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Ayurveda (Devanāgarī: आयुर्वेद, the 'science of life') is a system of traditional medicine native to the Indian Subcontinent and practiced in other parts of the world as a form of alternative medicine. In Sanskrit, the word Ayurveda consists of the words , meaning 'life', and , meaning 'related to knowledge' or 'science'. Evolving throughout its history, Ayurveda remains an influential system of medicine in South Asia. The earliest literature of Ayurveda appeared during the Vedic period in India. The Sushruta Samhita and the Charaka Samhita were influential works on traditional medicine during this era. Ayurvedic practitioners also identified a number of medicinal preparations and surgical procedures for curing various ailments and diseases.

As per Indian heritage and science, "Ayurveda" is an Upaveda or annexure to the four main vedas (knowledge systems). The famous treaties of Ayurveda are Charaka Samhita by Sage Charaka, which details the prevention and treatment of disease, and Sushruta Samhita of Sage Sushruta, which deals with Ayurvedic surgical procedures. In the Ayurvedic system, the prevention of all types of disease has a prominent place in treatment, including restructuring a patient's lifestyle to align with the course of nature and the four seasons to guarantee complete wellness.

Ayurveda is considered to be a form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) within the western world, where several of its methods, such as the use of herbs, massage, and Yoga as exercise or alternative medicine, are applied on their own as a form of CAM treatment. However, such alternative therapy approaches are not unique to Ayurveda because they are also available under the systems of Unani medicine, Greek medicine and Islamic medicine.

Overview



Ayurveda is grounded in a metaphysics of the 'five [great] Elements' (Devanāgarī: [महा] पञ्चभूत; earth, water, fire, air and ether)—all of which compose the Universe, including the human body. Chyle (called Rasa dhatu), blood (called Rakta dhatu), flesh (called Mamsa dhatu), fat (called Medha dhatu), bone (called Asthi dhatu), marrow (called Majja dhatu), and semen or female reproductive tissue (called Shukra dhatu)are held to be the seven primary constituent elements (Devanāgarī: सप्तधातु) of the body. Ayurveda stresses a balance of three Humors or Energies: vata (wind/air), pitta (bile) and kapha (phlegm). According to Ayurveda, these three regulatory principles—Doshas (Devanāgarī: त्रिदोष)—are important for health, because when they are in balanced state, the body is healthy, and when imbalanced, the body has diseases. Ayurveda hold that humans possess a unique combination of Doshas. In Ayurveda, the human body perceives attributes of experiences as 20 Guna (Devanāgarī: गुण, meaning qualities). Surgery and surgical instruments are employed. It is believed that building a healthy metabolic system, attaining good digestion, and proper excretion leads to vitality. Ayurveda also focuses on exercise, yoga, meditation, and massage.MSN Encarta (2008). Ayurveda. Archived 2009-10-31. Thus, body, mind, and spirit/consciousness need to be addressed both individually and in unison for health to ensue.

The practice of Panchakarma (Devanāgarī: पंचकर्म‌) is believed to eliminate toxic elements from the body.Eight disciplines of Ayurveda treatment, called Ashtangas (Devanāgarī: अष्टांग), are given below:

Practices



Buddhism may have been an influence on the development of many of Ayurveda's central ideas — particularly its fascination with balance, known in Buddhism as Madhyamika (Devanāgarī: माध्यमिक). Balance is emphasized; suppressing natural urges is seen to be unhealthy, and doing so may almost certainly lead to illness. To stay within the limits of reasonable balance and measure is stressed upon. Ayurveda places an emphasis on moderation in food intake, sleep, sexual intercourse, and the intake of medicine.

Ayurveda incorporates an entire system of dietary recommendations. Chopra (2003)—on the subject of Ayurveda dietetics—writes:

For diagnosis the patient is to be questioned and all five senses are to be employed. The Charaka Samhita recommends a tenfold examination of the patient. The qualities to be judged are: constitution, abnormality, essence, stability, body measurements, diet suitability, psychic strength, digestive capacity, physical fitness and age. Hearing is used to observe the condition of breathing and speech. The study of the vital pressure points or marma is of special importance.

