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Augsburg is a city in the south-west of Bavariamarker in Germanymarker. It is a College town and home of the Regierungsbezirk Schwabenmarker and the Bezirk Schwabenmarker. Augsburg is an urban district and home to the institutions of the Landkreis Augsburgmarker. It is, as of 2008, the third-largest city in Bavaria with a population exceeding 264,000 citizens. After Triermarker, Augsburg is Germany's second oldest city.
Augsburg is the only German city with its own legal holiday, the Peace of Augsburg, celebrated on August 8 of every year. This gives Augsburg more legal holidays than any other region or city in Germany.

History

The city was founded in 15 BC by Drusus and Tiberius as Augusta Vindelicorum, under the orders of their stepfather Emperor Augustus. This garrison camp soon became capital of the Roman province of Raetia.


Early development was due to a 400-year affiliation with the Roman Empire, especially because of its excellent military, economic and geographic position at the convergence of the Alpine rivers Lechmarker and Wertachmarker, and with direct access to most important Alpine passes. Thus, Augsburg was the intersection of many important European east-west and north-south connections, which later evolved as major trade routes of the Middle Ages.
Around 120 AD Augsburg became the capital of the Roman province Raetia. Augsburg was sacked by the Huns in the 5th century AD, by Charlemagne in the 8th century, and by Welf of Bavaria in the 11th century, but arose each time to greater prosperity.

Augsburg Confession

Augsburg was decreed an Imperial Free City on March 9, 1276. Augsburg also held its own bishop at this time. With a strategic location as intersection of trade routes to Italymarker, it became a major trading centre. Augsburg produced large quantities of woven goods, cloth and textiles. Augsburg became the base for the Fugger banking empire, who donated the Fuggereimarker part of the city devoted to housing for needy citizens in 1516 and remains in use today.
In 1530, the Augsburg Confession was presented to the Holy Roman Emperor at the Diet of Augsburg. Following the Peace of Augsburg in 1555, after which the rights of religious minorities in imperial cities were to be legally protected, a mixed Catholic–Protestant city council presided over a majority Protestant population; see Paritätische Reichsstadt.

Thirty Years' War

Religious peace in the city was largely maintained despite increasing Confessional tensions until the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648). In 1629, Ferdinand II issued the Edict of Restitution, which restored the legal situation of 1552 which again curtailed the rights of the Protestant citizens. The inequality of the Edict of Restitution was rescinded when in April 1632, the Swedish army under Gustavus Adolphus captured Augsburg without resistance.
In 1631, the Swedish army was routed at nearby Nördlingenmarker. By October 1634, Catholic troops had surrounded Augsburg. The Swedish garrison refused to surrender and a siege ensued through the winter of 1634/35 and thousands died from hunger and disease. This ruinous siege, followed by the discovery and available travel to the America and a new route to Indiamarker via the Capemarker, resulted in a rapid decline in Augsburg's prosperity.


Nine Years' War

In 1686, Emperor Leopold I, formed the League of Augsburg, termed by the English as the "Grand Alliance" after England joined in 1689: a European coalition, consisting (at various times) of Austriamarker, Bavariamarker, Brandenburgmarker, Englandmarker, the Holy Roman Empire, the Palatinate of the Rhine, Portugalmarker, Savoy, Saxonymarker, Spainmarker, Swedenmarker, and the United Provinces. It was formed to defend the Palatinate from Francemarker. This organization fought the War of the Grand Alliance against Francemarker in the Nine Years War.
Augsburg's peak boom years occurred during the 15th and 16th centuries via the bank and metal businesses of the merchant families Fugger and Welser, who held a local near total monopoly on their respective industries. Augsburg's wealth attracted artists seeking patrons and rapidly became a creative center for famous painters, sculptors and musicians notably birthplace of : the Holbein painter family, the composer Leopold Mozart and the playwright Berthold Brecht. Rococo became so prevalent that it became known as “Augsburg style” throughout Germany.

