, also known as a bike
, is a
with two wheels
to a frame
, one behind the other. A
person who rides a bicycle is called a cyclist
Bicycles were introduced in the 19th century and now number about
one billion worldwide, twice as many as automobiles
. They are the principal means of transportation
in many regions.
They also provide a popular form of recreation
, and have been adapted for such uses
as children's toys
, adult fitness
services, and competitive sports
The basic shape and configuration of a typical bicycle has changed
little since the first chain-driven model was developed around
1885. Many details have been improved, especially since the advent
of modern materials and computer-aided design
. These have
allowed for a proliferation of specialized designs for particular
types of cycling
The invention of the bicycle has had an enormous impact on society,
both in terms of culture and of advancing modern industrial
methods. Several components that eventually played a key role in
the development of the automobile were originally invented for the
bicycle – e.g., ball bearings, pneumatic tires, chain-driven
sprockets, spoke-tensioned wheels, etc.
Multiple innovators contributed to the history of the bicycle by
developing precursor human-powered vehicles. The documented
ancestors of today's modern bicycle were known as draisines
, hobby horses, or push bikes (and
modern bicycles are sometimes still called push bikes outside of
North America). Being the first human means of transport to
make use of the two-wheeler principle, the draisine (or
Laufmaschine, "running machine"), invented by the German Baron Karl von Drais, is
regarded as the forerunner of the modern bicycle.
introduced by Drais to the public in Mannheim in summer
1817 and in Paris in
Its rider sat astride a wooden frame supported by two
in-line wheels and pushed the vehicle along with his/her feet while
steering the front wheel.
Michaux' son on velocipede 1868
Thomas McCall in 1869 on his
In the early 1860s, Frenchmen Pierre
and Pierre Lallement
took bicycle design in a new direction by adding a mechanical
drive with pedals on an
enlarged front wheel (the velocipede
Another French inventor by the name of Douglas Grasso had a failed
prototype of Pierre Lallement's bicycle several years earlier.
Several inventions followed using rear wheel drive , the best known
being the rod-driven velocipede by Scotsman Thomas McCall
in 1869. The French creation,
made of iron and wood, developed into the "penny-farthing
" (historically known as an
"ordinary bicycle", a retronym
, since there
were then no other kind). It featured a tubular steel
frame on which were mounted wire spoked
wheels with solid rubber
tires. These bicycles were difficult to ride due to their very high
seat and poor weight
The dwarf ordinary
addressed some of these faults by
reducing the front wheel diameter and setting the seat further
back. This necessitated the addition of gearing, effected in a
variety of ways, to attain sufficient speed. Having to both pedal
and steer via the front wheel remained a problem. J. K.
, J. H. Lawson, and
Shergold solved this problem by introducing the chain drive
(originated by the unsuccessful
"bicyclette" of Englishman Henry Lawson), connecting the
frame-mounted pedals to the rear wheel. These models were known as
, or safety bicycles
, for their
lower seat height and better weight distribution. (Although without
pneumatic tires the ride of the smaller wheeled bicycle would be
much rougher than that of the larger wheeled variety.) Starley's
1885 Rover is usually described as the first recognizably modern
bicycle. Soon, the seat tube
was added, creating the
double-triangle diamond frame
of the modern bike.
Further innovations increased comfort and ushered in a second
, the 1890s' Golden
Age of Bicycles
. In 1888, Scotsman John Boyd Dunlop
introduced the first
practical pneumatic tire
, which soon
became universal. Soon after, the rear freewheel
was developed, enabling the rider to
coast. This refinement led to the 1898 invention of coaster brakes
developed during these years, but were only slowly adopted by
casual riders. By the turn of the century, cycling clubs
flourished on both sides of the
Atlantic, and touring and racing became widely popular.
Bicycles and horse buggies were the two mainstays of private
transportation just prior to the automobile, and the grading of
smooth roads in the late 19th century was stimulated by the
widespread advertising, production, and use of these devices.
Bicycles have been and are employed for many uses:
- Utility: bicycle commuting and
- Work: mail delivery, paramedics, police,
couriering, and general delivery.
- Recreation: bicycle touring,
mountain biking, BMX and physical
- Racing: track racing, criterium, roller
racing and time trial to multi-stage
events like the Tour of
California, Giro d'Italia, the
Tour de France, the Vuelta a España, the Volta a Portugal, among others.
- Military: scouting, troop
movement, supply of provisions, and patrol. See bicycle infantry.
- Show: entertainment and performance, e.g. circus clowns. Used as instrument by Frank Zappa.
