Geographic route map of the Baker
Street & Waterloo Railway
The Baker Street and Waterloo Railway (BS&WR)
also known as the Bakerloo tube
, was a railway
company established in 1893 that constructed a deep-level
underground "tube" railway in London. Although construction began
in 1898, the company struggled to fund the work and was then hit by
the financial collapse in 1900 of its parent company, the London
& Globe Finance Corporation, through the fraud of its main
shareholder, Whitaker Wright
1902, it became a subsidiary of the Underground Electric
Railways Company of London Limited
(UERL) controlled by
American financier Charles Yerkes
The UERL quickly raised the funds, mainly from foreign
opened in 1906, the BS&WR's line served nine stations and ran
completely underground in a pair of tunnels for between its
northern terminus at Baker
Street and its southern terminus at Elephant and
Castle with a depot on a short spur nearby at London
Road. Extensions between 1907 and 1913 took the
northern end of the line to the terminus of the Great Western Railway (GWR) at
Paddington. In 1915, it was further extended to Queen's
Park where it connected to the London & North Western
Railway (LNWR) to run on the surface to Willesden
Junction and, from 1917, to Watford, covering a
total distance of .
Within the first year of opening it became apparent to the
management and investors that the estimated passenger numbers for
the BS&WR and the other UERL lines were over-optimistic.
Despite improved integration and cooperation with the other tube
railways and the later extensions, the BS&WR struggled
financially. In 1933, it and the rest of the UERL were taken into
. Today, the
BS&WR's tunnels and stations operate as the London Underground
's Bakerloo line
November 1891, notice was given of a private
bill that would be presented to Parliament for the construction of the Baker Street and
Waterloo Railway (BS&WR). The railway was
planned to run entirely underground from the junction of New Street
(now Melcombe Street) and Dorset Square west of Baker Street to
James Street (now Spur Road) on the south side of Waterloo
station. From Baker Street, the route was to run
eastwards beneath Marylebone
Road, then curve to the south under Park
Crescent and follow Portland Place, Langham Place and Regent Street to Piccadilly Circus. It was then to run under Haymarket, Trafalgar
Square and Northumberland Avenue before passing under the River Thames to Waterloo station.
Original approved route
decision had not been made between the use of cable haulage or
electric traction as the means of pulling the trains. The promoters
of the BS&WR were motivated by the recent success of the
City and South London
(C&SLR), the world's first deep-tube railway. This
had opened in November 1890 and had seen large passenger numbers in
its first year of operation. One of the benefits put forward by the
railway company was its use by West End businessmen as a way to get quickly to Lord's Cricket
Ground north of Baker Street after work for the last hour
Bills for three similarly inspired new underground railways were
also submitted to Parliament for the 1892 parliamentary session
, and, to ensure
a consistent approach, a Joint Select Committee
was established to review the proposals. The committee took
evidence on various matters regarding the construction and
operation of deep-tube railways, and made recommendations on the
diameter of tube tunnels, method of traction, and the granting of
. After rejecting the construction of
stations on land owned by the Crown
Estate and the Duke of
Portland between Oxford Circus and Baker Street, the Committee allowed the
BS&WR bill to proceed for normal parliamentary
The route was approved and the bill received
on 28 March 1893 as the
Baker Street and Waterloo Railway Act, 1893
. Stations were
permitted at Baker Street, Oxford Circus, Piccadilly Circus, Trafalgar Square, Embankment and Waterloo. The depot would have been at the south end
of the line at James Street and Lower Marsh.
Search for finance, 1893–1903
Although the company had permission to construct the railway, it
still had to raise the capital
the construction works. The BS&WR was not alone; four other new
tube railway companies were looking for investors – the Waterloo & City Railway
(W&CR), the Charing Cross,
Euston & Hampstead Railway
(CCE&HR) and the Great Northern & City
(GN&CR) (the three other companies that had been
put forward bills in 1892) and the Central
(CLR, which had received assent in 1891). The
original tube railway, the C&SLR, was also raising funds to
construct extensions to its existing line. Only the W&CR, which
was the shortest line and was backed by the London and South Western
with a guaranteed dividend
able to raise its funds without difficulty. For the BS&WR and
the rest, and others that came later, much of the remainder of the
decade saw a struggle to find finance in an uninterested market.
