are also a large number of sailing clubs in Auckland, as well as Westhaven Marinamarker, the largest of the Southern Hemispheremarker. [Sailing Club] directory (from the yachtingnz.org website)

High Street, Queen Streetmarker, Ponsonby Roadmarker, and Karangahape Roadmarker are very popular with urban socialites. Newmarket and Parnellmarker are up-market shopping areas, while Otaramarker's and Avondalemarker's fleamarkets offer a colourful alternative shopping experience. Newer shopping malls tend to be outside city centres, with Sylvia Parkmarker (Sylvia Park, Auckland City), Botany Town Centre (Howick, Manukau City) and Westfield Albanymarker (Albany, North Shore City) being the three largest.

The Auckland Town Hallmarker and Aotea Centremarker host conferences and cultural events such as theatre, kapa haka, and opera. Auckland also boasts a full-time professional symphonic ensemble in the Auckland Philharmonia Orchestra.

Many national treasures are displayed at the Auckland Art Gallerymarker, such as the work of Colin McCahon, while many other significant cultural artefacts reside at the Auckland War Memorial Museummarker, the National Maritime Museum, or the Museum of Transport and Technologymarker (MOTAT). Exotic creatures can be observed at the Auckland Zoomarker and Kelly Tarlton's Underwater Worldmarker. Movies and rock concerts (notably, the "Big Day Out") are also well patronised.

The Waitemata Harbour has popular swimming beaches at Mission Baymarker, Devonportmarker, Takapunamarker, and the west coast has popular surf spots such as Pihamarker and Muriwaimarker. Many Auckland beaches are patrolled by surf lifesaving clubs, which are part of Surf Life Saving Northern Region.

Parks and nature

Auckland Domainmarker is one of the largest parks in the city, close to the Auckland CBDmarker and having a good view of the Hauraki Gulf and Rangitoto Islandmarker. Smaller parks close to the city centre are Albert Parkmarker, Myers Parkmarker, Western Parkmarker and Victoria Parkmarker.

While most volcanic cones in the Auckland Volcanic Field have been affected by quarrying, many of the remaining cones are now within parks, and retain a more natural character than the surrounding city. Prehistoric earthworks and historic fortifications are in several of these parks, including Mount Edenmarker, North Headmarker and One Tree Hillmarker (Maungakiekie).

Other parks around the city are in Western Springsmarker, which has a large park bordering the MOTATmarker museum and the Auckland Zoomarker. The Auckland Botanic Gardensmarker are further south, in Manurewa.

Ferries provide transport to parks and nature reserves at Devonportmarker, Waiheke Islandmarker, Rangitoto Islandmarker and Tiritiri Matangimarker. The Waitakere Rangesmarker Regional Park to the west of Auckland offers beautiful and relatively unspoiled bush territory, as do the Hunua Ranges to the south.

Sport

Locations


The most popular sports in Auckland are rugby union and cricket. Auckland has a considerable number of rugby union and cricket grounds, and venues for motorsports, tennis, badminton, netball, swimming, soccer, rugby league, and many other sports.

Main teams




Major events


Popular annual sporting events include:
  • The Auckland Harbour Crossing Swim swim from North Shore Citymarker to the Viaduct Basinmarker, Auckland CBD, is a yearly summer event, covering 2.8 km (often with some considerable counter-currents) and attended by over a thousand mostly amateur competitors. It is New Zealand's largest ocean swim.
  • The 'Round the Bays' fun-run, starting in the city and going 8.4 kilometres (5.2 miles) along the waterfront to the suburb of St Heliersmarker. It attracts many tens of thousands of people and has been an annual March event since 1972.
  • The Auckland Marathon (and half-marathon), an annual marathon which draws thousands of competitors.


Auckland hosted the 1950 British Empire Games and the 14th Commonwealth Games in 1990, and will host a number of matches (including the semi-final and the final) of the 2011 Rugby World Cup.

Economy



Most major international corporations have an Auckland office, as the city is the economic capital of the nation. The most expensive office space is around lower Queen Streetmarker and the Viaduct Basinmarker in the Auckland CBDmarker, where many financial and business services are located, which make up a large percentage of the CBD economy. A large proportion of the technical and trades workforce is based in the industrial zones of South Auckland.

