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Barnsley is a town in South Yorkshiremarker, Englandmarker. It lies on the River Dearnemarker, north of the city of Sheffieldmarker, south of Leedsmarker and west of Doncastermarker. Barnsley is surrounded by several smaller settlements which together form the Metropolitan Borough of Barnsley, of which Barnsley is the largest and the administrative centre. The metropolitan borough had a population of 218,063 at the 2001 UK Census; Barnsley Urban Area had a population of 71,599.

Historically a part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, Barnsley is notable as a former industrial town centred on coal mining and glassmaking although in the town a few factories remain notably the glassworks and coking plant. Though these industries demised in the 20th century, Barnsley's local culture remains rooted in this industrial heritage; Barnsley has a tradition of brass bands, originally created as social clubs for its mining communities.

In recent years, Barnsley has been referred to as the "Tarn" by many of its residents. Barnsley is also notorious for its strong accent. It is between junctions 36 and 38 of the M1 motorway and has a railway stationmarker served by the Hallam and Penistone Lines. Barnsley F.C. is the local football club.

History

The first historical reference occurs in 1086 in the Domesday Book, in which it is called 'Berneslai' with a total population of around 200. The exact origins of the name Barnsley is still subject to debate, but Barnsley Council claims that its origins lie in the Saxon word Berne, for barn or storehouse, and Lay, for field.

The town lay in the parish of Silkstonemarker and developed little until in the 1150s it was given to the monastery of St John, Pontefractmarker. The monks decided to build a new town where three roads met: the Sheffieldmarker to Wakefieldmarker, Rotherhammarker to Huddersfieldmarker and Cheshiremarker to Doncastermarker routes. The Domesday village became known as "Old Barnsley", and a town grew up on the new site.

The monks erected a chapel-of-ease dedicated to Saint Mary, which survived intact until 1820 , and established a market. In 1249, a Royal Charter was granted to Barnsley permitting it to hold a weekly market on Wednesdays and annual four-day fair at Michaelmas. By the 1290s, three annual fairs were held. The town became the main centre for the Staincrossmarker wapentake, but in the mid-sixteenth century still had only 600 inhabitants.

From the 17th century, Barnsley developed into a stop-off point on the route between Leedsmarker, Wakefieldmarker, Sheffieldmarker and Londonmarker. The traffic generated as a result of this location fuelled trade, with hostelries and related services also prospering. A principal centre for linen weaving during the 18th and 19th century, Barnsley grew into an important manufacturing town. Barnsley also has a long tradition of glass-making , but is most famous for its coalfields.George Orwell briefly mentions the town in The Road to Wigan Pier. Orwell spent a number of days in the town living in the houses of the working-class miners while researching for the book. He wrote very critically of the council's expenditure on the construction of Barnsley Town Hallmarker and claimed that the money should have been spent on improving the housing and living conditions of the local miners.

Governance

Following the Local Government Act 1972, Barnsley Metropolitan Borough Council took control of surrounding towns, villages and adopted them as part of Barnsley. This resulted in names such as 'Pennine Barnsley' being invented for the market town of Penistonemarker (more than seven miles away) for promotional purposes. Other types of 'branding' are also employed to bring surrounding places into the Barnsley orbit, such as the use of the Barnsley coat of arms on street signs which are well beyond the boundaries of the town itself.

The municipal council elect the mayor every year. On the day of the election, a parade takes place in front of Barnsley Town Hallmarker. The parade is in honour of the new mayor. The parade is served out by the local Sea Cadet Corps Unit, including Marine Cadet Detachment (TS Diomede), Air Training Corps Squadron (148 Barnsley Sqn) and the local army cadet company

Barnsley has three MPs: Eric Illsley for Barnsley Centralmarker, Michael Clapham for Barnsley West and Penistonemarker and Jeff Ennis for Barnsley East and Mexboroughmarker. They are all members of the Labour Party.

