Bangalore ( ), also known as
ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು, ), is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. Located on the Deccan Plateau in the south-eastern part of Karnataka, Bangalore
is India's third
most populous city and fifth-most
populous urban agglomeration.
Though historical references to the city predate 900 CE
, a modern written history of continuous
settlement exists only from 1537, when Kempe Gowda I
, who many regard as the
architect of modern Bangalore, built a mud-brick fort at the site
and established it as a province of the imperial Vijayanagara Empire
. During the British Raj
, it became a centre of colonial rule
in South India
. The establishment of the
large numbers of migrants from other parts of the country.
Today, as a large and growing metropolis, Bangalore is home to some
of the most well-recognized colleges and research institutions in
India. Numerous public sector heavy
, software companies, aerospace
, and defence organisations
are located in the
city. Bangalore is known as the Silicon Valley of India
of its position as the nation's leading IT exporter. A
demographically diverse city, Bangalore is a major economic hub and
the fastest growing major metropolis in India.
The name Bangalore is an anglicised
version of the city's name in the Kannada language
earliest reference to the name "Bengaluru" was found in a ninth
century Western Ganga Dynasty
stone inscription on a "vīra gallu" ( ) (literally, "hero stone
", a rock edict extolling the virtues
of a warrior). In this inscription found in Begur
, "Bengaluru" is referred to as a place in which
a battle was fought in 890. It states that the place was part of
the Ganga Kingdom
and was known as "Bengaval-uru", the "City of Guards" in Halegannada
(Old Kannada. An article, published
in The Hindu
An inscription, dating back to 890 CE, shows Bangalore
is over 1,000 years old.
But it stands neglected at the Parvathi Nageshwara
Temple in Begur near the city... written in Hale Kannada (Old
Kannada) of the 9th century CE, the epigraph refers to a Bengaluru
war in 890 in which Buttanachetty, a servant of Nagatta,
Though this has been recorded by historian
Narasimhachar in his Epigraphia of Carnatica
10 supplementary), no efforts have been made to
An apocryphal, though popular, anecdote recounts that the
king Veera Ballala II
, while on a hunting
expedition, lost his way in the forest. Tired and hungry, he came
across a poor old woman who served him boiled beans. The grateful
king named the place "benda-kaal-uru" ( ) (literally, "town of
boiled beans"), which eventually evolved into "Bengalūru".
On 11 December 2005, the Government of Karnataka
that it had accepted a proposal by Jnanpith Award
winner U. R.
. On 27 September 2006, the Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara
(BBMP) passed a resolution to implement the proposed
name change, which was accepted by the Government of Karnataka and
it was decided to officially implement the name change from 1
November 2006. However, this process has been currently stalled due
to delays in getting clearances from the Union Home Ministry
After centuries of the rule of the Western Gangas
, Bangalore was captured by the Cholas
in 1024 CE which later passed on to the
Chalukya-cholas in 1070. In 1116 the Hoysala Empire
, overthrew the Cholas and
extended its rule over Bangalore. Modern Bangalore was founded by a
of the Vijayanagara Empire, Kempe
Gowda I, who built a mud-brick fort and a Nandi Temple
in the proximity of modern
Bangalore in 1537. Kempe Gowda referred to the new town as his
"gandubhūmi" or "Land of Heroes".
Within Bangalore Fort
, the town was
divided into smaller divisions – each called a "pete" ( ). The town
had two main streets – Chikkapete Street
, which ran
east-west, and Doddapete Street, which ran north-south. Their
intersection formed the Doddapete Square — the heart of Bangalore.
Kempe Gowda's successor, Kempe Gowda II, built four famous towers
that marked Bangalore's boundary.During the Vijayanagara rule,
Bangalore was also referred to as "Devarāyanagara" and
"Kalyānapura" ("Auspicious City").