Like most legislation of its kind, the act of 1893 imposed a time
limit for the compulsory purchase
land and the raising of capital. To keep the powers alive, the
BS&WR announced a new bill in November 1895, which included an
application for an extension of time. The additional time was
granted when the Baker Street and Waterloo Railway Act,
received Royal Assent on 7 August 1896.
In November 1897, the BS&WR did a deal with the London &
Globe Finance Corporation (L&GFC) a mining finance company
operated by mining speculator Whitaker Wright
and chaired by
. The L&GFC was to fund and manage the
construction; taking any profit from the process. The cost of
construction was estimated to be £1,615,000 (equivalent to
approximately £ today). The L&GFC replaced the BS&WR's
directors with its own and let construction contracts. Wright had
made fortunes in America and Britain by promoting gold and silver
mines and saw the BS&WR as a way of diversifying the
In 1899, Wright fraudulently concealed large losses by one of the
corporation's mines by manipulating the accounts of various
L&GFC subsidiary companies. Expenditure for the BS&WR was
also high, with the L&GFC having paid-out approximately
£650,000 (£ today) by November 1900. In December 1900, Wright's
fraud was discovered and the L&GFC and many of its subsidiaries
The BS&WR struggled on for a time, funding the construction
work by making calls on the unpaid portion of its shares, but
activity eventually came to a stop. In March 1902, Charles Yerkes
' consortium came to the rescue
of the BS&WR when it purchased the company for £360,000 plus
interest (£ today). American financier Yerkes, who had been
lucratively involved in the development of Chicago's tramway
system in the 1880s and 1890s, had come to
London in 1900 and purchased a number of the struggling underground
railway companies. The BS&WR became a subsidiary of the
Electric Railways Company of London Limited
(UERL) which Yerkes
had formed to raise funds to build the tube railways and to
the Metropolitan District Railway
The UERL was capitalised
£5 million with the majority of share
sold to overseas investors. Further
share issues followed, which raised a total of £18 million by
1903 (equivalent to approximately £ today) for use across all of
the UERL's projects.
Planning the route, 1893–1904
BS&WR bill, 1896
Route approved in 1896
While the BS&WR raised money, it continued to develop the plans
for its route. The November 1895 bill sought powers to modify the
planned route of the tunnels at the Baker Street end of the line
and extend them approximately beyond their previous end point at
the south-eastern corner of Dorset Square to the south-eastern
corner of Harewood Square. Harewood Square was to be the site of
station, the new London terminus of the Manchester,
Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway's extension from the
Midlands then under construction. Approval for the
extension and a new station at Marylebone were included in the Baker Street and Waterloo
Railway Act, 1896.
New Cross & Waterloo Railway bill, 1898
On 26 November 1897, details of a bill proposed for the 1898
parliamentary session were published by the New Cross and Waterloo
Railway (NC&WR), an independent company promoted by James Heath
MP, which planned
two separate sections of tube line which would connect directly to
the BS&WR; extending the line south-east from Waterloo and east
from around Marylebone Road.
southern of the NC&WR's two extensions was planned to connect
to the BS&WR tunnels under Belvedere Road to the west of
Waterloo station and head east under the mainline station to its
own station under Sandell Street adjacent to Waterloo
East station. The route was then planned to run under
Road, St George's Circus and London Road to Elephant and Castle. The route then followed New Kent Road and Old Kent
Road as far as the London, Brighton and
South Coast Railway's Old Kent Road station (closed in 1917). Intermediate stations
were to be constructed at St George's Circus, Elephant and Castle
(where the NC&WR station would interchange with the C&SLR's
station below ground and link to the London,
Chatham and Dover Railway's station above ground), in New Kent Road at Munton Road, at
the junction of New Kent Road and Old Kent Road, and on Old Kent
Road at the junctions with Mina Road, Bowles Road and Commercial
Road (now Commercial Way). A power station was planned on the south
side of Old Kent Road where it crossed the Grand Surrey
Canal (now filled-in) at the junction with St James's
Rejected route proposed in 1898
This would have provided a delivery route for fuel and
a source of water. Tunnels were also planned to connect the
BS&WR's proposed depot at Waterloo to the NC&WR's route
enabling trains to enter and exit in two directions.