Chopra (2003) identifies five influential criteria for diagnosis: 'origin of the disease, prodrominal (precursory) symptoms, typical symptoms of the fully developed disease, observing the effect of therapeutic procedures, and the pathological process.'

Hygiene—also a component of religious virtue to many Indians—is a strong belief. Hygienic living involves regular bathing, cleansing of teeth, skin care, and eye washing. Occasional anointing of the body with oil is also prescribed.



Ayurveda stresses the use of vegetable drugs. Fats are used both for consumption and for external use. Hundreds of vegetable drugs are employed, including cardamom and cinnamon. Some animal products may also be used, for example milk, bones, and gallstones etc. Minerals—including sulfur, arsenic, lead, copper sulfate, gold—are also consumed as prescribed.. This practice of adding minerals to herbal medicine is known as Rasa Shastra.

In some cases alcohol is used as a narcotic for the patient undergoing an operation. The advent of Islam introduced opium as a narcotic. Both oil and tar are used to stop bleeding. Oils may be used in a number of ways including regular consumption as a part of food, anointing, smearing, head massage, and prescribed application to infected areas.

The proper function of channels—tubes that exist within the body and transport fluids from one point to another—is seen as vital, and the lack of healthy channels may lead to disease and insanity.Wujastyk, pages XIX-XX Sushruta identifies that blockages of these channels may lead to rheumatism, epilepsy, paralysis, and convulsions as fluids and channels are diverted from their ideal locations. Sweating is favored as a manner in which to open up the channels and dilute the Doshas causing the blockages and harming a patient—a number of ways to take steam bathing and other steam related cures are recommended so that these toxins are released.

History



Ayurveda traces its origins to the Vedas—the Atharvaveda in particular—and is connected to Hindu religion.Indian medicine has a long history. Its earliest concepts are set out in the sacred writings called the Vedas, especially in the metrical passages of the Atharvaveda, which may possibly date as far back as the 2nd millennium BC. According to a later writer, the system of medicine called Āyurveda was received by a certain Dhanvantari from Brahma, and Dhanvantari was deified as the god of medicine. In later times his status was gradually reduced, until he was credited with having been an earthly king who died of snakebite. — Underwood & Rhodes (2008) The Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta appeared during the 1st millennium BC. Dwivedi & Dwivedi (2007)— on the work of the surgeon Sushruta—write:Dwivedi & Dwivedi (2007)

Underwood & Rhodes (2008) hold that this early phase of traditional Indian medicine identified 'fever (takman), cough, consumption, diarrhea, dropsy, abscesses, seizures, tumours, and skin diseases (including leprosy).' Treatment of complex ailments—including angina pectoris, diabetes, hypertension, and stones—also ensued during this period. Plastic surgery, cataract surgery, puncturing to release fluids in the abdomen, extraction of foreign elements, treatment of anal fistulas, treating fractures, amputations, cesarean sections, and stitching of wounds were known. The use of herbs and surgical instruments became widespread.Underwood & Rhodes (2008) The Charaka Samhita text is arguably the principal classic reference. It gives emphasis to the triune nature of each person: body care, mental regulation, and spirtual/consciousness refinement.



Other early works of Ayurveda include the Charaka Samhita, attributed to Charaka. The earliest surviving excavated written material which contains the works of Sushruta is the Bower Manuscript—dated to the 4th century AD. The Bower manuscript cites directly from Sushruta, and is of special interest to historians due to the presence of Indian medicine and its concepts in Central Asia. Vagbhata—the son of a senior doctor by the name of Simhagupta— also compiled his works on traditional medicine. Early Ayurveda had a school of physicians and a school of surgeons. Tradition holds that the text Agnivesh tantra—written by the legendary sage Agnivesh, a student of the mythological sage Bharadwaja—influenced the writings of Ayurveda.