After the fall of the Vijayanagara Empire, Bangalore's rule changed
hands several times. In 1638, a large Bijapur
army led by Ranadulla Khan and
accompanied by Shahji Bhonsle
Gowda III and Bangalore was given to Shahaji as a jagir
. In 1687, the Mughal
general Kasim Khan defeated Ekoji I
/Venkoji, son of Shahaji, and then sold
Bangalore to Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar (1673–1704) of Mysore for
300,000 rupees. After the death of Krishnaraja Wodeyar II in 1759,
, Commander-in-Chief of the
Mysore Army, proclaimed himself the de
ruler of Mysore. The kingdom later passed to Hyder Ali's
son Tippu Sultan
, known as the Tiger of
Mysore. Bangalore was eventually incorporated into the British Indian
Empire after Tippu Sultan was
defeated and killed in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War
British returned administrative control of the Bangalore "pētē" to
of Mysore, choosing only to
retain the Cantonment
jurisdiction. The 'Residency' of Mysore State was first established
at Mysore in 1799 and later shifted to Bangalore in the year 1804.
It was abolished in the year 1843 only to be revived in 1881 at
Bangalore and to be closed down permanently in 1947, with Indian
independence. The British, found it easier to recruit employees in
the Madras Presidency
them to cantonment area during this period. The Kingdom of Mysore
relocated its capital from Mysore city to
Bangalore in 1831.Two important developments during this period
contributed to the rapid growth of the city: the introduction of
telegraph connections and a rail connection to Madras in
Bangalore city map, circa 1924 from
"Murray's 1924 Handbook".
In the 19th century, Bangalore essentially became a twin city
, with the "pētē", whose residents were
, and the
"cantonment" created by the British, whose residents were
. Bangalore was hit
by a plague
epidemic in 1898 that
dramatically reduced its population. New extensions in
Malleshwara and Basavanagudi were developed in the north and south of the
Telephone lines were laid to help co-ordinate
anti-plague operations, and a health officer was appointed to the
city in 1898. In 1906, Bangalore became the first city in
India to have electricity, powered by the hydroelectric plant situated in Shivanasamudra.
Bangalore's reputation as the Garden City
of India began in 1927 with the Silver
celebrations of the rule of Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV
projects such as the construction of parks, public buildings and
hospitals were instituted to beautify the city. After Indian
independence in August 1947, Bangalore remained in the new Mysore State
of which the Maharaja of Mysore
was the Rajapramukh
. Public sector
employment and education provided opportunities for Kannadigas from
the rest of the state to migrate to the city. Bangalore experienced
rapid growth in the decades 1941–51 and 1971–81 , which saw the
arrival of many immigrants from northern Karnataka. By 1961,
Bangalore had become the sixth largest city in India, with a
population of 1,207,000.In the decades that followed, Bangalore's
manufacturing base continued to expand with the establishment of
private companies such as Motor Industries
(MICO; a subsidiary of Robert Bosch GmbH
), which set up its
manufacturing plant in the city. Bangalore experienced a growth in
its real estate
market in the 1980s and
1990s, spurred by capital investors from other parts of the country
who converted Bangalore's large plots and colonial bungalows
into multi-storied apartments.
Instruments became the
first multinational to set
up base in Bangalore. Other Information Technology companies
followed suit and by the end of the 20th century, Bangalore had
firmly established itself as the Silicon Valley of India.
Bangalore lies in the southeast of the South
state of Karnataka. It is in the heart of the Mysore
Plateau (a region of the larger Precambrian
Deccan Plateau) at an average
elevation of 920 m (3,018 ft). It is positioned at and
covers an area of 741 km² (286 mi
majority of the city of Bangalore lies in the Bangalore
Urban district of Karnataka and the surrounding rural
areas are a part of the Bangalore
Rural district. The region consisting the Bangalore Urban
and Rural districts is known as the Bangalore . The Government of Karnataka has carved out
the new district of Ramanagara from the old Bangalore Rural district.
The topology of Bangalore is flat except for a central ridge
. The highest point is Doddabettahalli
, which is 962 m
(3,156 ft) and lies on this ridge.No major rivers run
through the city, though the Arkavathi and South Pennar cross paths at the Nandi
Hills, 60 km (37 mi.) to the north.