The NC&WR's other planned extension was to branch from the
BS&WR's curve under Park Crescent. It was then to curve
eastwards under Regent's
Park and then run under Longford Street and Drummond
Street to end at a station on the west side of Seymour
Street (now Eversholt Street) under Euston
An intermediate station was planned for the
junction of Drummond Street and Hampstead Road.
The bill was deposited in Parliament, but no progress was made in
the 1898 session and it disappeared afterwards, although the
BS&WR presented a modified version of the Euston branch in a
bill for the 1899 session.
BS&WR bill, 1899
Rejected route proposed in 1899
Construction work began in August 1898, although the BS&WR was
continuing to develop new route plans. The bill for 1899, published
on 22 November 1898, requested more time for the construction works
and proposed two extensions to the railway and a modification to
part of the previously approved route. The first extension,
like the NC&WR's plan from the year before, was to branch from
the already approved route under Park Crescent, but then followed a
more northerly route than the NC&WR, running under Regent's Park to cross the park's Outer Circle between Chester
Road and Cumberland Gate where a station was to be
constructed. The route then followed Cumberland Street
West (now Nash Street), Cumberland Market, Cumberland Street East and Edward Street (both now
Varndell Street), before ending at a station under Cardington
Street on the west side of Euston station.
second extension was to continue the line west from Marylebone;
running under Great James Street and Bell Street (now both Bell
Street) to Corlett Street then turning south to reach the Grand
Junction Canal's Paddington Basin to the east of the GWR's Paddington
A station was to be located directly under
the east-west arm of the basin before the line turned north-west,
running between the mainline station and the basin, before the two
tunnels merged into one. The single tunnel was then to turn
north-east, passing under the Regent's
to the east of Little
, before coming to the surface where a depot was to be
built on the north side of Blomfield Road. The BS&WR also
planned a power station at Paddington. The final change to the
route was a modification at Waterloo to move the last section of
the line southwards to end under Addington Street.
The Metropolitan Railway
London's first underground railway which had been operating between
Paddington and Euston over the northern section of the Inner Circle
saw the BS&WR's two northern extensions as competition for its
own service and strongly objected. Parliament accepted the
objections; when the Baker Street and Waterloo Railway Act,
received Royal Assent on 1 August 1899, only the
extension of time and the route change at Waterloo were
BS&WR bill, 1900
Route approved in 1900
In November 1899, the BS&WR announced a bill for the 1900
session. Again, an extension was proposed from Marylebone to
Paddington, this time terminating to the east of the mainline
station at the junction of Bishop's Road (now Bishop's Bridge Road)
and Gloucester Terrace. A station was planned under Bishop's Road,
linked to the mainline station by a subway under Eastbourne
Terrace. From Waterloo, an extension was planned to
run under Westminster Bridge Road and St George's Road to terminate at Elephant and Castle.
BS&WR would connect there to the CS&LR's station as the
NC&WR had planned two years earlier. A spur was to be provided
to a depot and power station that were to be constructed on the
site of the School for the Indigent Blind south of St George's
Paddington extension was aligned to allow a westward extension to
continue to Royal Oak or Willesden, areas already served by the MR, which again
opposed the plans.
This time, the BS&WR was successful
and Royal Assent for the extensions was granted in the Baker
Street and Waterloo Railway Act, 1900
on 6 August 1900.
Minor changes, 1902–1904
Route approved in 1904
To make up for the time lost following the collapse of the
L&GFC and to restore the BS&WR's finances, the company
published a bill in November 1901, which sought another extension
of time and permission to change its funding arrangements. The bill
was approved as the Baker Street and Waterloo Railway Act,
on 18 November 1902.
For the 1903 parliamentary session, the UERL announced bills for
the BS&WR and its other tube railways, seeking permission to
merge the three companies by transferring the BS&WR's and
CCE&HR's powers to the Great Northern,
Piccadilly and Brompton Railway
(GNP&BR). The BS&WR
bill also included requests for a further extension of time and for
powers to compulsorily purchase land for an electrical sub-station
at Lambeth. The merger was rejected by parliament, but the land
purchase and extension of time were permitted separately in the
Baker Street and Waterloo Railway Act, 1903
Baker Street and Waterloo Railway (Extension of Time) Act,
, both given assent on 11 August 1903.