Geography

Divisions and suburbs

Ardsleymarker, Athersleymarker, Birdwellmarker, Bolton on Dearnemarker, Brierleymarker, Carltonmarker, Cawthornemarker, Cubleymarker, Cudworthmarker, Cundy Cross, Darfieldmarker, Dartonmarker, Dodworthmarker, Elsecarmarker, Gawbermarker, Gilroydmarker, Goldthorpemarker, Great Houghtonmarker, Grimethorpemarker, Hemingfieldmarker, Honeywell, Highammarker, High Hoylandmarker, Hoylandmarker, Hoyland Commonmarker, Hoylandswainemarker, Ingbirchworthmarker, Jumpmarker, Kexborough, Kendraymarker, Kingstonemarker, Lundwoodmarker, Mapplewellmarker, Monk Brettonmarker, New Lodgemarker, Oldtownmarker, Penistonemarker, Pilleymarker, Pogmoormarker, Roystonmarker, Shafton, Silkstone Commonmarker, Silkstonemarker, Smithies, Stainboroughmarker, Staincrossmarker, Stairfootmarker, Tankersley, Thurgolandmarker, Thurlstonemarker, Thurnscoemarker, Ward Greenmarker, Wilthorpemarker, Wombwellmarker, Worsbrough Bridge, Worsbrough Common, Worsbrough Dalemarker, Worsbrough Village

Economy

The town is known for coal mining, although most of the pits were actually in the surrounding villages, rather than in the town itself. The proportion employed in mining varied hugely, even before recent times. "Barnsley Main" colliery was in the town, but was fairly small; it closed in 1991. All of the mines in the borough are now closed; Goldthorpe was the last to close in 1994. Wire, linen and glassmaking were also major industries, but only glassmaking remains, with two large companies still operating. The coat of arms for the town includes a coal miner and a glassblower. It is now moving towards a service economy. As of July 2007, unemployment stands at 2.8% in Barnsley West & Penistone, 4.2% in Barnsley Central and 4.0% in Barnsley East & Mexborough, compared to the national average of 3.1%. Since 1997, unemployment fell by 55.2%, 52.5% and 52.5% in the three areas respectively.

The Western half of the Borough stretches from the M1 to the edge of the Peak District and is essentially rural in character. This Western part includes the Market Town of Penistone and some notable and remarkable places of interest, these include:Wentworth Castlemarker and Gardens (Grade 1 listed gardens),Cannon Hall Park and Museum,Cawthorne Jubilee Museum,Wortley Hall and Gardens,Wortley Top Forge (16th century Forge).

In 2002, Barnsley Council and partners launched a major consultation exercise called "Rethinking Barnsley". This led to a regeneration programme centred on Barnsley Town Centre called "Remaking Barnsley". Developments include a new transport interchange, a new cultural centre in the old Civic Hall, a Digital Media Centre (opened August 2007), and new offices and apartments throughout the Town Centre. At the same time, housebuilding has taken off and major new housing areas have been developed. Business Parks on the M1 at Junctions 37 and 36, and in the Dearne Valley[30312], have also expanded the job opportunities locally. Unemployment is now below the national average but a large number of local people are on Incapacity Benefit. The economic development of Barnsley is led by the Barnsley Development Agency.

Significant industrial employers include the Ardagh Glass Group, Fosters Bakery and others.

Town centre

The main part of Barnsley town centre was constructed during the 1960s, and as with many other town centres, has become less aesthetically pleasing over time. The area around Cheapside and May Day Green, which is known as the metropolitan centre, is home to the market as well as many national high street chains such as Marks & Spencer, WH Smith, HMV, Carphone Warehouse, Vodafone, Boots, and The Body Shop. It is due to be demolished in 2009 to make way for a new retail and leisure development. The Mall Barnsleymarker, which was opened in 1991, houses retailers such as Next, Primark and TK Maxx. Other prominent areas include Queen Street, where Marks and Spencer and stores such as Topshop, Wallis and Dorothy Perkins are located, Market Street, Eldon Street and The Arcade, which houses the majority of the independent and designer retailers in Barnsley. The town also has a large concentration of pubs and bars in the central district. The former Odeon cinema has recently been reopened as Parkway Cinema.

