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Barbara Levy Boxer (born November 11, 1940) is an Americanmarker Democratic politician and the current junior U.S. Senator from the State of Californiamarker. Boxer was first elected to the U.S. Senate in 1992, becoming one of the first of two female Jewish senators, along with Dianne Feinstein.

With the convening of the 110th Congress, Boxer became the first female chairman of the Environment and Public Works Committee and, following the resignation of Sen. Tim Johnson (D-South Dakotamarker) from the post, she was also chosen as chairman of the Select Committee on Ethics. This made her the only senator to preside over two committees at the same time. She holds the record for the most popular votes in a statewide contested election in California, having received 6,955,728 votes in her 2004 re-election over former Republican Secretary of State Bill Jones.

She currently holds the position of Chief Deputy Whip of the Democratic Majority.

Early life and family

Boxer was born Barbara Levy in Brooklyn, New Yorkmarker to Jewish parents Sophie Silvershein (born in Austriamarker) and Ira Levy. She attended public schools, and graduated from Wingate High School in 1958.

In 1962, she married Stewart Boxer and graduated from Brooklyn Collegemarker with a Bachelor's Degree in Economics.

Boxer worked as a stockbroker for the next three years, while her husband went to law school. Later, the couple moved to Greenbraemarker, Marin County, Californiamarker, and had two children, Doug and Nicole. She first ran for political office in 1972, when she challenged incumbent Peter Arrigoni, a member of the Marin County Board of Supervisors, but lost a close election. Later during the 1970s, Boxer worked as a journalist for the Pacific Sun and as an aide to John Burton, then a member of Congress. In 1976, Boxer was elected to the Marin County Board of Supervisors, serving for six years. During this time she served as the first woman president of the board.

In 1994,her daughter Nicole married Tony Rodham, brother of then-First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton, in a ceremony at the White Housemarker. The couple had one son, Zachary, and divorced in 2000.

Boxer's husband, Stewart, is a prominent attorney in Oakland, who specializes in worker's compensation cases (on the side of injured workers) and is known for keeping a very low profile when it comes to politics. Many cases are referred to him by labor unions, including the Teamsters. In 2006, the Boxers sold their house in Greenbrae, where they had lived for many years, and moved to Oakland, near Stewart's office. Their son, Douglas, a lawyer, practices with Stewart and is a member of the Oakland Planning Commission, having been appointed to that office by then-mayor Edmund G. "Jerry" Brown, Jr.

According to one story, which Boxer has acknowledged, in 1972, Stewart had planned to run for the Marin County Board of Supervisors, but decided the campaign would interfere with his law practice in Oakland, so Barbara ran instead. She was supported in that election by Marin Alternative, a broad-based, liberal political organization which she had helped found a few years before. A very active force in Marin County politics for a while, Marin Alternative dissolved in the late 1970s.

Senator Boxer is 4'11" tall. Along with Barbara Mikulski, Boxer is one of the two shortest United States Senators currently in office. She uses a box (known as the Boxer Box) for height when speaking at a lectern.

Boxer's first novel, A Time to Run, published in 2005 by San Franciscomarker-based publishing company Chronicle Books, was released to a mixed reception. Her second novel Blind Trust was released in July 2009 by Chronicle Books.

U.S. Representative

Boxer was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1982, defeating Dennis McQuaid. Her slogan was "Barbara Boxer Gives a Damn." In the House, she represented California District 6marker (Marin and Sonoma Counties) for five terms.

During this time she focused on human rights, environmental protection, military procurement reform, and abortion issues, from a pro-choice stance. She was also involved in seeking protection for whistleblowers in government and pushed for higher budget allocations for health, biomedical research, and education.

Boxer, a member of the House Armed Services Committee, exposed, with the help of the Project on Military Procurement (now Project On Government Oversight, known as POGO), the '$7,600 Pentagonmarker coffee pot' and successfully passed more than a dozen procurement reforms.

Boxer was embarrassed by the House banking scandal, in which more than 450 Congressional representatives and aides, herself included, wrote overdraft checks covered by overdraft protection by the House Bank. In response, she issued a statement saying "in painful retrospect, I clearly should have paid more attention to my account" and wrote a $15 check to the Deficit Reduction Fund for each of her 87 overdrafts.