1904 parliamentary session, the BS&WR bill, sought permission
to add new stations at Lambeth, Regent's Park and Edgware
The new stations were permitted in the
Baker Street and Waterloo Railway Act, 1904
on 22 July 1904.
Construction commenced in August 1898 from a
substantial temporary pier erected in the River Thames near
The temporary pier in the River Thames
used for construction
were sunk into the river bed
from which the tunnels were constructed in each direction using
operated in an
atmosphere of compressed air to prevent water leaking into the
excavations. Occasionally air escaped through the river bed causing
water spouts in the river. The tunnel linings were formed from cast
iron segments ⅞ inch (2.22 cm) thick, which locked together to
form a ring with an internal diameter of . Once a ring was
was injected through holes in
the segments to fill any voids between the outside edge of the ring
and the excavated ground beyond, reducing subsidence
By November 1899 the northbound tunnel had reached Trafalgar Square
and work on some of the station sites had been started, but the
collapse of the L&GFC in 1900 led to works gradually coming to
a halt. When the UERL was constituted in April 1902, 50 per cent of
the tunnelling and 25 per cent of the station work had been
completed. With funds in place, work restarted and proceeded at a
rate of per week, so that by February 1904 virtually all of the
tunnels and underground parts of the stations between Elephant
& Castle and Marylebone were complete and works on the station
buildings were under way. The additional stations were incorporated
as work continued elsewhere and Oxford Circus station had to be
altered below ground following a Board of
inspection, but, at the end of 1905, the first test
trains began running on the system. Although the BS&WR had
permission to continue to Paddington, no work was undertaken beyond
The BS&WR used a Westinghouse
signalling system operated through electrified track circuits
. This controlled signals based
on the presence or absence of a train on the track ahead. Signals
incorporated an arm that was raised when the signal was red. If a
train failed to stop at a red signal, the arm would activate a
" on the train; applying the
Stations were provided with surface buildings designed by architect
in the UERL house-style.
This consisted of two-storey steel-framed buildings faced with red
blocks, with wide semi-circular windows on the upper floor. Except
for Embankment, which had a sloping passageway down to the
platforms, each station was provided with between two and four
and an emergency spiral staircase in
a separate shaft. At platform level, the wall tiling featured the
station name and an individual geometric pattern and colour scheme
designed by Green.
The official opening of the BS&WR by Sir Edwin Cornwall
, chairman of the London County Council
, took place on
10 March 1906. Shortly after the line's opening, the London
the abbreviated name "Baker-loo", which quickly caught-on and began
to be used officially from July 1906, appearing on contemporary
maps of the tube lines.
The railway had stations at:
The section to Edgware Road was completed and brought into service
in two stages:
While construction was being finished, trains operated out of
service beyond Baker Street; reversing at a cross over
to the east of the
station under construction at Marylebone.
The service was provided by a fleet of 108 carriages
manufactured for the UERL in the
United States by the American Car and Foundry
and assembled in Manchester. The carriages operated as
electric multiple unit
without the need for separate locomotives. Passengers boarded and
left the trains through folding lattice gates at each end of cars;
these gates were operated by Gate-men who rode on an outside
platform and announced station names as trains arrived. The design
was subsequently used for the GNP&BR and the CCE&HR, and
became known on the Underground as the 1906 stock
or Gate stock
. Trains for the
line were stabled at the London Road depot south of Kennington Road
Co-operation and consolidation, 1906–1910
Despite the UERL's success in financing and constructing the
railway, its opening did not bring the financial success that had
been expected. In the Bakerloo Tube's first twelve months of
operation it carried 20.5 million passengers, less than sixty
per cent of the 35 million that had been predicted during the
planning of the line. The UERL's pre-opening predictions of
passenger numbers for its other new lines proved to be similarly
over-optimistic, as did the projected figures for the newly
electrified MDR – in each case, numbers achieved only around fifty
per cent of their targets.
The lower than expected passenger numbers were partly due to
competition between the tube and sub-surface railway companies, but
the introduction of electric trams and motor buses, replacing
slower, horse-drawn road transport, took a large number of
passengers away from the trains. The problem was not limited to the
UERL; all of London's seven tube lines and the sub-surface MDR and
Metropolitan Railway were affected to some degree. The reduced
revenues generated from the lower passenger numbers made it
difficult for the UERL and the other railways to pay back the
capital borrowed, or to pay dividends to shareholders.
