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The Banovina of Croatia or Banate of Croatia (Croatian, Serbian, Serbo-Croatian: Banovina Hrvatska) was a province (banovina) of the Kingdom of Yugoslaviamarker between 1939 and 1943 (de facto up to 1941). Its capital was at Zagrebmarker and it included most of present-day Croatiamarker along with portions of Bosnia and Herzegovinamarker and Serbiamarker. It included area of 65 456 km2 and had population of 4 024 601. Its flag was the red white and blue Croatian tricolor. Ban of the Banovina of Croatia in that period was Ivan Šubašić.

History

The banovinas of Yugoslavia, established in 1929, deliberately avoided following ethnic or religious boundaries which resulted in the country's ethnic Croats, like other ethnic groups, being divided among several banovinas. Following a struggle within the unitary Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Croat leaders won autonomy for a new ethnic-based banovina with the Cvetković-Maček Agreement.

On the basis of the political agreement between Dragiša Cvetković and Vlatko Maček, and the Decree on the Banate of Croatia (Uredba o Banovini Hrvatskoj) dated August 24th 1939, the Banate of Croatia was created. The entire area of the Sava and Littoral Banovinas was combined and parts of the Vrbas, Zeta, Drina and Danube banovinas (districts Brčko, Derventamarker, Dubrovnikmarker, Fojnicamarker, Gradačacmarker, Ilokmarker, Šidmarker and Travnikmarker) were added to form the Banate of Croatia. The borders of the Banate of Croatia are partly the historical borders of Croatiamarker, and partly based on the application of the principle of ethnicity according to which Bosnian and Herzegovinian territory with a majority Croat population was annexed to the Banate.

Under the Agreement, central government continued to control defense, internal security, foreign affairs, trade, and transport; but an elected Sabormarker and a crown-appointed ban would decide internal matters in Croatia. Ironically, the Agreement fueled separatism. Maček and other Croats viewed autonomy as a first step toward full Croatian independence, so they began haggling over territory; Serbs attacked Cvetković, charging that the Agreement brought them no return to democracy and no autonomy; Muslims demanded an autonomous Bosniamarker; and Slovenes and Montenegrins espoused federalism. Regent Pavle appointed a new government with Cvetković as prime minister and Maček as vice prime minister, but it gained little support.

In 1941, the World War II Axis Powers occupied Yugoslavia, and establishing a government-in-exile in London. Legally, the Banovina of Croatia remained a part of the occupied Kingdom of Yugoslavia, while the Axis proceeded to dimember Yugoslav territory and the Banovina along with it. Some of the coastal areas from Splitmarker to Zadarmarker and near the Gulf of Kotormarker were annexed by Fascist Italy but the remainder was added to the Independent State of Croatiamarker, a Nazi puppet-state formed in occupied Yugoslavia. As the Kingdom of Yugoslaviamarker became the Democratic Federal Yugoslaviamarker with the success of the Yugoslav Partisans, a new Federal State of Croatia was established within it, succeeding the Banovina.

Population

Banovina of Croatia was populated mostly by Croats (74%), but it also had large Serb minority (19%). It was divided on 99 kotars of which 81 had Croat majority, 17 Serbian (12 absolute, 5 relative) and 1 which Muslim majority which were not considered separate nation at the time.

Maps

File:Banovine kj.jpg|Bannates of the Kingdom of Yugoslaviamarker prior to the establishment of the Banovina of Croatia

See also



References

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