Industrial Revolution Revival

In 1806, when the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved, Augsburg lost its independence to become part of the Kingdom of Bavaria. In 1817 Augsburg became an administrative capital of the Oberdonaukreis, then administrative capital in 1837 for the district Swabia and Neuburgmarker.
During the end of the 18th century, Augsburg's textile industry again rose to prominence followed by the attached machine manufacturing industry.

Military

Augsburg was historically a militarily important city due to strategic locale.During the German re-armament prior to World War Two, the Wehrmacht enlarged Augsburg's one original Kaserne (barracks) to three: Somme Kaserne ((housing Wehrmacht Artillerie-Regiment 27)); Arras Kaserne ((housing Wehrmacht Infanterie Regiment 27)) and Panzerjäger Kaserne (housing Panzerabwehr-Abteilung 27 (later Panzerjäger-Abteilung 27). Wehrmacht Panzerjäger-Abteilung 27 was later moved to Füssen.Reichswehr Infanterie Regiment 19 were located in Augsburg.

Reichswehr Infanterie Regiment 19 became the base unit for the Wehrmacht Infanterie Regiment 40, a subset of the Wehrmacht Infanterie Division 27 (ehich later became Wehrmacht Panzerdivision 17). Elements of Wehrmacht II Battalion of Gebirgs-Jäger-Regiment 99 (especially Wehrmacht Panzerjäger Kompanie 14) was composed of parts of the Wehrmacht Infanterie Division 27.Infanterie Regiment 40 remained in Augsburg until the end of the war surrendering to the United Statesmarker.

The three Kaserne changed hands confusingly between the Soviet Red Army, Americanmarker and Germans, finally ending in US hands for the duration of the Cold War.

During World War II, one subcamp of the Dachau concentration campmarker was located outside Augsburg, supplying approximately 1300 forced labourers to local military-related industry, most especially Messerschmidt.
In 1941 Rudolf Hess without Hitler's permission secretly took off from a local airport and flew to Scotlandmarker to meet the Duke of Hamilton, and crashed in Eagleshammarker in an attempt to mediate the end of the European front of World War II and join sides for the upcoming Russian Campaign.
In 1945, the U.S. Army occupied the heavily damaged city. An American military presence in the city started with the 11th Airborne Division, followed by the 24th Infantry Division, US Army Seventh Corps Artillery, and finally the 66th Military Intelligence Brigade, which returned the former Kaserne to German hands in 1998. Originally the Heeresverpflegungshauptamt Südbayern and a Officers' caisson existed on or near the location of Reese-Kaserne, but was demolished by the occupying Americans. The former Wehrmacht Kaserne became the three main US barracks in Augsburg: Reese;, Sheridan and FLAK. US Base FLAK was an anti-aircraft barracks since 1936 and US Base Sheridan "united" the former infantry barracks with a smaller Kaserne for former Luftwaffe communications units.

Politics

Municipality

From 1266 until 1548, the terms Stadtpfleger (head of town council) and Mayor were used interchangeably, or occasionally, simultaneously.In 1548 the title was finally fixed to Stadtpfleger, whom officiated for several years and then awarded the title for life (though no longer governing), thus resulting confusingly, in records of two or more simultaneous Stadtpfleger.
After the transfer to Bavariamarker in 1806, Augsburg was ruled by a Magistrate with two mayors, supported by an additional council of "Community Commissioners": the Gemeindebevollmächtige.
As of 1907, the Mayor was entitled Oberbürgermeister, as Augsburg had attained a population of 100,000, as per the Bavarian Gemeindeordnung.