From 1907, in an effort to improve their finances, the UERL, the
C&SLR, the CLR and the GN&CR began to introduce fare
agreements. From 1908, they began to present themselves through
common branding as the Underground
. The W&CR was the
only tube railway that did not participate in the arrangement as it
was owned by the mainline L&SWR.
The UERL's three tube railway companies were still legally separate
entities, with their own management, shareholder and dividend
structures. There was duplicated administration between the three
companies and, to streamline the management and reduce expenditure,
the UERL announced a bill in November 1909 that would merge the
Bakerloo, the Hampstead and the Piccadilly Tubes into a single
entity, the London Electric Railway (LER), although the lines
retained their own individual branding. The bill received assent on
26 July 1910 as the London Electric Railway Amalgamation Act,
Route approved in 1906
Having planned a westward extension in 1900 to Willesden Junction,
the company had been unable to decide on a route beyond Paddington
and had postponed further construction while it considered options.
In November 1905, the BS&WR announced a bill for 1906 that
replaced the route from Edgware Road to Paddington approved in 1900
with a new alignment. This had the tunnels crossing under the
Paddington basin with the station under London Street. The tunnels
were to continue south-east beyond the station as sidings, to end
under the junction of Grand Junction Road and Devonport Street (now
Sussex Gardens and Sussex Place). The changes were permitted in the
Baker Street and Waterloo Railway Act, 1906
on 4 August
1906, but the south-east alignment did not represent a suitable
direction to continue the railway and no effort was made to
construct the extension.
the Bakerloo Tube attempted to make the hoped for extension into
north-west London using the existing powers of the North West London Railway (NWLR),
an unbuilt tube railway with permission to build a line from
Cricklewood to Victoria station. The NWLR announced a bill in November 1908
seeking to construct a connection between its unbuilt route beneath
Road and the Bakerloo Tube's Edgware Road
The NWLR route to Victoria was to be abandoned
south of the connection and the Bakerloo Tube's planned route to
Paddington was to be built as a shuttle line from Edgware Road,
which was to be provided with two additional platforms for shuttle
Bakerloo Tube was to construct the extension and operate the
service over the combined route, which was to have stations at St
John's Wood Road, Abercorn Place, Belsize Road, (close to the
station), Brondesbury (to interchange with the North London
Railway's station and close to the MR's Kilburn station), Minster Road and Cricklewood.
The Bakerloo Tube announced its own bill to
make the necessary changes to its existing plans.
objected to the reduction of the Bakerloo Tube's Paddington
connection to a shuttle and the MR objected to the connection of
the two lines which would be in competition with its line through
Rejected route proposed in 1908
Parliament rejected the proposed connection
and the changes to the NWLR's route and the company's permissions
eventually expired without any construction work being carried out.
The Bakerloo Tube bill was withdrawn.
In November 1910, the LER (of which the Bakerloo Tube was now
part), revived plans for the Paddington extension when it published
a bill for the 1911 parliamentary session. The new route, ran , in
a tight curve from Edgware Road station; initially heading south
before turning to the north-west, which provided a more practical
direction for a future extension. The bill was supported by the GWR
with funding of £18,000. The London Electric Railway Act,
received Royal Assent on 2 June 1911. Construction
started in August 1911, and was completed in a little over two
years. The extension opened on 1 December 1913, with the single new
station at Paddington
Following their successful introduction at Earl's Court in 1911,
the station was the first on the line to be designed to use
instead of lifts.
Queen's Park and Watford, 1911–1917
the LNWR obtained
parliamentary permission to improve its mainline services into
London by the construction of a pair of new, electrified tracks
alongside its existing line between Watford
Junction in Hertfordshire and Queen's
Park, Kilburn and a new tube section beneath its lines
from there to its terminus at Euston.
At Euston, the tube tunnel was to end with
an underground station located on a long loop beneath the mainline
The LNWR began construction work on the surface section of the new
tracks in 1909. By 1911, it had modified the plans to omit the
underground section and to split its proposed electrified services
into three. The first section was to follow the existing
surface route into Euston on newly electrified tracks, the second
section was to connect to the North London Railway's tracks at
Farm and continue on electrified tracks from there to
Broad Street station in the City of London.
The third section involved the extension of
the Bakerloo Tube from Paddington to Queen's Park.