In 1991, during the Anita Hill Senate hearings, where Hill accused U.S. Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas of sexual harassment, Boxer led a group of women House members to the Senate Judiciary Committee demanding that the all-white, all-male Committee of Senators take Hill's charges seriously. This helped propel Boxer's candidacy for the U.S. Senate in 1992, when a record number of women ran for the U.S. Senate.

U.S. Senator

Elections

Senator Boxer's predecessor, Democrat Alan Cranston, retired in 1992. She won the open seat contest in the US Senate elections that year. She defeated Bruce Herschensohn, a conservative television political commentator, by 4.9 percentage points after a last-minute revelation that Herschensohn had attended a strip club. In 1998, she was re-elected for a second term, beating Matt Fong, a former state treasurer, by 10 percentage points. She had decided to retire in 2004 but says she decided to run to "fight for the right to dissent" against conservatives like Tom DeLay. After facing no primary opposition in the 2004 election, Boxer defeated GOP candidate Bill Jones, a former California Secretary of State, by a margin of 20 percentage points.

A September 2009 poll places her approval rating at 41% and her disapproval rating at 48%. A March 2009 field poll found voters about evenly divided on Boxer's re-election, with 43% inclined to support her and 44% leaning against.

Committee assignments



A member of the Senate Democratic Leadership, Boxer serves as the Democratic Chief Deputy Whip, which gives her the job of lining up votes on key legislation. She also serves on the Democratic Policy Committee's Committee on Oversight and Investigations.

Objection to certification of 2004 U.S. Presidential Election electoral votes

On January 6, 2005, Boxer joined Representative Stephanie Tubbs Jones of Ohiomarker in filing a U.S. congressional objection to the certification of Ohio's Electoral College votes in the 2004 U.S. presidential election. She called the objection her "opening shot to be able to focus the light of truth on these terrible problems in the electoral system". The Senate voted the objection down 1–74; the House voted the objection down 31–267. It was only the second Congressional objection to an entire State's electoral delegation in U.S. history; the first instance was in 1877.

As a gesture of appreciation and support for her stance on the alleged Presidential election irregularities and Condoleezza Rice's confirmation hearings, Stacy Davies of California began, via e-mail, the "Barbara Boxer Rose Campaign", wherein people collaborated to buy Senator Boxer roses.

2008 Democratic nomination campaign

As a superdelegate, Boxer had declared that she would support the winner of the California Democratic primary, 2008 contest, which was won by Hillary Clinton.However, she remained neutral and only officially backed Barack Obama's candidacy the day after the last primaries, once he had garnered enough delegate votes to clinch the nomination.

2010 election

On 19 February 2007, Boxer announced that she will seek a fourth term in 2010. "You can't wait until the last minute", she said. She estimates that she will need $20 million for the campaign. The announcement was made at a fundraiser hosted by Barack Obama. It is unlikely that she will face a major challenger in the Democratic primary. Celebrity CEO Carly Fiorina has filed and begun campaigning for the June 2010 Republican primary.

Bills and policy positions

Health care

Senator Boxer is part of a coalition to increase medical research to find cures for diseases. In 2007, she authored successful bipartisan legislation with Senator Gordon Smith to combat HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis globally. She authored a Patients' Bill of Rights in 1997. She has written a bill to make health insurance tax deductible and another bill to let any American buy into the same health insurance program that members of Congress have. She supports comprehensive prescription drug coverage through Medicare and the right of all consumers to purchase lower-cost prescription drugs re-imported from Canadamarker.

In October 2002, Boxer urged the Bush Administration to take specific steps to address the causes of the steep increase in autism cases in California. She wrote Health and Human Services (HHS) Secretary Tommy Thompson to establish a common national standard for the diagnosis of autism; instruct the CDC and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry to convene a task force to review the current literature on autism and conduct its own study if necessary; and direct the National Institutes of Healthmarker (NIH) and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) to work with the states to create a national chronic disease database.

Boxer is an advocate for embryonic stem-cell research, which has the potential to help those with diabetes, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, spinal cord injuries, and other diseases.

Education

Boxer introduced legislation providing Federal funding for local after-school programs, which have been shown to increase student performance while decreasing juvenile delinquency, crime, and drug use. Her 'Computers in Classrooms' law encourages the donation of computers and software to schools.

Boxer supported the No Child Left Behind Act. Since its passage in 2001, she claims that the bill has been underfunded by billions of dollars. She vows to work towards a goal that assures it will be fully funded going forward, as originally pledged by former President George W. Bush.

