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The City of Baguio (Ilokano: Ciudad ti Baguio; Tagalog: Lungsod ng Baguio) is a highly urbanized city in northern Luzonmarker in the Philippinesmarker. Baguio City was established by Americans in 1900 at the site of an Ibaloi village known as Kafagway. Baguio City was designated by the Philippine Commission as the Summer Capital of the Philippines on June 1, 1903 and incorporated as a city by the Philippine Assembly on September 1, 1909. Baguio is the seat of government of the Cordillera Administrative Region. The name of the city is derived from the word bagiw in Ibaloi, the indigenous language of the Benguet Region, meaning 'moss'. The city is at an altitude of approximately 1500 meters (5100 ft) in a moist tropical pine forest conducive to the growth of mossy plants and orchids.

According to the 2007 census, Baguio City has a population of 301,926.

The City of Baguio celebrated its Centennial on September 1, 2009. The celebrations marked the first 100 years of the Baguio City Charter, which was authored by former Philippines Supreme Court Justice George A. Malcolm.

History

The region around Baguio was first settled primarily by the Kankana-ey and the Ibalois. In the nearby town of La Trinidad, Spaniards established a commandante or military garrison, although Kafagway, as Baguio was once known, was barely touched. In 1901 Japanese and Filipino workers hired by the Americans built Kennon Road , the first road directly connecting Kafagway with the lowlands of Pangasinan. Before this, the only road to Kafagway was Naguilian Road. On September 1, 1909 Baguio was declared a chartered city. The famous American architect Daniel Burnham, one of the earliest successful modern city planners, laid a meticulous plan for the city in 1904. His plan was, nevertheless, realized only to a small extent, primarily due to growth of the city well beyond its initial planned population of 25,000 people . The Americans earlier declared Baguio the Summer Capital of the Philippines on July 1, 1903 and The American Residence as the residence of the American governor-general to escape Manila's summer heat. They further developed Baguio, building parks and public structures such as Wright Park in honor of Governor General Luke E. Wright, Burnham Park in honor of Baguio city planner Daniel Burnham, Governor Pack Road, and Session Road.

Baguio is well known as site of the formal surrender of General Tomoyuki Yamashita and Vice Admiral Okochi. It is where they gave up the entire Imperial Japanese Armed Forces to American authorities at the High Commissioner's Residence (now the United States Ambassador's Residence) in Camp John Hay on September 3, 1945, marking the end of World War II.

A very strong (Ms = 7.8) earthquake destroyed most of Baguio on July 16, 1990. Significant number of buildings and infrastructure were damaged, major highways were temporarily severed, and a number of houses were leveled or severely shaken with a significant loss of life. Some of the fallen buildings were built on or near fault lines. Baguio City was rebuilt, however, with the aid from the national government and various international donors like Japan, Singapore and other countries.

Around May 2003, a petition initiated by Dion Fernandez to declare Baguio a heritage zone was circulated on the Internet and national print media, gaining more than 10,000 signatures. The petition calls upon unspecified officials to create the Zone prior to the Baguio centennial in 2009. In May 2005, the Heritage Conservation Society(HCS) submitted to the Baguio City Council a proposed Special Heritage Bill drafted by HCS Trustee Ivan Henares. It has been approved on second reading but is being opposed by a group of businessmen .

Geography & Climate

Baguio City is located some 1,500 meters above sea level, nestled within the Cordillera Centralmarker mountain range in northern Luzonmarker. The city is enclosed by the province of Benguetmarker. It covers a small area of 57.5 square kilometers. Most of the developed part of the city is built on uneven, hilly terrain of the northern section. When Daniel Burnham plotted the plans for the city, he made the City Hall as a reference point where the city limits extend 8.2 kilometers from east to west and 7.2 kilometers from north to south.

The city is known for its mild climate. It is because of this that Baguio is nicknamed the "Summer Capital of the Philippines".Owing to its high elevation, the temperature in the city is 8 degrees Celsius lower compared to the average temperature of the rest of the country. Average temperature ranges from 15 to 23 degrees Celsius. It is usually lower during the late and early months of the year. The lowest recorded temperature was 6.3 degrees Celsius on January 18, 1961. This is in contrast to the all-time high of 30.4 degrees Celsius recorded on March 15, 1988 during the 1988 El Niño season. Baguio seldom exceeds 26 degrees Celsius even during the warmest part of the year.