With the extension to Paddington still under construction, the LER
published a bill in November 1911 for the continuation to Queen's
Park. The extension was to continue north from Paddington, running
past Little Venice, to Maida Vale before curving north-west to
Kilburn and then west to parallel the LNWR main line, before coming
to the surface a short distance to the east of Queen's Park
station. Three intermediate stations were to be
provided: on Warwick Avenue at the junction with Warrington Avenue, Clifton
Villas and Clifton Gardens, at the junction of Elgin and Randolph
Avenues (named Maida Vale) and on Cambridge Avenue (named Kilburn
The LNWR gave a £1 million loan to the LER
at 4% interest in perpetuity to help finance the extension. The
bill received Assent on 7 August 1912 as the London Electric
Railway Act, 1912
Progress on the section from Paddington to Queen's Park was slowed
by the start of World War I
, so the line
was not finished until early 1915. As at Paddington, the three
below ground stations were built to use escalators. Maida Vale and
Kilburn Park were provided with buildings in the style of the
earlier Leslie Green stations but without the upper storey; no
longer required for housing lift gear. Warwick Avenue was accessed
from a subway under the street. The LNWR rebuilt Queen's Park
station with additional platforms for the Bakerloo Tube's and its
own electric services and constructed two train sheds for rolling
stock, one each side of the station.
Although the tracks were completed to Queen's Park, delays to the
completion of the stations caused the extension to open in stages:
Queen's Park, the LNWR had opened its new lines between Willesden
Junction and Watford during 1912 and 1913, together with new
stations at Harlesden, Stonebridge Park, North Wembley, Kenton and
The new tracks between Queen's Park and
Willesden Junction opened on 10 May 1915, when Bakerloo Tube
services were extended there. On 16 April 1917, the tube service
was extended to Watford Junction. North of Queen's Park, the
Bakerloo Tube served the following stations:
extension to Queen's Park, the LER supplemented the existing
rolling stock with 14 new carriages ordered from Brush
Leeds Forge Company plus spare
Gate stock carriages from the GNP&BR.
the 1914 stock
the first to have doors in the sides of the carriages as well as
the ends. For the longer extension to Watford, the LER and the LNWR
ordered 72 new tube carriages from the Metropolitan Railway Carriage and Wagon
. Manufacture of this rolling stock was
delayed by the war, and, while it was waiting for delivery, the
Bakerloo Tube used spare 1915 stock carriages ordered
for an unfinished extension of the CLR to Ealing
Broadway and more spare Gate stock carriages from the
Delivery of the carriages for the Watford
service, known as the Watford Joint stock
because ownership was shared with the LNWR, began in 1920; they
were painted in the LNWR's livery to distinguish them from trains
operating only on the Bakerloo Tube's tracks.
Camberwell and south-east London
The southern termination of the line at Elephant & Castle
always presented the opportunity for the line to be extended
further, to serve Camberwell and other destinations in south-east
London. In 1913, the Lord Mayor of London announced a
proposal for the Bakerloo Tube to be extended to The Crystal
Palace via Camberwell Green, Dulwich and Sydenham
Hill, but nothing was done to implement the plan.
the LER costed an extension to Camberwell, Dulwich and Sydenham
and, in 1922, plans for an extension to Orpington via Loughborough
Junction and Catford were considered. In 1928, a route to
Green via Dulwich was suggested.
Again, no action
was taken, although the London and
Home Counties Traffic Advisory Committee
approved an extension
to Camberwell in 1926.
In 1931, an extension to Camberwell was approved as part of the
London Electric Metropolitan District and Central London
Railway Companies (Works) Act, 1931
. The route was to follow
and Camberwell Road
south from Elephant and
Castle, with stations at Albany Road and under Denmark Hill road at
Camberwell. Elephant & Castle station was also to be
reconstructed with a third platform, a new ticket hall and
escalators. Financial constraints prevented any work from being
Overcrowding was a major problem at many stations where
interchanges were available with other Underground lines and
efforts were made in a number of places to improve passenger
movements. In 1914, work was carried out to provide larger ticket
halls and install escalators at Oxford Circus, Embankment and Baker
Street. In 1923, further work at Oxford Circus provided a combined
Bakerloo and CLR ticket hall and added more escalators serving the
CLR platforms. In 1926, Trafalgar Square and Waterloo
received escalators, the latter in conjunction with expansion of
the station as part of the CCE&HR's extension to Kennington.