The Chinese pilgrim Fa Hsien (ca. 337 - 422 AD) wrote about the health care system of the Gupta empire (320 - 550 AD) and—in the process—described the institutional approach of Indian medicine which is also visible in the works of Charaka, who mentions a clinic and how it should be equipped.Wujastyk, pages XV-XVI Madhava (700 AD), Sarngadhara (1300 AD), and Bhavamisra (1500 AD) compiled works on Indian medicine. The medical works of both Sushruta and Charaka were translated into the Arabic language during the Abbasid Caliphate (750 AD). These Arabic works made their way into Europe via intermediaries. In Italymarker the Branca family of Sicily and Gaspare Tagliacozzi (Bolognamarker) became familiar with the techniques of Sushruta.

Britishmarker physicians traveled to India to see Rhinoplasty being performed by native methods. Reports on Indian Rhinoplasty were published in the Gentleman's Magazine by 1794. Joseph Constantine Carpue spent 20 years in India studying local plastic surgery methods. Carpue was able to perform the first major surgery in the western world by 1815. Instruments described in the Sushruta Samhita were further modified in the Western World.

Current status

Within India

In 1970, the Indian Medical Central Council Act was passed by the Parliament of India, which aims to standardize qualifications for Ayurveda and provide accredited institutions for its study and research. In India, over 100 colleges offer degrees in traditional Ayurvedic medicine. The Indian government supports research and teaching in Ayurveda through many channels—both at the national and state levels—and helps institutionalize traditional medicine so that it can be studied in major towns and cities. The state-sponsored Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (CCRAS) is the apex institution for promotion of traditional medicine in India. The studies conducted by this institution encompass clinical, drug, literary, and family welfare research.

Many clinics are run by professionals who qualify from these institutes—both in the urban and the rural areas. Mukherjee & Wahile cite World Health Organization statistics to demonstrate the popularity of traditional medicine, on which a significant number of the world's population depends for primary health care. In Sri Lankamarker the number of traditional Ayurveda practitioners is greater than trained modern medicine professionals. The manufacture and marketing of Ayurvedic medicine has been commercially successful for several pharmaceutical companies. Old manufacturing companies such as Arya Vaidya Sala, Arya Vaidya Pharmacy, IMIS Pharmaceuticals, Dabur, Baidyanath have maintained the classical range, while also patenting certain own formulations, such as Gyncocalm, Jeevani, Eosinophal, Dabur Pancharishta. Similarly, MNCs like Hindustan Unilever Limited, in collaboration with Arya Vaidya Pharmacy, has been promoting its chain of Ayurvedic Massage Therapy Centres in the Brand name of [Ayush Therapy Centre],with two of the major centers located at Kalyanmarker and Vashimarker.

Outside India

Academic institutions related to traditional medicine in India have contributed to Ayurveda's international visibility. Kurup (2003) comments on the role of Gujarat Ayurved University:

Ayurveda gained recognition in the Western world as medical scholars, notably , Frank John Ninivaggi MD of Yale University School of Medicine, researched and outlined its various postulates in one major textbook form suitable to Western academic science. In the United States of Americamarker, the NIH NCCAM expends some of its $123 million budget on Ayurvedic medicine research. In addition, the National Institute of Ayurvedic Medicine, established by Dr. Scott Gerson, is an example of a research institute that has carried out research into Ayurvedic practices. Gerson has published part of his work on the antifungal activities of certain Ayurvedic plants in academic journals. The postulates and history of Ayurveda have also been outlined by foreign scholars—such as Dominik Wujastyk in the United Kingdommarker. Questionable practices in research involving financial gains have resulted in the questioning of some of the research and cases such as the Maharishi Vedic Approach to Health have involved litigations.

Journals

A variety of peer reviewed journals focus on the topic of ayurvedic medicine, including the Theoretical and Experimental Journal of Ayurveda and Siddha (TEJAS; published between 1981 and 2008 as Ancient Science of Life) the Journal of Research & Education in Indian Medicine (JREIM), AYU (published quarterly) and The International Journal for Ayurveda Research (published quarterly) None of the journals are PubMed indexed.