Government



Like most Philippine cities, Baguio is governed by a Mayor, Vice Mayor, and twelve (12) Councilors. However, being a highly-urbanized city, it is not subject to the jurisdiction of Benguet, the province which it was formerly part of.

The current mayor of Baguio is Reinaldo Bautista Jr. who first assumed office after the suspension of Braulio Yaranon in August 2006. Yaranon's term was clouded in controversy, primarily because of his harsh attacks on previous city officials who initiated the scandalous Uniwide Market Project, Jadewell Parking Systems Project, the now finished 172 million, 274-meter BGH flyover project, and the proposed operation of a Casino inside Camp John Hay. The Jadewell Parking System was approved by the city council in 2000 and then City Mayor Mr. Mauricio Domogan. The parking firm's owners filed administrative charges against Yaranon for his stand against its operation. He was eventually suspended until the end of his term on June 30, 2007.

Bautista recently had his "interim/acting" tag removed from his title as he emerged as the winner in the 2007 city mayoral race, beating Yaranon, Vergara, former Councilor Leandro Yangot Jr. and post-People Power mayor and spiritual healer Ramon "Jun" Labo Jr. His running mate, three-term vice mayor and law dean Daniel Fariñas, returned to that post as well after previously serving a term in the City Council.

Baguio City's lone congressional district is currently represented in the House of Representatives of the Philippines by Congressman Mauricio Domogan, who is now in his third successive term. Prior to being elected as congressman in 2001, he served three straight terms as mayor(1992-2001).

City Officials (2007-2010)

  • Congress Representative: Mauricio Domogan
  • City Mayor: Reinaldo Bautista Jr.
  • City Vice Mayor: Daniel Fariñas
  • Councilors:
    • Rocky Thomas Balisong
    • Betty Lourdes Tabanda
    • Galo Weygan
    • Perlita Chan-Rondez
    • Nicasio Aliping
    • Antonio Tabora Jr.
    • Erdolfo Balajadia
    • Nicasio Palaganas
    • Isabelo Cosalan Jr.
    • Richard Cariño
    • Fred Bagbagen
    • Elaine Sembrano
    • Joel Alangsab (Ex-officio; Liga ng mga Barangay President)
    • Ysa De Vera (Ex-officio; Sangguniang Kabataan Federation President)


Barangays

Baguio City is politically subdivided into 129 barangays.
  • Apugan-Loakan
  • Asin Road (Asin Hotsprings)
  • Atok Trail
  • Bakakeng Central
  • Bakakeng North
  • Happy Hollow
  • Balsigan
  • Bayan Park West
  • Bayan Park East
  • Brookspoint
  • Brookside
  • Cabinet Hill-Teacher's Camp
  • Camp Allen
  • Camp 7
  • Camp 8
  • Campo Filipino
  • City Camp Central
  • City Camp Proper
  • Country Club Village
  • Cresencia Village
  • Dagsian, Upper
  • DPS Area
  • Dizon Subdivision
  • East Quirino Hill
  • Engineers' Hill
  • Fairview Village
  • Fort del Pilar
  • General Luna, Upper
  • General Luna, Lower
  • Gibraltar
  • Greenwater Village
  • Guisad Central
  • Guisad Sorong
  • Hillside
  • Holy Ghost Extension
  • Holy Ghost Proper
  • Imelda Village
  • Irisan
  • Kayang Extension
  • Kias
  • Kagitingan
  • Loakan Proper
  • Lopez Jaena
  • Lourdes Subdivision Extension
  • Dagsian, Lower
  • Lourdes Subdivision, Lower
  • Lower Quirino Hill
  • General Emilio F. Aguinaldo
  • Lualhati
  • Lucnab
  • Magsaysay, Lower
  • Magsaysay Private Road
  • Aurora Hill Proper
  • Bal-Marcoville
  • Middle Quirino Hill
  • Military Cut-off
  • Mines View Park
  • Modern Site, East
  • Modern Site, West
  • New Lucban
  • Aurora Hill, North Central
  • Sanitary Camp, North
  • Outlook Drive
  • Pacdal
  • Pinget
  • Pinsao Pilot Project
  • Pinsao Proper
  • Puliwes
  • Pucsusan
  • MRR-Queen Of Peace
  • Rock Quarry, Lower
  • Salud Mitra
  • San Antonio Village
  • San Luis Village
  • San Roque Village
  • San Vicente
  • Santa Escolastica
  • Santo Rosario
  • Santo Tomas School Area
  • Santo Tomas Proper
  • Scout Barrio
  • Session Road Area
  • Slaughter House Area
  • Sanitary Camp South
  • Saint Joseph Village
  • Teodora Alonzo
  • Trancoville
  • Rock Quarry, Upper
  • Victoria Village
  • West Quirino Hill
  • Andres Bonifacio
  • Legarda-Burnham-Kisad
  • Imelda R. Marcos
  • Lourdes Subdivision, Proper
  • Quirino-Magsaysay, Upper
  • A. Bonifacio-Caguioa-Rimando
  • Ambiong
  • Aurora Hill, South Central
  • Abanao-Zandueta-Kayong-Chugum
  • Bagong Lipunan
  • BGH Compound
  • Bayan Park Village
  • Camdas Subdivision
  • Palma-Urbano
  • Dominican Hill Mirador
  • Alfonso Tabora
  • Dontogan
  • Ferdinand
  • Happy Homes
  • Harrison-Claudio Carantes
  • Honeymoon
  • Kabayanihan [24763]
  • Kayang-Hilltop
  • Gabriela Silang
  • Liwanag-Loakan
  • Malcolm Square-Perfecto
  • Manuel A. Roxas
  • Padre Burgos
  • Quezon Hill, Upper
  • Rock Quarry, Middle
  • Phil-Am Compound
  • Quezon Hill Proper
  • Middle Quezon Hill Subdivision
  • Rizal Monument Area
  • SLU-SVP Housing Village
  • South Drive
  • Magsaysay, Upper
  • Market Subdivision, Upper
  • Padre Zamora