, a minor
tributary of the Arkavathi, arises within the city at Basavanagudi
and flows through the city. The rivers Arkavathi and Vrishabhavathi
together carry much of Bangalore's sewage
system, constructed in 1922,
covers 215 km² (133 mi²) of the city and connects with
five sewage treatment
located in the periphery of Bangalore.
In the 16th century, Kempe Gowda I constructed many lakes to meet
the town's water requirements. The Kempambudhi Kere, since overrun
by modern development, was prominent among those lakes. In the
earlier half of 20th century, the Nandi Hills waterworks
was commissioned by Sir Mirza Ismail
of Mysore, 1926–41 CE) to provide a
water supply to the city. Currently, the river Kaveri
provides around 80% of the total water supply
to the city with the remaining 20% being obtained from the
Thippagondanahalli and Hesaraghattareservoirs of the Arkavathi
river. Bangalore receives 800 million litres
(211 million US
) of water a day, more than any other Indian
city.However, Bangalore sometimes does face water shortages,
especially during the summer season- more so in the years of low
rainfall. A random sampling
the Air Quality Index
stations within the city indicated scores that ranged from 76 to
314, suggesting heavy to severe air pollution around areas of
has a handful of freshwater lakes and water
tanks, the largest of which are Madivala tank, Hebbal lake, Ulsoor lake and Sankey Tank.
Groundwater occurs in silty
layers of the
sediments. The Peninsular Gneissic
Complex (PGC) is the most dominant rock unit in the area and
while the soils of Bangalore consist of red laterite
and red, fine loamy
in the city is primarily in
the form of large deciduous canopy
and minority coconut
trees. Though Bangalore has been classified
as a part of the seismic zone II (a stable zone), it has
experienced quakes of magnitude as high as 4.5.
Bangalore features a tropical
wet and dry climate
with distinct wet
seasons. Due to its high
elevation, Bangalore usually enjoys a more moderate climate
throughout the year, although occasional heat waves can make things
very uncomfortable in the summer. The coolest month is January with
an average low temperature of 15.1 °C and the hottest month is
April with an average high temperature of 33.6 °C. The highest
temperature ever recorded in Bangalore is 38.9 °C
and the lowest ever is 7.8 °C (on January 1884).
Winter temperatures rarely drop below 12 °C (54 °F), and summer
temperatures seldom exceed 36–37 °C (100 °F). Bangalore receives
rainfall from both the northeast and the southwest monsoons
and the wettest months are September,
October and August, in that order. The summer heat is moderated by
fairly frequent thunderstorms
occasionally cause power outages and local flooding. The heaviest
rainfall recorded in a 24-hour period is recorded on 1 October
||S. Dilip Rau
||Bharat Lal Meena
The Bruhat Bengaluru
(BBMP, Greater Bangalore Municipal
) is in charge of the civic administration of
the city. It was formed in 2007 by merging 100 wards of the
erstwhile Bangalore Mahanagara Palike
, with the
neighbouring 7 City Municipal Councils (CMC), one Town Municipal
Council and 110 villages around Bangalore.
Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike is run by a city council. The
city council comprises elected representatives, called
"corporators", one from each of the wards (localities) of the city.
Elections to the council are held once every 5 years, with results
being decided by popular vote
of the council are also elected
through a quota system from a Scheduled Castes and Tribes
candidate or to an Other Backward
female candidate. Members contesting elections to the
council represent one of more of the state's political parties.
However, elections to the newly created body are yet to be held,
due to delays in delimitation of wards and finalising voter lists.
There are expected to be about 150 wards, up from the 100 wards of
the old Bangalore Mahanagara Palike. Elections are expected to be
held in August 2009.
Bangalore's rapid growth has created several problems relating to
traffic congestion and infrastructural obsolescence that the
Bangalore Mahanagara Palike has found challenging to address. A
2003 Battelle Environmental Evaluation System
evaluation of Bangalore's physical, biological and socioeconomic
parameters indicated that Bangalore's water quality and terrestrial
and aquatic ecosystems
were close to
, while the city's socioeconomic parameters (traffic
, quality of
) scored poorly.