Patents

In December 1993, the University of Mississippimarker Medical Center had a patent issued to them by United States Patent and Trademark Office on the use of turmeric for healing. The patent was contested by India's industrial research organization, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research , on the grounds that traditional Ayurvedic practitioners were already aware of the healing properties of the substance and have been for centuries, making this patent a case of bio-piracy. The Government of India had become involved in promoting traditional medicine by 1997. Sharma & Bodeker report on the various government activities in relation with Ayurveda:Sharma & Bodeker in Encyclopedia Britannica 2008

Scientific evidence



As a traditional medicine, many Ayurveda products have not been tested in rigorous scientific studies and clinical trials. In India, research in Ayurveda is largely undertaken by the statutory body of the Central Government, the Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (CCRAS), through a national network of research institutes. A systematic review of Ayurveda treatments for rheumatoid arthritis concluded that there was insufficient evidence, as most of the trials were not done properly, and the one high-quality trial showed no benefits. A review of Ayurveda and cardiovascular disease concluded that while the herbal evidence is not yet convincing, the spices are appropriate, some herbs are promising, and yoga is also a promising complementary treatment.

Some ayurvedic products, mainly herbs used for phytotherapy, have been tested with promising results. Turmeric and its derivative curcumin appears to have beneficial properties. Tinspora cordifolia has been tested. Among the medhya rasayanas (intellect rejuvenation), two varieties of Salvia have been tested in small trials; one trial provided evidence that Salvia lavandulifolia (Spanish sage) may improve word recall in young adults, and another provided evidence that Salvia officinalis (Common sage) may improve symptoms in Alzheimer's patients. In some cases Ayurvedic medicine may provide clues to therapeutic compounds. For example, derivatives of snake venom have various therapeutic properties. Many plants used as rasayana (rejuvenation) medications are potent antioxidants. Neem appears to have beneficial pharmacological properties as well.



Mitra & Rangesh (2003) hold that cardamom and cinnamon are believed to stimulate digestive enzymes that break down polymeric macromolecules in the human body. Research suggests that Terminalia arjuna is useful in alleviating the pain of angina pectoris and in treating heart failure and coronary artery disease. Terminalia arjuna may also be useful in treating hypercholesterolemia. Azadirachta indica is believed to have immunopotentiating abilities and is used often as an anti-infective. It has been found to enhance the production of IL-2 and increase immunity in human volunteers by boosting lymphocyte and T-cell count in three weeks. Both black pepper and long pepper find application in Ayurvedic medicine in conjunction with ginger to form trikatu—a traditional mixture. Trikatu has been suggested to increase appetite, promote the secretion of digestive juices, and cure certain gastric disorder—particularly achlorhydria and hypochlorhydria.

Scientist Richard Dawkins has criticized the use of Ayurveda in the west, claiming that while westerners are turning to Ayurveda, Indians are "voting with their feet" and turning to modern medicine. Furthermore, he says that “The idea that ancient equals years of accumulated wisdom is a fallacy… Resuscitating Ayurveda today is rather like bringing back bleeding with leeches.”

Safety

Major safety concerns include adulteration of herbal medicines with toxic metals, and intrinsic toxicity of herbal medications. Some traditional Ayurvedic treatments use toxic metals, herbs, and minerals as part of their remedies. Rasa Shastra, the practice of adding metals, minerals or gems to herbs, increases the likelihood of toxic metals such as lead, mercury, or arsenic in the remedy.

A 2004 study found toxic heavy metals such as lead, mercury and arsenic in 20% of Ayurvedic preparations that were made in South Asia for sale around Boston and extrapolated the data to America. It concluded that excess consumption of these products could cause health risks. A 2008 study found that approximately 20% of remedies (and 40% of rasa shastra medicines) purchased over the internet from both US and Indian suppliers were contaminated with lead, mercury or arsenic. More than 230 products were included in the study.