The largest commercial and industrial areas of Greater Auckland are in the southeast of Auckland City and the western parts of Manukau City, mostly bordering the Manukau Harbourmarker and the Tamaki Rivermarker estuary.

Auckland's status as the largest commercial centre of the country reflects in the high median personal income (per working person, per year) which was NZ$44,304 (approx. US$33,000) for the region in 2005, with jobs in the Auckland CBD often earning more. The median personal income (for all persons older than 15 years of age, per year) was NZ$22,300 (2001), behind only North Shore Citymarker (also part of the Greater Auckland area) and Wellingtonmarker. While office workers still account for a large part of Auckland's commuters, large office developments in other parts of the city, for example in Takapunamarker or Albanymarker, both North Shore Citymarker, are slowly becoming more common, reducing concentration on the Auckland CBD somewhat.

Education

Auckland has a number of important educational institutions, including some of the largest universities in the country. Auckland is a major centre of overseas language education, with large numbers of foreign students (particularly East Asians) coming to the city for several months or years to learn English or study at universities - although numbers New Zealand-wide have dropped substantially since peaking in 2003. As of 2007, there are around 50 NZQA certified schools and institutes teaching English in the Auckland area.

Auckland has a multitude of primary and secondary schools. The city also has several private schools. Auckland contains New Zealand's three largest (by full-time student numbers) high schools: Rangitoto Collegemarker, Avondale Collegemarker and Massey High Schoolmarker respectively. It also contains New Zealand's largest Catholic school, St Peter's Collegemarker.

Amongst the most important tertiary educational institutes are the University of Aucklandmarker (city and Tamaki Campus), Auckland University of Technologymarker (city campus), Massey Universitymarker (Albany campus) and the Manukau Institute of Technologymarker (Otara campus), with Unitec New Zealand (Mt Albert campus) being the largest technical institute in Auckland.

Housing

Housing varies considerably between some suburbs having state owned housing in the lower income neighbourhoods, to palatial waterfront estates, especially on the Waitemata. Traditionally, the most common residence of Aucklanders was a bungalow on a 'quarter acre' (1,000 m²), however subdividing such properties with 'infill housing', has long been the norm. Aucklanders' housing preferences resulting from a lack of apartments and poor public transport has resulted in a large urban sprawl and reliance on motor vehicles. This will probably continue, as the vast majority of Aucklanders live in low-density housing, which is expected to remain at up to 70% of the total share even in 2050.

In some areas, the Victorian villas are being increasingly torn down to make way for large plaster mansions with tennis courts and swimming pools. The demolition of the older properties is being combated by the Auckland City Council passing laws that cover heritage suburbs or streets. Auckland has been described as having 'the most extensive range of timbered housing with its classical details and mouldings in the world', many of them Victorian-Edwardian style houses.

Government

Local

The metropolitan area is made up of Auckland Citymarker (excluding the Hauraki Gulf islands), North Shore Citymarker, the urban parts of Waitakeremarker and Manukaumarker cities, and Papakura Districtmarker and some urban parts of Rodney and Franklin Districts. The Auckland Regional Council is the regional council with jurisdiction for the area.

Central government have recommended the amalgamation of local government into an Auckland Council. Some Aucklanders blame limited progress on Auckland's issues on poor governance and the fragmentation of the city into various councils (currently seven "City/District" authorities, plus one "Regional" authority). Others point to the fact that a previous integration of the many much smaller Borough Councils did not bring the promised advantages either, and reduced local participation in politics. In 2007, the government set up a Royal Commission on Auckland Governance to report on what restructuring should be done. The report was released on March 27 2009 and the government subsequently announced that a "super city" would be set up to include the full metropolitan area under an Auckland Council with a single mayor and 20-30 local boards, by the time of the local body elections in 2010.

Many aspects of the proposed reorganisation were or are still controversial, such whether all of the Auckland Regionmarker should be integrated into the super city, or whether the new structure allows sufficient local democracy.