The unplanned nature of growth in the city resulted in massive
that the municipality
attempted to ease by constructing a flyover
system and by imposing one-way traffic systems. Some of the
flyovers and one-ways mitigated the traffic situation moderately
but were unable to adequately address the disproportionate growth
of city traffic. In 2005 both the Central Government
and the State
Government allocated considerable portions of their annual budgets
to address Bangalore's infrastructure. The BBMP works with the
(BDA) and the Agenda for Bengaluru Infrastructure and
Development Task Force (ABIDe) to design and implement civic
projects. Bangalore generates about 3,000 tonnes of solid waste
per day, of which about 1,139 tonnes are
collected and sent to composting
such as the Karnataka Composting Development Corporation. The
remaining solid waste collected by the municipality
is dumped in open spaces or on
roadsides outside the city.
The Bangalore City Police
(BCP) has six geographic zones, includes the Traffic Police, the
City Armed Reserve, the Central Crime Branch and the City Crime
Record Bureau and runs 86 police stations, including two all-women
police stations. As capital of the state of Karnataka,
Bangalore houses important state government facilities such as the
Karnataka High Court, the Vidhana Soudha (the home of the Karnataka state legislature) and
Bhavan (the residence of the Governor of
Bangalore contributes three members to India's
, the Lok
, and 28 members to the Karnataka State Assembly.
in Bangalore is regulated
through the Bangalore Electricity supply Company (BESCOM). Like
many cities in India, Bangalore experiences scheduled power cuts
, especially over the summer, to allow
electricity providers to meet the consumption demands of households
as well as corporations.
Bangalore's economy (2002–03 Net District Income) makes it a major
economic centre in India. With an economic growth of 10.3%,
Bangalore is the fastest growing major metropolis in India.
Additionally, Bangalore is India's fourth largest fast moving consumer goods
market. The city is the third largest hub for high net worth individuals
home to over 10,000 dollar millionaires and about 60,000 super-rich
people who have an investable surplus of and respectively. As of
2001, Bangalore's share of in Foreign Direct Investment
fourth highest for an Indian city.
In the 1940, industrial visionaries such as Sir Mirza Ismail
and Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya
born in nearby Muddenahalli
important role in the development of Bangalore's strong
manufacturing and industrial base.
headquarters of several public
such as Hindustan Aeronautics Limited
(NAL), Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited
(BHEL), Bharat Electronics Limited, Bharat Earth Movers Limited
(BEML) and Hindustan Machine Tools
located in Bangalore. In June 1972 the Indian Space Research
(ISRO) was established under the Department of
Space and headquartered in the city.
Bangalore is called the Silicon Valley of India
the large number of information technology companies located in the
city which contributed 33% of India's IT exports in 2006-07.
Bangalore's IT industry is divided into
three main clusters — Software Technology Parks of
India (STPI); International Tech Park,
Bangalore (ITPB); and Electronics City.
UB City, the headquarters of the United Breweries Group
, is a high-end
commercial zone. Infosys
, India's second and third largest software
companies are headquartered in Bangalore, as are many of the global
SEI-CMM Level 5 Companies
The growth of IT has presented the city with unique challenges.
Ideological clashes sometimes occur between the city's IT moguls,
who demand an improvement in the city's infrastructure, and the
state government, whose electoral base is primarily the people in
rural Karnataka. Bangalore is a hub for biotechnology
related industry in India and in
the year 2005, around 47% of the 265 biotechnology companies in
India were located here; including Biocon
India's largest biotechnology company.
is served by the newly built Bengaluru
International Airport (IATA code: BLR) which started
operations from 24 May 2008. The city was earlier served by the
Airport which was India's fourth busiest airport.
and Kingfisher Airlines have
their headquarters in Bangalore.
A rapid transit system
is being developed
and is expected to be operational by 2011. Once completed, this
will encompass a elevated and underground rail network comprising
41 stations. Bangalore comes under the South Western Railway
zone of the
.Bangalore is well
connected to the rest of the country through the Indian Railways
. The Rajdhani Express connects the city to
Delhi, the capital of India. Bangalore is also
connected by rail to most cities in Karnataka, as well as Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, Hyderabad, Mysore and other
major cities in India.