Boxer has voted to increase the maximum award for the Pell Grant program, which provides grants to lower income students for college. In addition, she has supported tax benefits that she claims will help more families pay for higher education.

Boxer has co-introduced legislation that she claims is designed to allow college graduates to refinance their student loans at market rate, in order to ease the financial burden on those starting their careers.

Boxer established the Excellence in Education award to recognize teachers, parents, businesses and organizations that are working to make positive changes in education. Since 1997 Senator Boxer has presented the Excellence in Education Award to 38 recipients.

The economy

Senators Boxer and John Ensign (R-NV) are the authors of the Invest in the USA Act. This legislation, which was signed into law in October 2004 as a small part of the more comprehensive American Jobs Creation Act, is intended to encourage American companies to bring overseas profits back to the United States, to create jobs in the U.S., and stimulate domestic economic growth. According to one economic estimate, the Invest in the USA Act will create over 600,000 new American jobs.

In March 2004, Boxer offered an amendment to the Federal budget to create a $24 billion jobs reserve fund. The amendment would set aside funds for a variety of investments to improve the economy and create jobs by establishing a manufacturing jobs tax credit for companies that create jobs in the United States, expanding investment in science research and development, providing a tax credit to small businesses to pay for health insurance for their employees, and expanding trade adjustment assistance to help those who lose their jobs because of foreign trade. The Boxer amendment would also end the tax break that companies receive after moving plants overseas.

On October 1, 2008, Boxer voted in favor of the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act.

The environment

Boxer successfully led the 2003 Senate floor battle to block oil drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refugemarker. In 2005, Boxer voted again to block oil drilling at ANWR.

Boxer has introduced the National Oceans Protection Act (NOPA) of 2005. Some of the provisions of this act are: strengthen ocean governance; protect and restore marine wildlife and habitats; address ocean pollution; improve fisheries management. The bill also addresses needs regarding marine science, research and technology, marine mammals, coastal development, and invasive species.

Boxer is an original cosponsor of Senator Jim Jeffords’ (I-VT) Clean Power Act. This legislation would reduce emissions of four pollutants coming from power plants; sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide and mercury.

As the new head of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee in January 2007, Boxer wants to reduce energy consumption. She is attempting to curb global warming by leading pilot programs. The few things that she and some of her fellow Senators are doing could cut electricity consumption by as much as 50 percent in their Capitol Hill offices.

Senator Boxer was the Senate sponsor of the Northern California Coastal Wild Heritage Wilderness Act, which was signed in to law by President George W. Bush on October 17, 2006. The bill protected of federal land as wilderness and of stream as a wild and scenic river, including such popular areas as the King Range and Cache Creek. Senator Boxer worked with Senator Dianne Feinstein and Representative Mike Thompson (the bill's House sponsor) in the five-year effort to pass the legislation.

Boxer along with her colleague Dianne Feinstein voted in favor of subsidy payments to conventional commodity farm producers at the cost of subsidies for conservation-oriented farming.

Abortion



Boxer authored the Freedom of Choice Act of 2004 and participated in the floor fight for passage of the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act.

Boxer is an original cosponsor of the Title X Family Planning Services Act of 2005, S.844, by Senator Hillary Clinton (D-NY). This legislation aims to improve access to women's health care. It authorizes funding for family planning services grants; allows states to provide such services to individuals who may not be eligible for Medicaid; prohibits health insurance providers from excluding contraceptive services, drugs or devices from benefits; establishes a program to disseminate information on emergency contraception; requires hospitals receiving federal funding to offer emergency contraception to victims of sexual assault; provides grants to public and private entities to establish or expand teen pregnancy prevention programs; and requires that federally funded education programs about contraception be medically accurate and include information about health benefits and failure rates.

She was strongly critical of the Stupak-Pitts Amendment, which places limits on taxpayer-funded abortions in the context of the November 2009 Affordable Health Care for America Act.

Victims of violence

As a member of the House of Representatives, Boxer authored the original Violence Against Women Act. Later in 1994, she cosponsored, and the Senate passed, the Violence Against Women Act, which provided reforms to the criminal justice system to better prosecute violent crimes against women, and provided Federal funding to local law enforcement agencies for training and equipment necessary for prosecution. Boxer has also authored the Violence Against Children Act, based on the successful VAWA. (Boxer has been a consistent advocate of the death penalty until recently. In 2006, she introduced a bill calling for a moratorium on the death penalty.)