Transportation

Air transport

Loakan Airportmarker is the lone airport serving the general area of Baguio City. The airport is classified as a trunkline airport, or a major commercial domestic airport, by the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines, a body of the Department of Transportation and Communications that is responsible for the operations of not only this airport but also of all other airports in the Philippines except the major international airports. It is about 10 minutes by car from the city center going south. Due to the limited length of the runway which is 1,802 meters or 5,912 feet, it is restricted to commuter size aircraft. This perhaps contributed to the city's declining competitiveness against other medium-sized cities around the country. The airport is used primarily by helicopters, turbo-prop and piston engine aircraft, although on rare occasion light business jets (LBJ) have flown into the airport.

Land Transport

The three main access roads leading to Baguio from the lowlands are Kennon Road, Aspiras-Palispis Highway (formerly Marcos Highway), and Naguilian Road also known as Quirino Highway. Kennon Road starts from Rosario, La Unionmarker and winds through a narrow, steep valley. This is the fastest route to Baguio but is perilous, with landslides during the rainy season. This route to Baguio is as scenic as it is dangerous. Aspiras Highway, which starts from Agoo, La Union and connects to Palispis Highway at the boundary of Benguet and La Union, and Naguilian Road, which starts from Bauang, La Unionmarker, are longer routes but are safer than Kennon Road and are the preferred routes for coaches, buses and lorries.

It takes an average of six hours to travel the 250 km distance between Manilamarker and Baguio by way of Kennon Road. It is about fifteen minutes longer through the Aspiras-Palispis Highway and could take three more hours when going through Naguilian Road, which is the usual route for travelers from the North.

There is another access to Baguio from Aritaomarker in the province of Nueva Vizcaya passing through Itogonmarker, Benguet but this is less traveled, the road is not well maintained, and public transportation through this route is not as regular. Another road, Halsema Highway (also known as "Mountain Trail") leads north through the mountainous portion of the Cordillera Autonomous Region. It starts at the northern border of Baguio, in the Municipality of La Trinidad (Trinidad Valley).

There are several bus lines linking Baguio with Manilamarker and Central Luzon, and provinces such as Pangasinanmarker, La Unionmarker, and those in the Ilocos region. Most transportation companies also offer express and air-conditioned buses at a much higher fare, though some minibuses offer cheaper fares. Bus services that operates in Baguio include Philippine Rabbit, Dangwa Tranco, Dagupan Bus, Victory Liner, Partas, Genesis, and Saulog Transit.

There are also several taxi and jeepney operators that provide transportation within the city.

Economy

The economy of Baguio City is centered on its educational institutions, of which it has in excess of eight colleges and universities as well as a plethora of trade and technical schools. Based on the latest census made in the year 2007, almost half of the city's population are students in which most of them come from nearby provinces.