Traditionally the toxicity of these materials are believed to be reduced through processes such as samskaras or shodhanas (for metals), which is similar to the Chinese pao zhi, although the Ayurvedic technique is more complex and may involve prayers as well as physical pharmacy techniques.Alan Keith Tillotson (2001) in The One Earth Herbal Sourcebook: Everything You Need to Know About Chinese, Western, and Ayurvedic Herbal Treatments
Crude aconite is an extremely lethal substance. However, the science of Ayurveda looks upon aconite as a therapeutic entity. Crude aconite is always processed i.e. it undergoes 'samskaras' before being utilised in the Ayurvedic formulations. This study was undertaken in mice, to ascertain whether 'processed' aconite is less toxic as compared to the crude or unprocessed one. It was seen that crude aconite was significantly toxic to mice (100% mortality at a dose of 2.6 mg/mouse) whereas the fully processed aconite was absolutely non-toxic (no mortality at a dose even 8 times as high as that of crude aconite). Further, all the steps in the processing were essential for complete detoxification. -
Rigorous evidence that the metals may be rendered nontoxic is not available, and case reports describe adverse effects to these metals.

There is evidence that using some Ayurvedic medicines, especially those involving herbs, metals, minerals, or other materials involves potentially serious risks, including toxicity. Adverse reactions to herbs due their pharmacology are described in traditional Ayurveda texts, but Ayurvedic practitioners are reluctant to admit that herbs could be toxic and the reliable information on herbal toxicity is not easily available.

Following concerns about metal toxicity, the Government of India ruled that Ayurvedic products must specify their metallic content directly on the labels of the product. The harmful effects of the samples is attributed in part to the adulterated raw material and lack of workers trained in traditional medicine. In a letter to the Indian Academy of Sciences, director of the Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Pune Patwardhan Bhushan stated that the metal adulteration is due to contamination and carelessness during the much faster modern manufacturing processes, and does not occur with traditional methods of preparation.Bhushan etc. in Heavy metals and Ayurveda, Current Science, Vol. 88, No. 10, 25 May 2005. Indian Academy of Sciences. Publication of the levels of contamination found in the products has resulted in decline of Ayurveda in India as well as abroad.Dubey, N. K.; Kumar, R., and Tripathi, P. in Global promotion of herbal medicine: India’s opportunity, Current Science, Vol. 86, No. 1, 37-41, 10 January 2004. Indian Academy of Sciences.