Outside the town centre lie numerous large retail units, retail parks and supermarkets, which include Asda, Morrisons, PC World, Currys, Halfords, and B&Q.

Development work on the new shopping centre is due to start in the town centre in early 2010. Several stores such as Vodafone and Halifax Bank have opened new premises in town.

Development

Barnsley town centre is undergoing a period of change. Projects include:
  • The new Barnsley Interchangemarker.
  • The digital media centre (now completed).
  • Gateway Plaza at Town End (due for completion late 2009).
  • The Markets complex which will house Barnsley Markets and be the centre of the towns retailing. It will be anchored by Debenhams.
  • Experience Barnsley - The creation of the Barnsley People's Museum and Archives Centre. This project has been awarded almost £3m of funding from the Heritage Lottery Fund, which means two floors of Barnsley's distinctive Town Hall will be transformed into state-of-the-art museum galleries, the first devoted to the borough's stories, past and present. This will be completed by July 2012.


Landmarks



The first bottle bank for glass recycling collection in the United Kingdommarker was introduced by both Stanley Race CBE, then president of the Glass Manufacturers’ Federation and Ron England in Barnsley. According to a BBC Radio 4 edition of PM aired on 6 June 2007, and a web article, the bank opened in June 1977 however a BBC web article published in 2002 states that the bottle bank opened on 24 August, 1977.

Transport

The main focus of transport in Barnsley is the new Barnsley Interchangemarker which opened to the public on Sunday 20 May 2007. The design has been entered for national and international awards. The interchange was the first project in the remaking Barnsley scheme to be completed.

Stagecoach Yorkshire run most bus services within Barnsley, operating to and from the new Barnsley Interchangemarker. Stagecoach acquired the company from Yorkshire Traction in 2005, and has come under fire for operating the service poorly. Stagecoach then overhauled bus services in a bid to improve performance.

Train services are provided by Northern Rail. Services from between Sheffield and Leeds via Wakefield twice an hour, with one operating a 'fast' service to Leedsmarker, and another service is operated to Huddersfieldmarker with a frequency of one per hour. There are three services to Sheffieldmarker each hour. A new hourly service to Nottinghammarker started in December 2008

The nearest airport is the Robin Hood Airportmarker in Doncastermarker. This is some 40 minutes away and is easily accessible by car. There is also a direct bus service from Barnsley to the airport; the X19, which runs hourly.

Education

Barnsley Collegemarker is one of the largest further and higher education establishments in Europe and is situated on a number of sites throughout the town centre, chiefly the Old Mill Lane Site, Eastgate House, The Sci Tech Centre, the Honeywell Site and the Construction centre. The University of Huddersfieldmarker has recently opened a campus in the town on Church Street besides Barnsley Town Hallmarker. This is known as the University Centre Barnsley.

It is the home of Barnsley Christian School, an independent fee paying school, which started is an outreach of Hope house Church in 1986.

All 14 secondary schools in Barnsley are soon to be updated and replaced by Academy education centres.

Notable people



Culture

English author Chris Roberts quips that the “small town” of Barnsley is “a couple hundred miles north of London geographically, but several time zones away culturally”.

Barnsley is home to a proud tradition of brass bands, which were originally created as social clubs for the mining communities. Grimethorpe Colliery Band, located in the village of Grimethorpemarker, 5 miles to the east of Barnsley, is perhaps the best known brass band in Britain. It rose to fame in the film Brassed Off and is now the 'artist in residence' at the Royal College of Musicmarker, Londonmarker. The band has performed in Hyde Park during the Last Night of the Proms.

