- "Barta" redirects here. For the Romanian-French
Trotskyist activist, see David
Korner. For other uses of "Bartians", see Bartians .
, or Barti
) were an
tribe who were among the
of Europe before the Northern Crusades
forced their conversion
. They lived in Bartia
(also Bartenland or Barthonia), a territory that
stretched from the middle and lower flow of Łyna river, by the Świna river, and
Mamry, up to the Galindian
The territory is quite precisely known from
description in Chronicon
, dated 1326.
The same description mentions two provinces, the Major Barta and
the Minor Barta. The territory was quite densely populated, as
confirmed by abundant archeological findings. Before the wars with
the Teutonic Knights
population was estimated to be at 17,000.
The Bartians, along with the other Prussians, were conquered by the
Teutonic Knights, who Christianized them, brought in newcomers, and
built many towns and cities. The Prussians assimilated
with the newcomers and the
Old Prussian language
extinct by the end of the 17th century.
years of conquest attempts by Poland, aided by a
number of crusades by the popes and by Konrad of Masovia, had been fairly
successfully repelled by the Prussians. Then Konrad of Masovia
called for further crusades and invited the Teutonic Knights, an
Order of the Catholic Church, to settled in Kulmerland in 1226.
Receiving support from the rest of
Christian Europe, the military order
was able to expand their territory northwest. Their strategy was to
conquer a territory and built a castle — a stronghold that would
serve as the basis for further expansion. Castles at that time in
Europe were built around towns to give their residents
The Bartians, together with the Warmians
and the Natangians
, were conquered by the
Teutonic Knights 1238-1240. In Barta the Knights built major castles in
Bartenstein and Rößel.
1242, just two years after their conquest, Bartians rebelled and
managed to resist until 1252. During the Great Prussian Uprising
that started after the Knights suffered a major loss in the
Battle of Durbe
, Bartians chose
as their leader. The rebels managed
to capture a few castles, including Bartenstein in 1264.
from other Prussian tribes, Diwane attacked Kulm, Marienburg, and Christburg.
However, the Prussians could not win a
war of attrition
Knights, who could draw resources from the western Europe. In 1273
Diwane sieged another castle but was fatally wounded. Within a
year, the uprising was over. Some of the rebels escaped to Hrodna and other
Despite heavy losses during the uprising, Barta did not become an
uninhabited land and the Bartians continued to resist. Two more
attempts were made, in 1286 and 1293, to fight against the Teutonic
Knights. In 1286 Bartians asked help from Duke of
Rügen, and in 1293
from Vytenis, Grand Duke of Lithuania.
Bartians were assimilated by the Germans sometime during the
They are most likely the Bartove
mentioned in the Hypatian Codex
(together with the Prussians
: "Prousi i Bartove