Social Security

Boxer supports the current system of Social Security, and opposed President George W. Bush's plan for partial privatization of Social Security. She introduced the 401(k) Pension Protection Act to protect retirement by requiring the diversification of 401(k) plans. A modified version of the bill was signed into law as part of the 1997 tax bill.

Following the Enron scandal, Boxer again worked to ensure that retirement plans are diversified. She also introduced a bill to prohibit accounting firms from auditing and consulting for the same company.

National security

After the September 11, 2001 attacks, Boxer authored a bill to protect commercial airliners against attacks by shoulder-fired missiles, and wrote the law allowing airline pilots with special training to carry guns in the cockpit.



Boxer wrote the High-Tech Port Security Act, and sponsored the Chemical Security Act to address terrorist threats against chemical plants. Senator Boxer also cosponsored comprehensive rail security legislation.

Iraq War

In October 2002, Boxer voted against the joint resolution passed by the U.S. Congress to authorize the use of military force by the Bush Administration against Iraqmarker.In June 2005, Senators Boxer and Russ Feingold (D-WI) cosponsored Senate Resolution 171 calling for a timeframe for U.S. troop withdrawal from Iraq.

Boxer's petition demanding an exit strategy from Iraq drew 107,218 signatures.

Surveillance

In June 2008 Boxer spoke in the Senate in opposition to the FISA Amendments Act of 2008, a pending bill in the United States Congress to amend the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, and later broke with her counterpart Sen. Dianne Feinstein and voted against it.

Election reform

Senators Boxer and Clinton unveil the Count Every Vote Act.
(2005-02-18)
On February 18, 2005 Senators Boxer, Hillary Clinton, and Representative Stephanie Tubbs Jones introduced the Count Every Vote Act of 2005, which would provide a voter verified paper ballot for every vote cast in electronic voting machines and ensure access to voter verification for all citizens. The bill mandates that this ballot be the official ballot for purposes of a recount. The bill sets a uniform standard for provisional ballots and requires the Federal Election Assistance Commission to issue standards that ensure uniform access to voting machines and trained election personnel in every community. The bill also mandated improved security measures for electronic voting machines. The bill did not pass.

Bush nominees

During the confirmation hearings for the United States Secretary of State nominee Condoleezza Rice in January 2005, Boxer challenged her to admit to alleged mistakes and false statements made by the Bush Administration in leading the United States into the 2003 invasion of Iraq, and ultimately voted against confirmation, along with twelve other senators.The dissent was the highest vote against a Secretary of State nominee since 1825 when Henry Clay was so named.

Boxer voted against John Bolton's nomination for U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations in the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, and filibustered him on the Senate floor. As a result of the strong Democratic opposition Bolton could not obtain Senate approval. However, President Bush bypassed the Senate by employing the constitutional right of recess appointment, only the second time such an appointment has been used for a United States ambassador to the United Nations since the UN's founding in 1945. Recess appointments themselves have been used numerous times by various presidents.

Boxer voted against the confirmation of Chief Justice of the United States nominee John Roberts, and against the confirmation of Associate Justice nominee Samuel Alito. Her votes against these two nominees were motivated by concerns over their record on abortion, women's rights, and the proper role of executive authority.

Foreign policy

In 1997, the Senate passed a Boxer resolution calling on the United States not to recognize the Taliban as the official government of Afghanistanmarker because of its human rights abuses against women.



In 2002, Senator Boxer voted against the U.S. invasion of Iraq. She has subsequently referred to that vote as the best vote of her career. She also voted against the first Gulf War (Operation Desert Storm) while a member of the House in 1991 and was a very vocal protester against the Vietnam War in the 1970s.

Boxer is a cosponsor of S. 495, or the Darfur Accountability Act of 2005, which would impose sanctions against perpetrators of crimes against humanity in Darfurmarker.

The Internet

Along with former Republican Senator George Allen (R-VA), Boxer authored the Jumpstart Broadband Act. This bill would make more spectrum available for use by devices that incorporate new broadband technology, such as WiFi. The Federal Communications Commission is now implementing the Boxer-Allen bill.

Boxer opposes access and sales taxes on the Internet, co-authoring a bill with Republican Sen. George Allen in 2001 to extend the Internet tax moratorium for five years.

Gun control

Senator Boxer joined colleagues to pass a Federal ban on various semi-automatic firearms and established the COPS program. She supports reauthorization of both programs.