Town Council

Election results of the Town Council since 1972 in percent
Year CSU SPD FDP Grüne ödp DKP/PDS REP NPD other
1972 44,9 46,5 2,3 0,7 0,9 4,7
1978 46,8 44,5 2,7 0,4 0,6 4,9
1984 32,9 44,9 1,3 4,2 0,2 0,7 15,8
1990 43,1 28,4 2,5 10,8 10,0 5,2
1996 44,1 29,4 1,7 10,5 2,8 11,5
2002 43,5 36,4 3,5 8,7 1,8 1,2 4,9
2008 40,1 30,1 2,7 10,3 1,5 3,5 11,8
Seats 20081 25 19 1 6 22 73
1 Local elections on March 2, 2008     22008: Die Linke     3 Pro Augsburg: 6, Freie Wähler: 1

Members of the Bundestag

Augsburg is located in the Wahlkreis 253 Augsburg-Stadt constituency, which includes Königsbrunnmarker and the District of Augsburg (Landkreis Augsburgmarker).

Christian Ruck of the CSU was directly elected to the Bundestagmarker with 49.2% of the vote in the 16th German Bundestag.

Indirectly elected to the Bundestag to adhere to the Landesliste were Miriam Gruß for the FDP, Heinz Paula for the SPD and Claudia Roth for Bündnis 90/Die Grünen.

Main sights

Fünfgratturm tower.
Ring of Mercy on the Dom (Cathedral) St. Maria.




Incorporations

Year Municipality Area
July 1, 1910 Meringerau 9.5 km²
January 1, 1911 Pfersee 3.5 km²
January 1, 1911 Oberhausenmarker 8.6 km²
January 1, 1913 Lechhausen 27.9 km²
January 1, 1913 Hochzollmarker 4.4 km²
April 1, 1916 Kriegshaber 59 km²
July 1, 1972 Göggingenmarker
July 1, 1972 Haunstettenmarker
July 1, 1972 Inningenmarker


Historical population development

Year Population
1635 16,432
1645 19,960
1806 26,200
1830 29,019
December 1, 1871 ¹ 51,220
December 1, 1890 ¹ 75,629
December 1, 1900 ¹ 89,109
December 1, 1910 ¹ 102,487
June 16, 1925 ¹ 165,522
June 16, 1933 ¹ 176,575
May 17, 1939 ¹ 185,369
September 13, 1950 ¹ 185,183
June 6, 1961 ¹ 208,659
May 27, 1970 ¹ 211,566
June 30, 1975 252,000
June 30, 1980 246,600
June 30, 1985 244,200
May 27, 1987 ¹ 242,819
June 30, 1997 257,300
December 31, 2002 259,231
December 31, 2003 259,217
December 31, 2004 260,407
December 31, 2005 263,804
December 31, 2006 269,449


¹ Census result

Partner cities



Information on the partner cities can also be found at www.augsburg.de

Commerce and infrastructure

Transport

The main road link is autobahn A 8marker between Munichmarker and Stuttgartmarker.

Public transport

Public transport is very well catered for. It is controlled by the Augsburger Verkehrsverbund (Augsburg transport union, AVV) extended over central Swabia. There are seven rail Regionalbahn lines, four tram lines, 27 city bus lines and six night bus lines, as well as, several taxi companies.

The tram network is now 35.5 km-long after the opening of new lines to the universitymarker in 1996, the northern city boundary in 2001 and to the Klinikum Augsburg (Augsburg hospital) in 2002. Two more tram lines are under construction, planned to be completed in 2011.

Rail services

The front of the station
Augsburg has seven stations. The Hauptbahnhofmarker (main station) built from 1843 to 1846 is Germany’s oldest main station in a large city still providing services in the original building. It is currently being modernized and an underground tram station is built underneath it. Hauptbahnhofmarker is on the Ulm–München line and is connected by ICE and IC services to Munichmarker, Berlinmarker, Dortmundmarker, Frankfurtmarker, Hamburgmarker and Stuttgartmarker. As of December 2007, the French TGV connected Augsburg with a direct High Speed Connection to Parismarker. In addition EC and night train services connect to Amsterdammarker, Parismarker and Viennamarker and connections will be substantially improved by the creation of the planned Magistrale for Europe.