National

Between 1842 and 1865, Auckland was the capital city of New Zealand. The capital was moved to Wellingtonmarker in 1865.

Auckland, because of its large population, is currently covered by 21 general electorates and three Maori electorates. Prior to 2008, there were only 20 general electorates, with the new seat of Botany being created in 2008 due to the increase in population around Auckland.As of the 2008 election, thirteen of the seats are held by the governing National Party, eight seats (seven general, one Maori) being held by the opposing Labour Party, one seat by the ACT Party, and two seats (both Maori) by the Maori Party.

Electorate MP Party
Auckland Central Nikki Kaye National
Botany Pansy Wong National
East Coast Bays Murray McCully National
Epsom Rodney Hide ACT
Helensville John Key National
Hunua Paul Hutchison National
Mangere Su'a William Sio Labour
Manukau East Ross Robertson Labour
Manurewa George Hawkins Labour
Maungakiekie Peseta Sam Lotu-Iiga National
Mt Albert David Shearer Labour
Mt Roskill Phil Goff Labour
New Lynn David Cunliffe Labour
North Shore Wayne Mapp National
Northcote Jonathan Coleman National
Pakuranga Maurice Williamson National
Papakura Judith Collins National
Rodney Lockwood Smith National
Te Atatu Chris Carter Labour
Tāmaki Allan Peachey National
Waitakere Paula Bennett National
Hauraki-Waikato (Maori) Nanaia Mahuta Labour
Tamaki Makaurau (Maori) Pita Sharples Maori
Te Tai Tokerau (Maori) Hone Harawira Maori


Transport



Travel modes

Road and rail
Auckland is highly dependent on private vehicles as the main form of transportation, with only around 5% of all journeys in the Auckland region being undertaken by bus (1998 data), though these numbers have since improved somewhat. In 2009 Auckland still ranks quite low in this regard, having only 41 public transport trips per capita per year, while Wellington has more than twice this number at 91, and Sydney has 114 trips. This strong roading focus results in substantial traffic congestion during peak times.

Bus services in Auckland are mostly radial rather than ring-routes, due to Auckland being on an isthmus. Late-night services (i.e. past midnight) are limited, even on weekends. Trains service the west and southeast of Auckland, with longer-distance options scarce. In 2007 approximately NZ$5.3 billion worth of large-scale projects was underway or planned (and budgeted for) in the Auckland area to improve rail and public transport patronage over the next decade, 31% of the transport budget. However, policy changes in early 2009 by the incoming National government have meant a shift in emphasis to more highway construction, and have removed the provision of a regional fuel tax that was to pay for ARTA's public transport upgrades. While the government has promised to fund the rail electrification, the process and associated tenders have been postponed, and many rail station upgrades and the funding of the integrated ticketing upgrade are in doubt. The lack of future funding also forced ARTA to hand over the Auckland region's rail stations to government control.

Other modes
Auckland's portsmarker are the largest of the country, and a large part of both inbound and outbound New Zealand commerce travels through them, mostly via the facilities northeast of Auckland CBD. Freight usually arrives at or is distributed from the port via road, though the port facilities also have rail access. Auckland is a major cruise ship stopover point, with the ships usually tying up at Princes Wharfmarker. Auckland CBD is connected to coastal suburbs, to North Shore Citymarker and to outlying islands by ferry.

Auckland has various small regional airports and Auckland Airportmarker, the busiest of the country.

Policies
Research at Griffith Universitymarker has indicated that in the last 50 years, Auckland has engaged in some of the most pro-automobile transport policies anywhere in the world. With public transport declining heavily during the second half of the 20th century (a trend mirrored in most Western countries such as the US), and increased spending on roads and cars, New Zealand (and specifically Auckland) now has the second-highest vehicle ownership rate in the world, with around 578 vehicles per 1000 people. Sustainable Transport North Shore City Council website Auckland has also been called a very pedestrian- and cyclist-unfriendly city, though some efforts are being made to change this. At the same, high-profile gaps in the network, such as the inability for pedestrians and cyclists to cross the Waitemata Harbour, will probably remain for the foreseeable future, with councils generally not considering the costs involved as sensible expense.