Between 1925 and 1928, Piccadilly
Circus station saw the greatest reconstruction. A large circular
ticket hall was excavated below the road junction with multiple
subway connections from points around the Circus and two flights of
escalators down to the Bakerloo and Piccadilly platforms were
Move to public ownership, 1923–1933
Despite closer co-operation and improvements made to the Bakerloo
stations and to other parts of the network, the Underground
railways continued to struggle financially. The UERL's ownership of
the highly profitable London General Omnibus
(LGOC) since 1912 had enabled the UERL group, through
the pooling of revenues, to use profits from the bus company to
subsidise the less profitable railways. However, competition from
numerous small bus companies during the early 1920s eroded the
profitability of the LGOC and had a negative impact on the
profitability of the whole UERL group.
In an effort to protect the UERL group's income, its chairman
the government for regulation of
transport services in the London area. Starting in 1923, a series
of legislative initiatives were made in this direction, with
Ashfield and Labour London County Councillor
) Herbert Morrison
at the forefront of debates as to the level of regulation and
public control under which transport services should be brought.
Ashfield aimed for regulation that would give the UERL group
protection from competition and allow it to take substantive
control of the LCC's
system; Morrison preferred full public ownership. After seven years
of false starts, a bill was announced at the end of 1930 for the
formation of the London
Passenger Transport Board
(LPTB), a public corporation that
would take control of the UERL, the Metropolitan Railway and all
bus and tram operators within an area designated as the
London Transport Passenger Area
. The Board was a compromise –
public ownership but not full nationalisation
– and came into existence on
1 July 1933. On this date, the LER and the other Underground
companies were liquidated
- For a history of the line after 1933 see Bakerloo line
The plan for the extension to Camberwell was kept alive throughout
the 1930s and, in 1940, the permission was used to construct
sidings beyond Elephant & Castle. After the Second World War,
the plans were revised again, with stations located under Walworth
Road and Camberwell Green, and the extension appeared on tube maps
in 1949. Rising construction costs caused by difficult ground
conditions and restricted funds in the post-war austerity period,
led the scheme to be cancelled again in 1950. Various proposals
have been evaluated since, including an extension to Peckham considered in the early 1970s, but the costs have
always out-weighed the benefits.
the LPTB's first acts in charge of the Bakerloo line was the
opening of a new station at South Kenton on 3 July 1933. As part of the LPTB's
New Works Programme announced in
1935, new tube tunnels were constructed from Baker Street to the
former MR station at Finchley Road and the Bakerloo line took over the stopping
service to Wembley Park and the MR's Stanmore branch.
The service opened in November 1939 and
remained part of the Bakerloo line until 1979 when it transferred
to the Jubilee line
The Bakerloo line's Watford service frequency was gradually reduced
and, from 1965 ran only during rush hours. In 1982, the service
beyond Stonebridge Park was ended as part of the fall-out of the
cancellation of the GLC's Fares Fair
subsidies policy. A
peak hours service was restored to Harrow & Wealdstone in 1984
and a full service was restored in 1989.
- A "tube" railway is an underground railway constructed in a
cylindrical tunnel by the use of a tunnelling shield, usually deep below
- Length of line calculated from distances given at
- Badsey-Ellis 2005, p. 53.
- In its first year of operation the C&SLR carried
5.1 million passengers – Wolmar 2004, p. 321.
- Wolmar 2004, p. 167.
- Badsey-Ellis 2005, p. 56.
- Badsey-Ellis 2005, p. 78.
- The Central London Railway received assent on 5 August 1891,
the Great Northern & City Railway Act received assent on 28
June 1892, the Waterloo and City Railway Act received assent on 8
March 1893 and the Charing Cross, Euston & Hampstead Railway
Act received assent on 24 August 1893 – Badsey-Ellis
2005, pp. 47, 57, 59, 60.
- Badsey-Ellis 2005, p. 61.
- Badsey-Ellis 2005, pp. 57, 112.
- Time limits were included in such legislation to encourage the
railway company to complete the construction of its line as quickly
as possible. They also prevented unused permissions acting as an
indefinite block to other proposals.