Another key source of income for Baguio is its character as the commercial hub in the province of Benguet. Many of the agricultural and mining goods produced in Benguetmarker go to Baguio City for processing and central distribution.

Brooms with price tags being sold in market


The city is also a major retail center for the Cordilleras and Ilocos provinces, with shoppers coming to the city to take advantage of the diversity of competitively priced commercial products on sale, many of which would only be available in Manila. Despite the city's relatively small size, it hosts numerous shopping centers and malls catering to the increasing commercial and tourist activity in Baguio: these include SM City Baguio mall, Baguio Center Mall, Cooyeesan Hotel Plaza, Abanao Square, Maharlika Livelihood Center, Porta Vaga Mall and Bonchic bargain center.

Various food and retail businesses run by local residents proliferate, serving to form what has become a part of Baguio's local cultural landscape. Some of these include the Tiong San chain of department stores and supermarkets, Sunshine Supermarket, Star Cafe, Country Mart, the famous Rose Bowl Restaurant, Good Taste, Marosan's, Patao's and many others.

Session Road
The areas of Session Road, Harrison Road, Magsaysay Avenue and Abanao Street comprise the trade center of the city. It is in these areas where commercial and business structures abound. First-class cinemas, hotels, restaurants, department stores, and shopping centers are to be found in this area. Shopping at the famous City Market offers one a wide array of locally sourced goods and products: everything from colorful woven fabrics and hand-strung beads to primitive wood carvings, cut flowers, strawberries and "Baguio" vegetables, the latter often denoting vegetable types that do well in the cooler growing climate. (Strawberries and string beans—referred to as 'Baguio beans' across the Philippines—are shipped to major urban markets across the archipelago.)

Baguio is also home to one of the country's most profitable Philippine Economic Zone Authority areas (PEZA), called the Baguio City Economic Zone (BCEZ), located in the southern part of the city between the Camp John Hay leisure resort and the Philippine Military Academymarker. Firms located in the BCEZ mostly produce and export knitted clothing, transistors, small components for vehicles, electronics and other computer parts. Notable firms include Texas Instrumentsmarker Philippines, MOOG, and Sitel.

Tourism

Tourism is one of Baguio's main industries. During the year end holidays some people from the lowlands would prefer spending their vacation in the city. This is for them to experience the cold temperature they rarely get from their home provinces. Also, during the summer season specially during the Holy Week, tourists from all over the country would flock to the city. During this time, the total number of people in the city would double. To accommodate all these people, there are more than 80 hotels and inns available for them to check in. There are also some local residents that accept transients for a certain fee which is normally lower than the standard hotel fee. For those who can't afford renting a room, they would camp out in some local parks although this is no longer allowed to prevent the parks from getting damaged. Local festivities such as the Panagbenga Festival also attracts both local and foreign tourists.

Tourist Attractions and Destinations

Lion's HeadLocated in Camp 6 Kennon Road, this popular landmark was constructed in 1972 with the contributions of the Lions Club International members in Baguio. This 40-foot head of a lion was carved in a limestone by a local artist. Visitors passing by normally stop for a while to have a break and to take photographs as souvenir.

Tam-awan VillageThis artificial village was founded by Chanum Foundation, Inc. in 1998. It was constructed with the purpose of showing visitors how a local village in the highlands look like. Authentic native huts where brought from the Mt. Provinces and are rented out to those who wish to stay overnight and experience the way locals once lived. A gallery was also constructed to house the paintings and other artworks created by several local artists. The word "tam-awan" means "a high place to view". With clear weather conditions, one can see the South China Sea and the Lingayen Gulf. This is also a good place to view the sun set.

Philippine Military AcademymarkerSituated in the southern part of the city within Fort Del Pilar, Loakan, this military academy was created to train future officers of the Armed Forces of the Philippines.

Mansion HouseAs an official residence of the President of the Republic of the Philippines, entry to the compound is restricted. The public can view the Mansion through its gate which is patterned after that of London's Buckingham Palacemarker. It is located in the eastern part of the city. The Mansion has also been the site of several international conferences and a working office of the President of the Philippines during his or her visits to the City.

Camp John HayThis former American recreational facility was converted into as a world class resort. It features a golf course, a skating rink, picnic area, and a mini golf course at the Scout Hill area. Several cottages and hotels were also built to accommodate visitors.