The AVV operates seven Regionalbahn lines from the main station to: Starting in 2008, the regional services are planned to be altered to S-Bahn frequencies and developed long term as integrated into the Augsburg S-Bahn.

Economy

Augsburg is a vibrant industrial city. Many global market leaders namely MAN, EADS or KUKAmarker produce high technology products like printing systems, large diesel engines, industrial robots or components for the Airbus A380 and the Ariane carrier rocket. After Munich, Augsburg is considered the high-tech centre for Information and Communication in Bavaria and takes advantage of its lower operating costs, yet close proximity to Munichmarker and potential customers.

Major Companies



Education

Augsburg is home to the following universities and colleges:



Media

The local newspaper is the Augsburger Allgemeine first published in 1807.

Notable citizens

Holbein's house


Miscellaneous

The patron saints of Augsburg are Saint Ulrich and Saint Afra. Saint Afra was killed (either beheaded or burned at the stake, accounts differ) by the Romans at Augsburg in 304. An earlier patroness was Zisa, referenced in the 11th century, feast day September 28), possibly an early Germanic goddess and originally the consort of Tyr.

A key family tourist attraction is the large annual children's party and festivities of 29 September (Michaelmas or St. Michael's Day) held at the Turamichelemarker, where (Archangel Michael) appears in a window on the west side of the city tower (Perlachturmmarker) and fights with the devil.

Augsburg's Lech Rivermarker White Water Canoeing hosted the 1972 Summer Olympics events and are now open to the public.

Augsburg holds year-long German Mozart Festival concerts and hosts the International Leopold Mozart Violin Competition.

Sports


The city is home to a DEL (first-division) ice hockey team, the Augsburger Panther. The original club, AEV, was formed in 1878, the oldest German ice sport club and regularly draws around 4000 spectators, quite reasonable for German ice hockey. Home games are played at the Curt Frenzel Stadionmarker: not truly an indoor rink as the sides are open, though a new stadium is in the process of planning.
For the 1972 Olympic Games in Munichmarker, a Lech Rivermarker dam protective diversionary canal for river ice was converted into the world's first artificial whitewater slalom course: the Eiskanalmarker and remains a world-class venue for whitewater competition and served as prototype for two dozen similar foreign courses.
The FC Augsburg is a 2nd Bundesliga football team based in Augsburg and plays in the Impuls Arenamarker. The new stadium (opened in July 2009) also hosts games of the 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup.

Local City Nicknames

While commonly coined Fuggerstadt (Fuggers' city) due to the Fuggers residing there, within Swabia it's also often referred to as Datschiburg: which originated sometime in the 19th century refers to Augsburgs favorite sweet: the Datschi made from fruit, preferably prunes, and thin cake dough..The Datschiburger Kickers charity football team founded in 1965 keenly this as its name.

See also



Notes

  1. http://www2.augsburg.de/
  2. http://www2.augsburg.de/index.php?id=12356
  3. Wolfgang Sofsky, William Templer, The Order of Terror: The Concentration Camp: Princeton University Press: 1999, ISBN 0691006857: 352 pages: pp 183
  4. Edward Victor. Alphabetical List of Camps, Subcamps and Other Camps. http://www.edwardvictor.com/Holocaust/List%20of%20camps.htm
  5. http://www.uni-augsburg.de
  6. Augsburger Stadtlexikon - Datschiburg accessed: 18 November 2008
  7. Datschiburger Kickers website accessed: 18 November 2008
  8. Augsburger Stadtlexikon - Datschiburger Kickers accessed: 18 November 2008


References

  • Die Chroniken der schwäbischen Städte, Augsburg, (Leipzig, 1865–1896).
  • Werner, Geschichte der Stadt Augsburg, (Augsburg, 1900).
  • Lewis, "The Roman Antiquities of Augsburg and Ratisbon", in volume xlviii, Archæological Journal, (London, 1891).


External links




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