LGBT issues

The Human Rights Campaign gave Boxer ratings of 100%, 88% and 100% for the 107th, 108th, and 110th sessions of Congress, respectively, indicating a support of the HRC's slate of pro-gay legislative issues. In 1996, she was one of fourteen Senators to vote against the Defense of Marriage Act and also voted against the Federal Marriage Amendment in 2004 and 2006, although when San Franciscomarker Mayor Gavin Newsom issued a directive to the city-county clerk to issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples she stated that she supported California's domestic partnership law but agreed with its definition that marriage was between a man and a woman. She has also co-sponsored the Matthew Shepard Act, which would expand the federal definition of hate crimes to include crimes based on the victim's sexual orientation and gender identity, as well as the Uniting American Families Act. She opposed Proposition 8, a constitutional amendment that, if passed, would eliminate the right of same-sex couples to marry in California. Proposition 8 passed with a 52.30% to 47.70% majority.

India-U.S. nuclear deal

Boxer is one of the most outspoken critics of the nuclear energy deal between the United States and Indiamarker. Boxer is of the opinion that India should not get help from the U.S. in the civilian nuclear energy sector until it breaks its relationship with Iran.

Indian gaming

The Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria, formerly the Federated Coast Miwok, was officially recognized by the U.S. government on December 27, 2000, pursuant to an act of Congress. California 6th District Representative Lynn Woolsey introduced the Graton Rancheria Restoration Act (105th CONGRESS, 2d Session, H.R. 4434) 6 August 1998. It was ultimately approved and signed by President Clinton as Title XIV of the Omnibus Indian Advancement Act (Public Law No. 106-568).

Representative Woolsey's original bill (H.R. 4434, later H.R. 946) would not have permitted the FIGR to have a casino. Senator Boxer removed that prohibition when she included Woolsey's bill in the Omnibus Act.

Censuring President Bush

Senator Boxer was, along with Iowamarker Senator Tom Harkin, one of only two Senate Democrats to come out in favor of Wisconsinmarker Senator Russ Feingold's resolution to censure President George W. Bush.

Support for Fellow Democrats

Senator Boxer is a major supporter of fellow Democrats running for office. Boxer’s PAC for a Change, an ActBlue-active PAC, is a progressive organization that advocated for basic human rights, economic justice, and social justice, and supports candidates who share those values.

Congressional scorecards

See also

Project Vote Smart provides the following results from congressional scorecards.



Public image, political reception and controversy

US Senator Barbara Boxer (2007)


As a movement progressive or liberal and also a feminist, Boxer, who is diminutive in stature, has often been described as a fighter and as feisty, both by herself and in news accounts.

In July 2009, Boxer interrupted Brigadier General Michael Walsh of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers during a Senate committee meeting on Louisiana coastal protection. Gen. Walsh had addressed her as "Ma'am," which is a sign of respect in the military. Senator Boxer insisted that he address her as "senator" because, she said, she had "worked hard for her title."

Criticizing Condoleezza Rice's judgment

Boxer criticized then United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice's judgment in relation to the war in Iraq: "I personally believe this is my personal view that your loyalty to the mission you were given, to sell the war, overwhelmed your respect for the truth."

In January 2007, Boxer was in the news for comments she made when responding to Bush's plans to send an additional 20,000 troops to Iraq. "Who pays the price?" Boxer asked Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice. "I'm not going to pay a personal price. My kids are too old and my grandchild is too young. You're not going to pay a personal price, as I understand it, with an immediate family. So who pays the price? The American military and their families... not me, not you." When Rice interjected, Boxer responded by saying, "Madam Secretary, please. I know you feel terrible about it. That's not the point. I was making the case as to who pays the price for your decisions. And the fact that this administration would move forward with this escalation with no clue as to the further price that we're going to pay militarily... I find really appalling."

The New York Post and White House Press Secretary Tony Snow considered this an attack on Rice's status as a single, childless female and referred to Boxer's comments as "a great leap backward for feminism." Rice later echoed Snow's remarks, saying "I thought it was okay to not have children, and I thought you could still make good decisions on behalf of the country if you were single and didn’t have children."Boxer responded to the controversy by saying "They’re getting this off on a non-existent thing that I didn’t say. I’m saying, she’s like me, we do not have families who are in the military."