Notes

  1. Chopra, page 75
  2. Maharishi Mahesh Yogi on the Bhagavad-Gita, a New Translation and Commentary, Chapter 1-6. Penguin Books, 1969, p 262 (v 7)
  3. In Sharma & Bodeker 2008 and Chopra 2003
  4. Department of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy. Ministry of Health & Family Welfare (Government of India).
  5. A Closer Look at Ayurvedic Medicine. NIH: Focus on Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume XII, Number 4: Fall 2005/Winter 2006. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health.
  6. Chopra, page 76
  7. Sharma, A.K. (2003) in "Panchkarma Therapy in Ayurvedic Medicine", Scientific Basis for Ayurvedic Therapies edited by Mishra, L.C. 43. CRC Press: ISBN 084931366X.
  8. Chopra, page 80
  9. Clifford, Terry (2003). Tibetan Buddhist Medicine and Psychiatry. 42. Motilal Banarsidass Publications. ISBN 8120817842.
  10. Wujastyk, page XVIII
  11. Chopra, page 78
  12. Chopra, page 79
  13. Sahu, S. & Mishra, L.C. (2003) in "Benign Growths, Cysts, and Malignant Tumors", Scientific Basis for Ayurvedic Therapies edited by Mishra, L.C. 300. CRC Press: ISBN 084931366X.
  14. Mitra & Rangesh, page 363
  15. Wujastyk, page XX
  16. Kasulis, Thomas P.; Aimes, Roger T.; Dissanayake, Wimal (1993). Self as Body in Asian Theory and Practice. State University of New York Press. 104. ISBN 079141079X.
  17. Lock etc., page 836
  18. Finger, page 66
  19. Kutumbian, pages XXXII-XXXIII
  20. Wujastyk, page 224
  21. Vināyaka Jayānanda Ṭhākara. (1989). Methodology of Research in Ayurveda, p. 7. Gujarat Ayurved University.
  22. Wujastyk, page XXVI
  23. Lock etc., page 607
  24. Lock etc., page 651
  25. Lock etc., page 652
  26. Wujastyk, page XVI
  27. Kurup, page 7
  28. Wujastyk, page XXII
  29. Health and welfare (from Sri Lanka). Encyclopedia Britannica (2008).
  30. Wujastyk, page XXII
  31. Kurup 2003
  32. Kurup, page 6
  33. Ninivaggi, Frank John (2008). Ayurveda: A Comprehensive Guide to Traditional Indian Medicine for the West. Praeger Press: ISBN 0313348375.
  34. Gerson, S. & Green, L.H. in Preliminary Evaluation Of Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts of Morinda citrifolia Linn., Abstr. Am. Soc. Microbiol. A-66:13 May 2002
  35. Dr Dominik Wujastyk, University College London. Accessed on September, 2008
  36. Skolnick, AA (1991) The Maharishi Caper: Or How to Hoodwink Top Medical Journals. ScienceWriters.
  37. Andrew Skolnick (1991) “Maharishi Ayur-Veda: Guru’s Marketing Scheme Promises the World Eternal ‘Perfect Health’!”, JAMA 266:1741-1750
  38. US Patent No. 5,401,504
  39. Mungantiwar, A.A. & Phadke, A.S. (2003) in "Immunomodulation: Therapeutic Strategy through Ayurveda", Scientific Basis for Ayurvedic Therapies edited by Mishra, L.C. 72. CRC Press: ISBN 084931366X.
  40. Mitra & Rangesh, page 319
  41. Ellin, Abby, "Skin Deep; Ancient, but how safe?", New York Times (September 18, 2008)
  42. Szabo, Liz, "Study finds toxins in some herbal medicines", USA Today (August 26, 2008)
  43. Valiathan, M. S. in Ayurveda: Putting the house in order, Current Science, Vol. 90, No. 1, 5-6, 10 January 2006. Indian Academy of Sciences.


External links



References

  • Chopra, A.S. (2003) in "Ayurveda", Medicine Across Cultures, edited by Selin, Helaine & Shapiro, H. 75-83. Kluwer Academic Publishers. United States of America: ISBN 1-4020-1166-0.
  • Dwivedi, Girish & Dwivedi, Shridhar (2007). History of Medicine: Sushruta – the Clinician – Teacher par Excellence. National Informatics Centre .
  • Finger, Stanley (2001). Origins of Neuroscience: A History of Explorations Into Brain Function. US: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195146948.
  • Kurup, P.N.V. (2003) in "Ayurveda—A Potential Global Medical System", Scientific Basis for Ayurvedic Therapies edited by Mishra, L.C. 1-14. CRC Press: ISBN 084931366X.
  • Kutumbian, P. (2005). Ancient Indian Medicine. Orient Longman. ISBN 8125015213.
  • Lock, Stephen etc. (2001). The Oxford Illustrated Companion to Medicine. USA: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0192629506.
  • Mitra, K.S. & Rangesh, P.R. (2003) in "Irritable Colon (Grahni)", Scientific Basis for Ayurvedic Therapies edited by Mishra, L.C. CRC Press: ISBN 084931366X.
  • Ninivaggi, F. J. (2008). "Ayurveda: A Comprehensive Guide to Traditional Indian Medicine for the West. Westport, CT: Praeger Press. ISBN 0313348375.
  • Sharma, H. M. & Bodeker, Gerard C. in Alternative Medicine (1997) (medical system). Encyclopedia Britannica 2008.
  • Underwood, E. Ashworth & Rhodes, P. (2008) in medicine, history of. Encyclopedia Britannica 2008.
  • Wujastyk, D. (2003). The Roots of Ayurveda: Selections from Sanskrit Medical Writings. Penguin Classics: ISBN 0140448241



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