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The Basubia (also known as Vekhuhane) are an ethnic group found along and between the Chobe Rivermarker and Zambezi Rivers in Southern Africa. They are spread all over these rivers flood plain in what is today Botswana, Namibia and Zambia. Their language is known as Subia/Chikhuhane, a predominantly Totela language.

Origin

Elders will state that the Basubia originate from the Bayei or Vezanza. But to analyse oral history of origin of Basubia will point to that the Basubia are offspring of mixed tribe that surround them. The Hambukushu, Bayei, Batotela, Basarwa, Batonga and Balozi (Lozi-proper). The Hambukushu and Bayei are large contributor to the being of Basubia. What happen is that this people intermarried and their off-spring became a people called Vaangove.Vaangove was the original name of tribe calle Basubia/Vekhuhane. Basubia name is said to be from both Bakololo (sebeya or seba) and Batawana (Sobeya), and Vekhuhane is unknown but there is a saying there was a ruler named Khuhane, so Vekhuhane means 'People of Khuhane'. As time goes by they regrouped themselves and become a tribe, adopting a Totela language as their mother tongue. This happened after the Hambukushu were defeated by a Lozi king and caused the migration of the Hambukushu the now Okavango Deltamarker/Kavango region.

The Basubia lived with the Bayei in a place called Mavave (Mababe) on the southern part of Chobe District of Botswana. There erupted a fight or quarrel between Bayei and Basubia over a Leopard skin and the Bayei defeated Basubia and they migrated toward Kwando/Linyanti river around 700 ad. The Basubia dwelled at a place called or that was called ChiNxi, between Zibalyenja and Linyanti river. This place ChiNxi extended from present day Mavozu (near Mbalakalungu/Parakarungu) to Zibalyenja. The Bayei also followed them and crossed over Linyanti river and dwelled in places where they are found today in Caprivi ( Linyandi, Sangwali, Cincimani, etc) along Lake Yambezi(Liambezi)The Basubia then migrated to a place near present day village of Lusu in Caprivi Region. From here, because of flooding, they migrated to Luchindo, in today Ngoma area of Namibia caprivi strip, on the bank of Chobe river. Here they established a major town called Shidino sha Luchindo, from which the Itenge Kingdom rise and grew. As the Basubia begin to multiply,they attacked the Bayei and defeated them, pushing some into the Delta where they joined some of their who were left at Mavave and migrated in Okavango Delta. They spread to where they are presently found as this was the domain of their Kingdom, except for Rakops (Tsienyane) and Gumare where there are some Subia people.

GOVERNMENT

The Basubia political setup can be described from the system established at Luchindo at the rise of Itenge Kingdom. The King is refered to as MUNITENGE (Owner of Itenge) who was deputised by NGAMBERA (Prime Minister). From Ngambera followed SIMWINE (village Headman) who formed a COUNCIL of Itenge (Kaziva ke Itenge). Under the Simwines was INDUNA (ward Headman). The Munitenge is the Commander of the army whereas the Ngambera overseer the Tribal Council. The Ngambera also linked the People with the King. The Simwine were also responsible of village army or soldiers (Itumwatolye) as well as welfare of the people which he gave reports to Ngambera and Munitenge at Tribal Council meetings. The King Sister was also a highly respected person and the queen (moolyi).

A soldier is called Itumatolye due to obeying orders without questioning where a servant or slave is Muhiikana. The Military Generals were also part of Kaziva ke Itenge (The Tribal Council)

CULTURE

References


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