Keith Olbermann accused the commentators, particularly Rush Limbaugh, of making Boxer's comments into an issue when the same people were not outraged when "Laura Bush said Secretary Rice would never be elected president because she was not married."

Television appearances

She has made cameo appearances as herself in several television shows, including Murphy Brown (1994), Gilmore Girls (2002) and Curb Your Enthusiasm (2007), as well as a cameo (as herself) in the 2000 film Traffic.

Awards and honors

Boxer has been honored in Congress by:

Boxer has been recognized as a champion of human rights by:

Boxer has been awarded with two Doctor of Laws honorary degrees, one from Mills Collegemarker and the other from Dominican University of Californiamarker.

Major speeches and statements



Congressional service

Public Offices
Office Branch Location Elected Term began Term ended
Representative Legislative Washington, D.C.marker 1982 3 January 1983 3 January 1985
Representative Legislative Washington, D.C.marker 1984 3 January 1985 3 January 1987
Representative Legislative Washington, D.C.marker 1986 3 January 1987 3 January 1989
Representative Legislative Washington, D.C.marker 1988 3 January 1989 3 January 1991
Representative Legislative Washington, D.C.marker 1990 3 January 1991 3 January 1993
Senator Legislative Washington, D.C.marker 1992 3 January 1993 3 January 1999
Senator Legislative Washington, D.C.marker 1998 3 January 1999 3 January 2005
Senator Legislative Washington, D.C.marker 2004 3 January 2005 3 January 2011


United States Congressional service
Dates Congress Chamber Majority President Committees Class/District
1983–1985 98th U.S. House Democratic Ronald Reagan Armed Services District 6marker
1985–1987 99th U.S. House Democratic Ronald Reagan Armed Services District 6marker
1987–1989 100th U.S. House Democratic Ronald Reagan Armed Services District 6marker
1989–1991 101st U.S. House Democratic George H. W. Bush Armed Services District 6marker
1991–1993 102nd U.S. House Democratic George H. W. Bush Armed Services District 6marker
1993–1995 103rd U.S. Senate Democratic Bill Clinton Commerce, Environment, Foreign Relations Class 3
1995–1997 104th U.S. Senate Republican Bill Clinton Commerce, Environment, Foreign Relations Class 3
1997–1999 105th U.S. Senate Republican Bill Clinton Commerce, Environment, Foreign Relations Class 3
1999–2001 106th U.S. Senate Republican Bill Clinton Commerce, Environment, Foreign Relations Class 3
2001–2003 107th U.S. Senate Republican George W. Bush Commerce, Environment, Foreign Relations Class 3
2003–2005 108th U.S. Senate Republican George W. Bush Commerce, Environment, Foreign Relations Class 3
2005–2007 109th U.S. Senate Republican George W. Bush Commerce, Environment, Foreign Relations Class 3
2007–2009 110th U.S. Senate Democratic George W. Bush Commerce, Environment (chair), Foreign Relations Class 3
2009-Present 111th U.S. Senate Democratic Barack Obama Commerce, Environment (chair), Foreign Relations Class 3


