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The Bartholomew Fair was one of London's pre-eminent summer fairs. A charter for the fair was granted to Rahere by Henry I to fund the Priory of St Bartholomew; and from 1133 to 1855 it took place each year on 24 August within the precincts of the Priory at West Smithfieldmarker, outside Aldersgatemarker of the City of Londonmarker. The fair continued, after the Dissolution within the Liberty of the parish of St Bartholomew-the-Greatmarker.

The fair began as a two-week event, but in 1691, it was shortened to only four-days; and with a change in the calendar, the fair commenced on 3 September from 1753. A trading event for cloth and other goods as well as a pleasure fair, the event drew crowds from all classes of English society.

It was customary for the Lord Mayor of London to open the fair on St Bartholomew's Eve. The Mayor would stop at Newgate Prisonmarker to accept a cup of sack (fortified white wine) from the governor. The Merchant Taylors Guild processed to Cloth Fairmarker to test the measures for cloth, using their standard silver yard, until 1854. The annual fair grew to become the chief cloth sale in the kingdom.

By 1641, the fair had achieved international importance. It had outgrown the former location along Cloth Fair, and around the Priory graveyard to now cover four parishes: Christ Churchmarker, Greatmarker and Little St Bartholomewmarker’s and St Sepulchremarker’s. The fair featured sideshows, prize-fighters, musicians, wire-walkers, acrobats, puppets, freaks and wild animals.

The fair was suppressed in 1855 by the City authorities for encouraging debauchery and public disorder.

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