- Badsey-Ellis 2005, pp. 113-114.
- Expenditure is recorded as £654,705 10s 7d in a prospectus
issued by the BS&WR in November 1900 -
- Day &
Reed 2008, p. 69.
- Badsey-Ellis 2005, p. 118.
- Yerkes' consortium had first purchased the CCE&HR in
September 1900. In March 1901, it purchased a majority of the
shares of the Metropolitan District Railway
and, in September 1901, took over the Brompton & Piccadilly
Circus Railway and the Great Northern & Strand
Railway – Badsey-Ellis 2005, p. 118.
- Yerkes was Chairman of the UERL with the other main investors
being investment banks Speyer Brothers (London), Speyer & Co.
(New York) and Old Colony Trust Company (Boston) –
Badsey-Ellis 2005, p. 118.
- Like many of Yerkes' schemes in the United States, the
structure of the UERL's finances was highly complex and involved
the use of novel financial instruments linked to future earnings.
Over-optimistic expectations of passenger usage meant that many
investors failed to receive the returns expected – Wolmar 2004, pp.
- Badsey-Ellis 2005, pp. 77-78.
- Badsey-Ellis 2005, p. 84.
- Wolmar 2004, p. 168.
- The Metropolitan Railway opened on 10 January 1863, running in
a mainly cut and
cover tunnel dug under the road between Paddington and
Farringdon. By 1899, it had been extended
far out into Middlesex, Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire.
- Badsey-Ellis 2005, pp. 84-85.
- Badsey-Ellis 2005, p. 203.
2001, p. 7.
- Wolmar 2004, p. 173.
2001, p. 20.
2001, p. 19.
- Wolmar 2004, p. 175.
- Trafalgar Square and Regent's Park stations were built with
subway access from the street instead of surface buildings.
Waterloo station was provided with a simple archway entrance in the
UERL style without the normal station building.
- The lifts, supplied by American manufacturer Otis
2004, p. 188), were installed in pairs within diameter shafts
2006, plans of stations). The number of lifts depended on the
expected passenger demand at the stations, for example, Lambeth
North had two lifts, but Elephant & Castle originally had four
2001, p. 18.
2001, p. 17.
- Wolmar 2004, pp. 174-175.
- During the planning phase, the station at Marylebone was named
to correspond with the main line station it served. It was opened
as Great Central at the request of Sam Fay, the Great Central Railway's chairman -
Day & Reed
2008, p. 71.
2001, pp. 12-13.
- Day &
Reed 2008, p. 70.
- Trains entered service by running north into Kennington Road
- Wolmar 2004, p. 191.
- The UERL had predicted 60 million passengers for the
GNP&BR and 50 million for the CCE&HR in their first
year of operation, but achieved 26 and 25 million
respectively. For the MDR it had predicted an increase to
100 million passengers after electrification, but achieved
55 million – Wolmar 2004, p. 191.
- Badsey-Ellis 2005, pp. 282–283.
2001, p. 23.
- The merger was carried out by transferring the assets of the
BS&WR and the CCE&HR to the GNP&BR and renaming the
GNP&BR as the London Electric Railway.
- Badsey-Ellis 2005, pp. 267-268.
- Badsey-Ellis 2005, pp. 264-267.
- Badsey-Ellis 2005, pp. 80-81.
2001, pp. 28-29.
2001, p. 29.
- Badsey-Ellis 2005, pp. 268-270.
2001, p. 27.
2001, p. 30.
2001, p. 31.
2001, p. 33.
2001, p. 37.
- Badsey-Ellis 2005, p. 268.
2001, pp. 40-41.
2001, pp. 38-39.
- The CLR extension to Ealing Broadway opened in 1920,
the CCE&HR extension to Edgware opened in 1923/24 and the
CS&LR extension to Morden opened in 1926 – Rose 1999.
- By having a virtual monopoly of bus services, the LGOC was able
to make large profits and pay dividends far higher than the
underground railways ever had. In 1911, the year before its take
over by the UERL, the dividend had been 18 per cent –
2004, p. 204.
- Wolmar 2004, p. 259.
- Wolmar 2004, pp. 259–262.
- Wolmar 2004, p. 266.
2001, p. 57.
2001, pp. 63-66.
2001, pp. 46-48.
2001, pp. 72-73.
2001, p. 78.