Electoral history

References

  1. 1
  2. Information on Senator Barbara Boxer of California
  3. Bioguide
  4. Barbara Boxer (1940– ) By Seymour "Sy" Brody
  5. The New York Times: "A Rose Garden Wedding", May 30, 1994, accessed 6 May 2006
  6. http://www.shortsupport.org/cgi/n_whowho_bio.cgi?seq=13&orderby=height&direction=ASC
  7. http://www.shortsupport.org/cgi/n_whowho_bio.cgi?seq=301&orderby=height&direction=ASC
  8. 10 Questions For Barbara Boxer - TIME
  9. SFGate.com, Accessed 6 May 2006
  10. Government Relations
  11. The House Bank; House Bank Overdrafts Add to Voters' Outrage - New York Times
  12. Clinton Woes a Snag for 3 Female Incumbents
  13. Beware the Trickster
  14. BioGuide
  15. http://www.surveyusa.com/client/PollReport.aspx?g=f6f2e5a0-bfb7-4f50-8f43-3b05c4edc9a1
  16. http://www.latimes.com/news/local/la-me-fiorina9-2009jul09,0,4768014.story
  17. http://boxer.senate.gov/news/record.cfm?id=230450
  18. http://www.cnn.com/2005/ALLPOLITICS/01/06/electoral.vote/
  19. http://www.freepress.org/departments/display/19
  20. http://www.thegreenpapers.com/G04/EC-Tabulation.phtml
  21. http://www.yubanet.com/cgi-bin/artman/exec/view.cgi/13/16942
  22. http://imdiversity.com/villages/woman/politics_law/ong_barbara_boxer_0305.asp
  23. "Fiorina takes initial step to challenge Boxer" by Alexander Mooney, Political Ticker, CNN, August 18, 2009
  24. CarlyForCalifornia.com, Official campaign website
  25. Recent Press Release from Barbara Boxer, US Senator from California
  26. Strengthening the Economy: Barbara Boxer, US Senator, California
  27. For the whole paragraph: Boxer page on U.S. Senate website, Accessed 6 May 2006
  28. An Open Letter to Nancy Reagan, by Barbara Boxer, Accessed 6 May 2006
  29. For the whole section except where noted: U.S. Senate Boxer website, Education, Accessed 6 May 2006
  30. Boxer website: Excellence in Education Awards, Accessed 6 May 2006
  31. http://boxer.senate.gov/issues/economy/
  32. [1]
  33. For the whole section, except where noted: Boxer Website: The Environment, Accessed 6 May 2006
  34. oceanconservancy.org: Senator Boxer Introduces National Oceans Protection Act of 2005, Accessed 6 May 2006
  35. Senate.gov: Statement by Barbara Boxer before the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee, June 12, 2002, Accessed 6 May 2006
  36. Barbara Boxer Asks Senators to Save Energy". Associated Press, 26 January 2007.
  37. http://www.wilderness.net/index.cfm?fuse=NWPS&sec=pubLawLibResults&PLID=150&WID=0
  38. Boxer: Senate Has Votes To Block Stupak Amendment
  39. Boxer Delivers Major Speech On Social Security
  40. SOCIAL SECURITY PRESS CONFERENCE
  41. http://web.archive.org/web/20021017220016/http://boxer.senate.gov/newsroom/200210/20021003_frelat.html
  42. http://www.hlrecord.org/media/paper609/news/2002/10/24/News/Senator.Boxer.Defends.Vote.On.Iraq.Resolution-304772.shtml
  43. http://www.senate.gov/legislative/LIS/roll_call_lists/roll_call_vote_cfm.cfm?congress=107&session=2&vote=00237
  44. http://boxer2008.com/blog/2005/10/17/boxer-petition-war/
  45. S. 450 [109th]: Count Every Vote Act of 2005 (GovTrack.us)
  46. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2005/01/18/RICEBOXER.DTL
  47. http://www.senate.gov/legislative/LIS/roll_call_lists/roll_call_vote_cfm.cfm?congress=109&session=1&vote=00002
  48. The New York Times > Washington > Rice Is Sworn In as Secretary After Senate Vote of 85 to 13
  49. http://boxer.senate.gov/news/record.cfm?id=246228
  50. http://senate.gov/legislative/LIS/roll_call_lists/roll_call_vote_cfm.cfm?congress=109&session=1&vote=00245
  51. http://clerk.house.gov/evs/1991/roll009.xml
  52. Barbara Boxer Interview
  53. http://www.hrc.org/documents/HRCscorecard2006.pdf
  54. U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 104th Congress - 2nd Session
  55. Barbara Boxer on the Issues
  56. Top state Dems criticize S.F. mayor / TIGHTROPE: Politicians try not to anger voters - 50% of Californians oppose same-sex unions
  57. Search Results - THOMAS (Library of Congress)
  58. Search Results - THOMAS (Library of Congress)
  59. Nuke deal gets thumbs up in Senate hearing
  60. Call to Censure Bush Is Answered by a Mostly Empty Echo - New York Times
  61. http://jwa.org/encyclopedia/article/boxer-barbara
  62. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/02/21/AR2006022101412_pf.html
  63. Shapiro, Lila. Barbara Boxer: Call Me 'Senator' (VIDEO, POLL). Huffington Post. 18 June 2009.
  64. Why the Crass Remarks About Rice?. The Washington Post, 22 January 2005.
  65. Barrett, Ted. GOP senator: Bush plan could match Vietnam blunder CNN, January 11, 2007
  66. White House Spokesman Blasts Sen. Boxer's Exchange With Secretary Rice. FOXNews.com, 12 January 2006.
  67. "Exchange Turns Into Political Flashpoin", The New York Times, 12 January 2007

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