Teachers CampA facility currently run by the Department of Education. I features several function halls, a museum, cottages, and a race track.

Easter Weaving RoomLocated within the campus of Easter School. It is the right place to visit for those who are interested in native fabrics and other handicrafts. Here one can witness the actual process of cloth weaving as practiced by the natives of the Mountain Provinces for ages.

Saint Louis Filigree ShopThis is a handicraft shop specializing in silver jewelry and other filigree products. This shop is in the center of the city and was established in 1916.

Wright ParkIt is sometimes mistakenly called "Ride Park" by some tourists that identify this pine tree park reserve for horse rides. A long stairway leads to the "Pool of the Pines", a 100 meter long pool of water lined on both sides by the famous Baguio towering pine.

Mines View ParkAppropriately named for its view of Benguet's mountain ranges where gold, silver and other ores were once quarried.

Baguio Sunshine ParkThe park features flowering garden and a covered stage with ethnic design, which is often used, for cultural presentation. The park itself is designed after a shield.

Botanical GardenIt is also called the Igorot village, which features native huts typical of the Cordillera architecture. The garden is also a site of cultural presentations and other tribal meetings.

Burnham ParkIt is the oldest of all Baguio parks. One can unwind from the tension of the day-to-day bustle by biking, skating or simply reflecting on the day's experiences amid a soothing garden backdrop of colorful flowers. It is thickly wooded and is a great place to have picnics and concerts. There are tennis and basketball courts, a football field, athletic oval and an orchidarium.

Baguio - Mountain Provinces MuseumThis museum is located within the Baguio Tourism Complex along Gov. Pack Road. It has on display a variety of artifacts and relics showcases the cultural heritage, customs and traditions of the cordillerans.

SLU (Saint Louis University, Baguio City) MuseumLocated within the premise of the school, it showcases the different culture heritages of the Cordilleras. Artifacts and relics including an ancient coffin can be seen on display.

Ifugaomarker Woodcarvers VillageLocated along Asin Road, about 5 kilometers from the city, is an Ifugao wood carving village, which produces and sells hand-carved curio items.

Asin Hot SpringsThese hot springs are located 16 kilometers northwest of Baguio. Several private resorts took advantage of the natural springs in the area and constructed swimming pools for all visitors. Some of the resort owners also built cottages for those who wish to spend the night.

Mt. Sto. Tomas and Mt. KabuyaoA trek up to these mountains is a hiker delight. The highest peak is 7,500 feet high and commands a majestic view of the city. These mountains can be reached by foot or by vehicle.

Lourdes GrottoThis is a religious shrine housing the image of the Lady of Lourdes. About 252 steps lead to this shrine where pilgrims brave the steep climb to offer sacrifices, devotion and prayers. One is also regarded with a beautiful panoramic view of the city.

Our Lady of Atonement Cathedral, better known as Baguio CathedralmarkerOne of the familiar landmarks in Baguio, the structure with its twin spires and one hundred steps sits on top of a hill in the heart of the city, offering church goers and visitors a chance to get a bird's eye view of the entire commercial hub.

Bell ChurchThis cluster of temples is located on the border of Baguio City and Trinidad Valley. Its exotic oriental architecture, pagodas roof, ornate gateway, dragon ornaments and Buddha - guarded windows gaze from atop a hill. The Bell Temple priest practices a mixture of Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, and Christianity. One may even try having his fortune told.

Baguio Grand MosqueMuslims may pray in any of the several Mosques in the City but this is the biggest and located at Campo Filipino. It also houses an Islamic Studies madrasah. Visits or field trips by non-Muslims may be arranged.

Baguio Country ClubThis club was organized with funds, which were privately contributed. They built tennis courts and cottages. Today Baguio Country Club has 200 guestrooms and suites in a new building. It also boasts a beautiful 18-hole, 61-par golf course for its members and guests.

Baguio City MarketLocated within the central business district, this is where local products and goods from nearby towns and provinces are sold.

Education

Baguio is a university town with 141,088 students out of the 301,926 population count done on the year 2007.It is the center of education in the entire North Luzon. There are eight major institutions of higher education in Baguio City.