The bicycle has undergone continual adaptation and improvement
since its inception. These innovations have continued with the
advent of modern materials and computer-aided design, allowing for
a proliferation of specialized bicycle types.
Bicycles can be categorized in different ways: e.g. by function, by
number of riders, by general construction, by gearing or by means
of propulsion. The more common types include utility bicycles
, mountain bicycles
, racing bicycles
, touring bicycles
, hybrid bicycles
, cruiser bicycles
, and BMX Bikes
. Less common are tandems
, fixed gear
, folding models
(one of which was used to set
the IHPVA Hour
strictly bicycles, as they have respectively one, three and four
wheels, but are often referred to informally as "bikes".
Bicycles leaning in a turn
A bicycle stays upright while moving forward by being steered so as
to keep its center of gravity
the wheels. This steering is usually provided by the rider, but
under certain conditions may be provided by the bicycle
The combined center of mass of a bicycle and its rider must lean
into a turn in order to successfully navigate it. This lean is
induced by a method known as countersteering
, which can be performed by
the rider turning the handlebars directly with the hands or
indirectly by leaning the bicycle.
Short-wheelbase or tall bicycles
braking, can generate enough stopping force at the front wheel in
order to flip longitudinally. The act of purposefully using this
force to lift the rear wheel and balance on the front without
tipping over is a trick known as a stoppie
endo or front wheelie.
The bicycle is extraordinarily efficient in both biological and
mechanical terms. The bicycle is the most efficient self-powered
means of transportation in terms of energy a person must expend to
travel a given distance. From a mechanical viewpoint, up to 99% of
the energy delivered by the rider into the pedals is transmitted to
the wheels, although the use of gearing mechanisms may reduce this
by 10–15%.In terms of the ratio of cargo weight a bicycle can carry
to total weight, it is also an efficient means of cargo
A human traveling on a bicycle at low to medium speeds of around
10–15 mph (15–25 km/h) uses only the energy required to
walk. Air drag, which is proportional to the square of speed,
requires dramatically higher power outputs as speeds increase. If
the rider is sitting upright, the rider's body creates about 75% of
the total drag of the bicycle/rider combination. Drag can be
reduced by seating the rider in a supine
or a prone position
thus creating a recumbent bicycle
or human powered vehicle
can also be reduced by covering the bicycle with an aerodynamic
In addition, the carbon dioxide
generated in the production and transportation of the food required
by the bicyclist, per mile traveled, is less than 1/10th that
generated by energy efficient cars.
Construction and parts
In its early years, bicycle construction drew on pre-existing
technologies. More recently, bicycle technology has in turn
contributed ideas in both old and new areas.
Diagram of a bicycle.
The great majority of today's bicycles have a frame with upright
seating which looks much like the first chain-driven bike.Such
feature the diamond frame
, a truss
consisting of two triangles
: the front
triangle and the rear triangle. The front triangle consists of the
head tube, top tube, down tube and seat tube. The head tube
contains the headset
, the set
of bearings that allows the fork
turn smoothly for steering and balance. The top tube connects the
head tube to the seat tube at the top, and the down tube connects
the head tube to the bottom bracket
The rear triangle consists of the seat tube and paired chain stays
and seat stays. The chain stays run parallel to the chain
, connecting the bottom bracket to the
. The seat stays
connect the top of the seat tube (at or near the same point as the
top tube) to the rear dropouts.
Historically, women's bicycle frames had a top tube that connected
in the middle of the seat tube instead of the top, resulting in a
lower standover height
at the expense of compromised structural integrity, since this
places a strong bending load in the seat tube, and bicycle frame
members are typically weak in bending. This design, referred to as
a step-through frame
allows the rider to mount and dismount in a dignified way while
wearing a skirt or dress. While some women's bicycles continue to
use this frame style, there is also a variation, the mixte
, which splits the top
tube laterally into two thinner top tubes that bypass the seat tube
on each side and connect to the rear dropouts. The ease of stepping
through is also appreciated by those with limited flexibility or
other joint problems. Because of its persistent image as a
"women's" bicycle, step-through frames are not common for larger
Another style is the recumbent
. These are inherently more aerodynamic
than upright versions, as the rider
may lean back onto a support and operate pedals that are on about
the same level as the seat. The world's fastest bicycle is a
but this type
was banned from competition in 1934 by the Union Cycliste
Historically, materials used in bicycles have followed a similar
pattern as in aircraft, the goal being high strength and low
weight. Since the late 1930s alloy steels have been used for frame
and fork tubes in higher quality machines. Celluloid
found application in mudguards, and
used in components such as handlebars, seat
, and brake levers. In the 1980s aluminum
alloy frames became popular, and their
affordability now makes them common. More expensive carbon fiber
frames are now also available, as well as
advanced steel alloys and even bamboo
Drivetrain and gearing
A set of rear sprockets (also known as a cassette) and a
begins with pedals
which rotate the cranks
, which are held in axis by the bottom bracket
. Most bicycles use a chain to
transmit power to the rear wheel. A relatively small number of
bicycles use a shaft drive to transmit power. A very small number
of bicycles (mainly single-speed
intended for short-distance commuting) use a belt
drive as an oil-free way of transmitting power.