The 'Bard of Barnsley' Ian McMillan writes a column in the local paper, the Barnsley Chronicle. He was recently nominated for a chair of poetry at Oxford Universitymarker, and often appears on Radio 4. The Barnsley accent is starting to wear off amongst the younger generation, but it has generally been better maintained than most other Yorkshire accents. Some have started referring to Barnsley as Tarn.

Ken Loach's film Kes was set and filmed in severals villages in Barnsley, including Lundwoodmarker and Monk Brettonmarker, using local actors such as Freddie Fletcher.

There is a live rock and hip hop music scene, which reached its height in the Britpop years, around 1997, due to its close proximity to Sheffield and Manchester. Barnsley metal band Saxon were famous in the 1980s and continue to be popular today. Two of the Arctic Monkeys studied music at Barnsley Collegemarker and Barnsley has its own rappers 'Yes Sir'.Barnsley is the home of several live music venues such as The Arches Live where bands such as Fear driven have graced.

Barnsley Council operates three museums, Cannon Hallmarker, the Cooper Gallery and Worsbrough Millmarker. There are plans for a fourth museum located within the town hall. The project to create this is known as Experience Barnsleymarker. Other museums in Barnsley include the volunteer-run Darfield Museum and the Cawthorne Victoria Jubilee Museum. Other heritage sites include Wortley Top Forge, Wortley Hallmarker, Wentworth Castlemarker and Monk Bretton Priory.

The Lamproom Theatremarker has four theatrical companies, and showcases theatre in the Town Centre of Barnsley

The Academy Theatre is part of the Take 2 Centre where performances range from comedy, west end performers, musicals and the traditional "An Evening With.....". The Take 2 Centre also includes a Recording Studio, Design And Print Studios, Theatre School, Music School.

The Civic, located in Barnsley Town Centre is a multi purpose performance venue. A grade II listed building, The Civic was re-opened in March 2009 after a major redevelopment. An extension has been added creating a light and airy environment containing Creative Workspaces, a visual art gallery and The Assembly Room. The assembly room retains an original plaster ceiling.

Twin towns

Barnsley has two twin towns:


Sport

Barnsley's resident football team, Barnsley F.C. play in the Championship of the English league. Their home ground is known as Oakwell Stadiummarker, which is situated in Oakwellmarker, just outside of the town centre. The club has had a mixed recent history. In the late 1990s they had a brief spell in the Premier League, but were relegated after just one season. Subsequent seasons saw them relegated to the third tier of English football. After 4 seasons, Barnsley finally regained their place in the Championship.

Speedway racing was staged at a track near Barnsley known as Barnsley Lundwood. The track entered a team in the Northern Leagues of 1929 and 1930.

As of 2009 the town has a rugby league team playing in the summer, Barnsley RL, based at the Shaw Lane sports facility. Barnsley RL recently finished the 2009 season 3rd in the league, only narrowly losing to nearby Upton ARLFC in play-off semi-finals.Barnsley RL played the entire season in bright pink kits, in support of Yorkshire Cancer Research. As of next year, the club will be known as Barnsley Broncos.

References

  1. Office for National Statistics : Census 2001 : Urban Areas : Table KS01 : Usual Resident Population Retrieved 2009-08-26
  2. David Hey, Medieval South Yorkshire
  3. [1]
  4. http://www.parliament.uk/commons/lib/research/rp2007/rp07-066.pdf Page 9 for the 2007 figures. Page 36 for the fall in unemployment 1997-2007.
  5. [2]
  6. [3]
  7. [4]
  8. [5]
  9. [6]
  10. [7]
  11. [8]
  12. [9]
  13. [10]
  14. BBC NEWS | England | South Yorkshire | Bottle bank celebrates birthday
  15. BBC - South Yorkshire News - Barnsley bottle bank's 25th birthday!
  16. Chris Roberts, Heavy Words Lightly Thrown: The Reason Behind Rhyme, Thorndike Press,2006 (ISBN 0-7862-8517-6)
  17. [11]
  18. [12]


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