U.P.
Baguio Oblation
University of the Philippines Baguio (U.P. Baguio) - the national university of the Philippines, U.P. System's flag-bearer in Northern Luzon, internationally known for its excellent record in ethnic and multidisciplinary research and Cordillera Studies

Philippine Military Academymarker - the national training school for future officers of the Armed Forces of the Philippines

Saint Louis University, Baguio City - established in 1911 by the CICM missionaries whose aim is to educate the locals through Christian Education.

University of Baguio - founded by Dr. Fernando G. Bautista and Mrs. Rosa C. Bautista in 1948.

University of the Cordilleras - formerly Baguio Colleges Foundation, established on June 19, 1948.

Baguio Central University- formerly Lyceum of Baguio. First opened in 1945.

Pines City Colleges - formerly Pines City Doctors' Hospital School of Nursing and Pines City Educational Center. First opened as a Nursing school in 1969. The oldest school of Nursing in Baguio City.

Easter College - formerly Easter School. It is one of the oldest schools in the Cordilleras. The school was established by the Protestant Episcopalian missionary Rt. Rev. Charles Henry Brent in 1906.

Other Educational Institutions

STI College, Baguio

Data Center, Baguio

Baguio College of TechnologyNational University

AMA Computer Collegemarker

Baguio School of Business and Technology

Philippine Public Safety College

Philippine Women's University

Meridian Paramedical & Tech Inst

Women's Vocational Institute

San Pablo Major Seminary

Philippine Baptist Theological Seminary is the flagship Southern Baptist ministerial training center established in 1954, offering undergraduate, graduate and post graduate degree programs.

Asia Pacific Theological Seminary founded in 1964 in Manila and transferred to the Baguio area in 1986, is the foremost seminary for the Asia-Pacific region of the Assembles of God.

Lutheran Theological Seminary was established in 1955 in Manila with the Rev. Lorenz Nieting as head. The campus was moved to Baguio in 1961 offering a five-year divinity degree program leading to ordination to Lutheran diaconate on the third year and the priesthood.

International Schools

Brent International School was founded the same year as the city. It was originally established as a boarding school for the sons of American families stationed in the Philippines.

Monticello International School

Educare International School

Remnant International School

Culture

The city is home to people coming from other places. It became a melting pot of cultures and traditions from all over the country. A significant population of foreigners also contributed to the diversity of the city's colorful culture. The languages commonly spoken in Baguio are Kankana-ey, Ibaloi, Ilocano, Tagalog, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, English, Chinese, and recently, Korean. Due to a significantly large number of Korean students coming to the city to study the English language, several establishments were founded to accommodate their needs. Posters and signages are sometimes printed with Korean translation. Several restaurants also serve different types of local and foreign cuisine.

Baguio's youth majority in the population has given it a distinct flavor different from those of other cities in the Philippines. Although Baguio City is very modern nowadays, Panagbenga Festival, the annual Flower Festival, is celebrated each February to showcase Baguio's rich cultural heritage, its appreciation of the environment, and inclination towards the arts.

Art

The city became a haven for many Filipino artists in the 1970s-1990s. Drawn by the cool climate and low cost of living, artists such as Ben Cabrera (now a National Artist) and filmmaker Butch Perez relocated to the city. At the same time, locals such as mixed-media artist Santiago Bose and filmmaker Kidlat Tahimik were also establishing work in the city.

Many Baguio artists used the context of cultural diversity of the Cordillera Region to establish their work. Other notable Baguio City artists include Narda Capuyan (weaving), Kawayan de Guia (painting), Kigao (sculpture), Willy Magtibay, Peter Pinder (fiber glass sculpture, painting, mixed media), Art Tibaldo (mixed media-visual arts) and Franklin Cimatu (poetry.)The active student population in Baguio has also spawned various interests in animation and digital arts, with several local artists doing work for large production and advertising agencies in the Philippines and abroad.

See also



References

  1. http://www.census.gov.ph/data/census2007/index.html
  2. http://earthquake.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph/update_SOEPD/Earthquake/1990LuzonEQ_Monograph/pp001/pp001.html
  3. http://www.sunstar.com.ph/static/net/2003/01/07|title
  4. http://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra2000/ra_8971_2000.html
  5. http://www.nscb.gov.ph/rucar/stat_trsm_bgo.htm
  6. http://www.philippines-travel-guide.com/baguio-hotels.html
  7. http://www.ubaguio.edu
  8. http://www.eastercollege.ph/main/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=34&Itemid=6
  9. http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/seasia/phil18981916.html


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