Since cyclists' legs are most efficient over a narrow range of
pedaling speeds (cadence
variable gear ratio
helps a cyclist to
maintain an optimum pedalling speed while covering varied terrain.
As a first approximation, utility
often use a hub gear
small number (3 to 8) of widely-spaced gears, road bicycles
and racing bicycles
use derailleur gears
with a moderate number (10
to 22) of closely-spaced gears, while mountain bicycles
, hybrid bicycles
, and touring bicycles
use dérailleur gears with a
larger number (15 to 33) of moderately-spaced gears, often
including an extremely low gear (granny gear) for climbing steep
Different gears and ranges of gears are appropriate for different
people and styles of cycling. Multi-speed bicycles allow gear
selection to suit the circumstances: a cyclist could use a high
gear when cycling downhill, a medium gear when cycling on a flat
road, and a low gear when cycling uphill. In a lower gear every
turn of the pedals leads to fewer rotations of the rear wheel. This
allows the energy required to move the same distance to be
distributed over more pedal turns, reducing fatigue when riding
uphill, with a heavy load, or against strong winds. A higher gear
allows a cyclist to make fewer pedal turns to maintain a given
speed, but with more effort per turn of the pedals.
With a chain drive
transmission, a chainring
attached to a crank drives the chain
which in turn rotates the rear wheel via the rear sprocket
). There are four gearing
options: two-speed hub gear integrated with chain ring, up to 3
chain rings, up to 11 sprockets, hub gear built in to rear wheel
(3-speed to 14-speed). The most common options are either a rear
hub or multiple chain rings combined with multiple sprockets (other
combinations of options are possible but less common).
With a shaft drive
transmission, a gear set at the bottom bracket turns the shaft,
which then turns the rear wheel via a gear set connected to the
wheel's hub. There is some small loss of efficiency due to the two
gear sets needed. The only gearing option with a shaft drive is to
use a hub gear
Steering and seating
turn the fork
and the front wheel via the stem
, which rotates within the headset
. Three styles of handlebar
are common. Upright handlebars
, the norm in Europe and
elsewhere until the 1970s, curve gently back toward the rider,
offering a natural grip and comfortable upright position. Drop
"drop" as they curve forward and down, offering the
cyclist best braking power from a more aerodynamic "crouched"
position, as well as more upright positions in which the hands grip
the brake lever mounts, the forward curves, or the upper flat
sections for increasingly upright postures. Mountain bikes
generally feature a 'straight handlebar' or 'riser bar' with
varying degrees of sweep backwards and centimeters rise upwards, as
well as wider widths which can provide better handling due to
increased leverage against the wheel.
A Selle San Marco saddle designed for
also vary with rider
preference, from the cushioned ones favored by short-distance
riders to narrower saddles which allow more room for leg swings.
Comfort depends on riding position. With comfort bikes and hybrids,
cyclists sit high over the seat, their weight directed down onto
the saddle, such that a wider and more cushioned saddle is
preferable. For racing bikes where the rider is bent over, weight
is more evenly distributed between the handlebars and saddle, the
hips are flexed, and a narrower and harder saddle is more
efficient. Differing saddle designs exist for male and female
cyclists, accommodating the genders' differing anatomies, although
bikes typically are sold with saddles most appropriate for
A recumbent bicycle
has a reclined
that some riders find
more comfortable than a saddle, especially riders who suffer from
certain types of seat, back, neck, shoulder, or wrist pain.