Infrastructure

The State Highway network connects the cities in the Auckland urban area through the Northern, Southern, Northwestern and Southwestern Motorways.

The Auckland Harbour Bridgemarker (Northern Motorway) is the main connection to North Shore Citymarker, and also a major traffic bottleneck. The Harbour Bridge does not provide access for rail, pedestrians or cyclists, which has repeatedly (most recently in 2008) led to campaigns for and investigations into retrofitting the structure.

The Central Motorway Junctionmarker, also called 'Spaghetti Junction' for its complexity, is the intersection between the two major motorways of Auckland (State Highway 1 and State Highway 16).

Two of the longest arterial roads within Greater Auckland are Great North Road and Great South Road - the main connections in those directions before the construction of the State Highway network.

Auckland has three main railway lines, serving the general western, southern, and central eastern directions from the Britomart Transport Centremarker in downtown Auckland. It is the terminal station for all lines, and connects them to ferry and bus services.

Future growth

The urbanised extents of Auckland shown in grey, as of approximately 2007.


Auckland is expecting substantial population growth via immigration and natural population increases (which contribute to growth at about one-third and two-thirds, respectively), and is set to grow to an estimated 2 million inhabitants by 2050. This substantial increase in population will have a major impact on transport, housing and other infrastructure that is in many cases already considered under pressure. It is also feared by some organisations, such as the Auckland Regional Council, that urban sprawl will result from the growth and, as a result, that it is necessary to address this proactively in planning policy.

A 'Regional Growth Strategy' has been adopted that sees limits on further subdivision and intensification of existing use as its main sustainability measures. This policy is contentious, as it naturally limits the uses of private land, especially the subdivision of urban fringe properties, by setting 'Metropolitan Urban Limits' in planning documents like the District Plan.According to the 2006 Census projections, the medium-variant scenario shows that the population is projected to continue growing, to reach 1.93 million by 2031. The high-variant scenario shows the region's population growing to over two million by 2031.

Famous sites

Tourist attractions and landmarks in the Auckland metropolitan area include:

Attractions and buildings


Landmarks
  • Auckland Domainmarker - one of the largest parks of the city, close to the CBDmarker and having a good view of the harbour and of Rangitotomarker Island.
  • Mount Edenmarker - a volcanic cone with a grassy crater. As the highest natural point in Auckland City, it offers 360-degree views of Auckland and is thus a favorite tourist outlook.
  • Mount Victoriamarker - a volcanic cone in North Shore Citymarker offering a spectacular view of Auckland. A brisk walk from the Devonport ferry terminal, the cone is steeped in history, as is nearby North Headmarker.
  • One Tree Hillmarker (Maungakiekie) - a volcanic cone that dominates the skyline in the southern, inner suburbs. It no longer has a tree on the summit (after a politically motivated attack on the old tree) but is still crowned by an obelisk.
  • Rangitoto Islandmarker - guards the entrance to Waitemata Harbourmarker, and forms a prominent feature on the eastern horizon.
  • Waiheke Islandmarker - the second largest island in the Hauraki Gulfmarker and is well known for its beaches, forests, vineyards and olive groves.