Three-wheeled, black and yellow auto-rickshaws
, referred to as autos
are a popular form of transport. They are metered and can
accommodate up to three passengers. Taxi service within Bangalore
is provided by several operators commonly referred to as Citi
which can carry up to four passengers and are usually
metered and more expensive than auto-rickshaws.
Buses operated by Bangalore
Metropolitan Transport Corporation
(BMTC) are also a means of
public transport available in the city. While commuters can buy
tickets on boarding these buses, BMTC also provides an option of a
bus pass to frequent users. BMTC also runs air-conditioned Volvo
buses on major routes. The Karnataka State Road
operates 6,600 buses on 5,700 schedules,
connecting Bangalore with other parts of Karnataka as well as other
With an estimated population of 5.8 million in 2009, Bangalore is
the third most populous city in India and the 28th most populous
city in the world. Bangalore was the fastest-growing Indian
metropolis after New Delhi between 1991–2001, with a growth rate of
38% during the decade. Residents of Bangalore are referred to as
in English or Bengaloorinavaru
, whose native speakers form about
39% of the city's population.
The cosmopolitan nature of the city has resulted in the migration
of people from other states to Bangalore. Scheduled Castes and
Tribes account for 14.3% of the city's population. Apart from
, other major languages spoken in
the city are Tamil
According to the 2001 census of India, 79.37% of Bangalore's
population is Hindu
, roughly the same as the
comprise 13.37% of the population, which
again is roughly the same as the national average, while Christians
for 5.79% and 1.05% of the population, respectively, double that of
their national averages. Anglo-Indians
also form a substantial group within the city. Women make up 47.5%
of Bangalore's population. Bangalore has the second highest
literacy rate (83%) for an Indian metropolis, after Mumbai.
10% of Bangalore's population lives in slums —
a relatively low proportion when compared to other cities in the
developing world such as Mumbai (42%) and Nairobi (60%).
The 2004 National
Crime Records Bureau
statistics indicate that Bangalore
accounts for 9.2% of the total crimes reported from 35 major cities
, a traditional celebratory
hallmark of the old Kingdom of
, is the state festival and is celebrated with great
Bangalore is known as the Garden City of India
its greenery and the presence of many public parks, including the
The city will celebrate which is known to be Bangalore's most
important and oldest festivals called "Karaga Shaktyotsava" or
, the "Festival of Lights", transcends
demographic and religious lines and is another important festival.
Other traditional Indian
such as Ganesh
, and Christmas
Bangalore is home to the Kannada
, which churns out about 80 Kannada movies each
year. One of the most notable contributors to Sandalwood, as the
Kannada Movie Industry is referred to, was the late Dr. Rajkumar
The diversity of cuisine is reflective of the social and economic
diversity of Bangalore. Roadside vendors, tea
, and South Indian, North Indian, Chinese
fast food are all very popular in the
restaurants are very
popular and serve predominantly vegetarian, regional cuisine.
Bangalore is also a major center of Indian classical music and
dance. Classical music and dance recitals are widely held
throughout the year and particularly during the Ramanavami and
Bengaluru Gayana Samaja
been at the forefront of promoting classical music and dance in the
also has a vibrant Kannada theater scene with organizations like
Shankara leading the
Bangalore is also sometimes called as the "Pub
Capital of India" and is one of the premier
places to hold international rock concerts.
- Sister Cities
is one of the most popular sports in
Bangalore. A significant number of national cricketers have come
from Bangalore, including former Indian cricket team
captains Rahul Dravid
, and Robin Uthappa
children play gully cricket
roads and in the city's many public fields. Bangalore's main
international cricket stadium is the M. Chinnaswamy Stadium, which has a seating capacity of 40,000 and has
hosted matches during the 1987
Cricket World Cup and 1996
Cricket World Cup.