See also



References

  1. Auckland and around (from the Rough Guide website)
  2. http://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/world2008t.html | "The World According to GaWC 2008"
  3. George Weller’s Claim to lands in the Hauraki Gulf - transcript of original in National Archives, ms-0439/03 (A-H) HC.
  4. What's Doing In; Auckland - The New York Times, 25 November 1990
  5. Ian E.M. Smith and Sharon R. Allen, Volcanic Hazards: Auckland Volcanic Field, Volcanic Hazards Working Group, Civil Defence Scientific Advisory Committee. Accessed 13 April 2009.
  6. Residence in New Zealand (PDF) (Page 8, from the Immigration New Zealand website. Accessed 2008-01-18.)
  7. 2001 Regional Summary (from the Statistics New Zealand website)
  8. Pope Shenouda III visits New Zealand (from Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Accessed 2008-05-25.)
  9. Central Transit Corridor Project (Auckland City website, includes mention of effects of transport on public satisfaction)
  10. City Mayors: Best cities in the world (Mercer)
  11. City Mayors: World's richest cities (UBS via www.citymajors.com website, August 2006)
  12. Punters love City of Sails - The New Zealand Herald, Saturday 14 October 2006
  13. Passion for boating runs deep in Auckland - The New Zealand Herald, Thursday January 26, 2006
  14. Harbour Crossing (from the Auckland City Council website. Retrieved 2007-10-24.)
  15. Auckland's CBD at a glance (CBD website of the Auckland City Council)
  16. Auckland Regional Profile (from labourmarket.co.nz, composed from various sources)
  17. Comparison of New Zealand's cities (from ENZ emigration consulting)
  18. Survey of English Language Providers - Year ended March 2006 (from Statistics New Zealand. Auckland is assumed to follow national pattern)
  19. English Language Schools in New Zealand - Auckland (list linked from the Immigration New Zealand website)
  20. Section 7.6.1.2 - Strategy (PDF) (from the Auckland City Council District Plan - Isthmus Section)
  21. Lessons from the history of local body amalgamation - The New Zealand Herald, Wednesday 6 September 2006
  22. Auckland governance inquiry welcomed - NZPA, via 'stuff.co.nz', Tuesday 31 July 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-29.
  23. Royal Commission of inquiry for Auckland welcomed - NZPA, via 'infonews.co.nz', Tuesday 31 July 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-29
  24. Minister Releases Report Of Royal Commission - Scoop.co.nz, Friday 27 March 2009
  25. Govt papers reveal another Rodney plan - The New Zealand Herald, Monday 28 September 2009
  26. Draft raises fears for democracy - The New Zealand Herald, Wednesday 04 November 2009
  27. Mode of Transport, Figure for New Zealand Regions (from the Travel Survey Highlights 1997-98, New Zealand Ministry of Transport)
  28. Auckland's Transport Challenges (from the Draft 2009/10-2011/12 Auckland Regional Land Transport Programme, Page 8, ARTA, March 2009. Accessed 2009-04-10.
  29. Welcome to our traffic nightmare - The New Zealand Herald, Sunday 29 July 2007
  30. References provided in Transport in Auckland and Public transport in Auckland
  31. Auckland Transport Plan landmark for transport sector (from the Auckland Regional Transport Authority website, 11 August 2007)
  32. Hopes of electric trains for cup fade - The New Zealand Herald, Wednesday 18 March 2009
  33. Council to give up its rail stations - The New Zealand Herald, Saturday 21 March 2009
  34. The $2b road ahead - The Dominion Post, unknown date. Accessed 2009-04-06.
  35. Rail 'trench' worries New Lynn - The New Zealand Herald, Friday 20 March 2009
  36. 2006.pdf Backtracking Auckland: Bureaucratic rationality and public preferences in transport planning - Mees, Paul; Dodson, Jago; Urban Research Program Issues Paper 5, Griffith University, April 2006
  37. US Urban Personal Vehicle & Public Transport Market Share from 1900 (from publicpurpose.com, a website of the Wendell Cox Consultancy)
  38. Big steps to change City of Cars - The New Zealand Herald, Friday October 24, 2008
  39. Cycleway for bridge could prove too pricey - The New Zealand Herald, Wednesday 3 September 2008
  40. Can We Stop growth? (from the ARC website)
  41. Executive Summary (PDF) (from the Auckland Regional Growth Strategy document, ARC, November 1999. Retrieved 2007-10-14.)
  42. From Urban Sprawl to Compact City: an analysis of Auckland's Urban Growth Management Strategies - Arbury, Joshua - MA Thesis, University of Auckland
  43. Green belt under siege - The New Zealand Herald, Saturday 28 April 2007
  44. Growth Strategy: Glossary and References (PDF) (from the Auckland City Council)
  45. http://www.stats.govt.nz/Publications/PopulationStatistics/mapping-trends-in-the-auckland-region/population-change.aspx
  46. http://www.rugbyworldcup.com/destinationnewzealand/news/newsid=2026277.html



Further reading



External links

  • Auckland - Visitor-oriented official website
  • Auckland in Te Ara the Encyclopedia of New Zealand





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