The Chinnaswamy Stadium is also the
home of India's National
The Indian Premier League
franchise Bangalore Royal
, the Premier
franchise Bangalore Hi-fliers
, and the Karnataka Premier League
are based in the city. India's Davis Cup
team members, Mahesh Bhupathi
and Rohan Bopanna
also reside in Bangalore. The
city hosts the Women's Tennis
(WTA) Bangalore Open
annually. Beginning September,
2008, Bangalore will also host the Kingfisher Airlines Tennis
Bangalore has a number of elite clubs, like Century Club,The
Bangalore Golf Club, the Bowring Institute
and the exclusive Bangalore Club
which counts among its previous members Winston Churchill
and the Maharaja of
Mysore. The Hindustan
Aeronautics Limited SC
is based in Bangalore. Other sports
personalities from Bangalore include national swimming champion
, world snooker
and former All England
champion Prakash Padukone
Until the early 19th century, education in Bangalore was mainly run
by religious leaders and restricted to students of that religion.
The western system of education was introduced during the rule of
, when two schools were established in Bangalore.
Subsequently, Wesleyan Mission established a school in 1851 and the
Bangalore High School which was started by the Government in
In post-independent India, schools for young children are mainly
based on the kindergarten
education. Primary and secondary education in Bangalore is offered
by various schools which are affiliated to one of the boards of
education, such as the Secondary School Leaving
. Schools in
Bangalore are either government run or are private (both aided and
un-aided by the government). After completing their secondary
education, students typically attend Pre University
(PUC) in one of
completing the required coursework, students enroll in general or
professional degrees in univerities. The Bangalore University
1964, provides affiliation to about 500 colleges, with a total
student enrollment exceeding 300,000. The university has two
campuses within Bangalore – Jnanabharathi and Central
Indian Institute of
, which was established in 1909 in Bangalore, is the
premier institute for scientific research and study in India.
Nationally renouned professional institutes
such as the National Law School of India
University (NLSIU), the Indian Institute of
Management, Bangalore (IIM-B) and the Indian Statistical Institute
are located in Bangalore.
The city is also home to the
premier mental health institution in India National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro
The first printing-press was established in Bangalore in the year
1840. In 1859, Bangalore Herald
became the first English
bi-weekly newspaper to be published in Bangalore and in 1860,
Mysore Vrittanta Bodhini
became the first Kannada
newspaper to be circulated in Bangalore. Currently, Vijaya Karnataka
and The Times of India
are the most
widely circulated Kannada and English newspapers in Bangalore
respectively, closely followed by the Prajavani
and Deccan Herald
both owned by the Printers
(Mysore) Limited - the largest print media house in
Bangalore got its first radio station when All India Radio
, the official broadcaster
for the Indian Government
broadcasting from its Bangalore station on 2 November 1955. The
radio transmission was AM
until in 2001, Radio City
first private channel in India to start transmitting FM
radio from Bangalore. In recent
years, a number of FM channels have started broadcasting from
Bangalore. The city also has India's Oldest Amateur (Ham) Radio
Club - Bangalore Amateur Radio Club VU2ARC celebrating its Golden
Jubliee along with Hamfest India HFI 2009 this November amongst
various clubs for HAM radio
Bangalore has a number of newspapers and magazines that cater to
the varied interests. Magazines like Open and 080
lifestyle, citizen issues and fashion, newspapers like Mid-Day and
Vijay Karnataka provide localised news updates. On the web (as
Bangalore is the silicon city of India), Explocity
provides listings information, while My
Bangalore is more news centric.
Bangalore got its first look at television when Doordarshan
established a relay centre here and
started relaying programs from 1 November 1981. A production center
was established in the Doordarshan's Bangalore office in 1983,
thereby allowing the introduction of a news program in Kannada on
19 November 1983. Doordarshan also launched a Kannada satellite
channel on 15 August 1991 which is now christened DD Chandana
. The advent of private satellite
channels in Bangalore started in September 1991 when Star TV
started to broadcast its channels. Though
the number of satellite TV channels available for viewing in
Bangalore has grown over the years, the cable operators play a
major role in the availability of these channels, which has led to
occasional conflicts. Direct To Home
services are also available in Bangalore now.
The first internet service
in Bangalore was STPI, Bangalore which started
offering internet services in early 1990s. This internet service
was however restricted to corporates, until VSNL
started offering dial-up
services to the general public at the end of 1995.
Currently, Bangalore has the largest number of broadband internet
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