Recumbent bicycles may have either under-seat or over-seat steering
Modern bicycle brakes
may be rim brakes
, in which
friction pads are compressed against the wheel rims, internal
, in which the friction pads are contained within
the wheel hubs, disc brakes
, with a separate rotor for
braking. Disc brakes
are more common on
off-road bicycles, tandem
With hand-operated brakes, force is applied to brake levers mounted
on the handlebars and transmitted via Bowden cables
or hydraulic lines to the
friction pads. A rear hub brake may be either hand-operated or
pedal-actuated, as in the back pedal coaster brakes
were popular in North America until the 1960s, and are common in
do not have dedicated
brakes. Brakes are not required for riding on a track because all
riders ride in the same direction around a track which does not
necessitate sharp deceleration. Track riders are still able to slow
down because all track bicycles are fixed-gear
, meaning that there is no
. Without a freewheel, coasting
is impossible, so when the rear wheel is moving, the crank is
moving. To slow down, the rider applies resistance to the pedals –
this acts as a braking system which can be as effective as a
friction-based rear wheel brake, but not as effective as a front
Bicycle suspension refers to the system or systems used to
the rider and all or part of the bicycle. This
serves two purposes:
- To keep the wheels in continuous contact with rough surfaces in
order to improve control.
- To isolate the rider and luggage from jarring due to rough
Bicycle suspensions are used primarily on mountain bicycles
, but are also common on
, and can even be
found on some road bicycles
, as they
can help deal with problematic vibration. Suspension is especially
important on recumbent bicycles
since while an upright bicycle rider can stand on the pedals to
achieve some of the benefits of suspension, a recumbent rider
The wheel axle fits into dropouts
in the frame
pair of wheels may be called a wheelset
especially in the context of ready-built "off the shelf",
Tires vary enormously. Skinny, road-racing tires may be completely
smooth, or (slick
). On the opposite
extreme, off-road tires are much wider and thicker, and usually
have a deep tread for gripping in muddy conditions.
Accessories, repairs, and tools
Puncture repair kit with tire levers, sandpaper to clean off an
area of the inner tube around the puncture, a tube of rubber
solution (vulcanizing fluid), round and oval patches, a metal
grater and piece of chalk to make chalk powder (to dust over excess
Kits often also include a wax crayon to mark the puncture
Some components, which are often optional accessories on sports
bicycles, are standard features on utility bicycles
to enhance their
usefulness and comfort. Mudguards
, protect the cyclist and
from spray when riding
through wet areas and chainguards
clothes from oil on the chain while preventing clothing from being
caught between the chain and crankset
teeth. Kick stands
keep a bicycle upright
when parked, while a bike lock
prevent it from being stolen. Front-mounted baskets
for carrying goods are often used.
mounted above the rear tire can be used to
carry equipment or cargo. Parents sometimes add rear-mounted
and/or an auxiliary
saddle fitted to the crossbar to transport children.
and clipless pedals
help keep the
foot locked in the proper position on the pedals, and enable the
cyclist to pull as well as push the pedals—although not without
their hazards, eg. may lock foot in when needed to prevent a fall.
Technical accessories include cyclocomputers
for measuring speed, distance,
etc. Other accessories include lights
, reflectors, security locks
, mirror, water bottles and
, and bell.
may help reduce
injury in the event of a collision or accident, and a certified
helmet is legally required for some riders in some jurisdictions.
Helmets are classified as an accessory or an item of clothing by
Many cyclists carry tool kits
. These may include a tire
patch kit (which, in turn, may contain any combination of a
or CO2 Pump
, tire levers
, spare tubes
, self-adhesive patches, or
tube-patching material, an adhesive, a piece of sandpaper or a
metal grater (for roughing the tube surface to be patched), and
sometimes even a block of French
, and a chain tool
. There are also cycling specific
that combine many of these
implements into a single compact device. More specialized bicycle
components may require more complex tools, including proprietary
tools specific for a given manufacturer.
Some bicycle parts, particularly hub-based gearing systems, are
complex, and many cyclists prefer to leave maintenance and repairs
professional bicycle mechanics
some areas it is possible to purchase road-side assistance from
companies such as the Better World
. Other cyclists maintain their own bicycles, perhaps as
part of their enjoyment of the hobby
cycling or simply for economic reasons. The ability to repair and
maintain your own bicycle is also celebrated within the DIY
A number of formal and industry standards exist for bicycle
components to help make spare parts exchangeable and to maintain a
minimum product safety.
Organization for Standardization
, has a
special technical committee for cycles, TC149, that has the
following scope: "Standardization in the field of cycles, their
components and accessories with particular reference to
terminology, testing methods and requirements for performance and
safety, and interchangeability."
, European Committee for Standardisation,
also has a specific Technical Committee, TC333, that defines
European standards for cycles. Their mandate states that EN cycle
standards shall harmonize with ISO
. Some CEN cycle standards were developed before ISO
published their standards, leading to strong European influences in
this area. European cycle standards tend to describe minimum safety
requirements, while ISO standards have historically harmonized
For details on specific bicycle parts, see list of bicycle parts
and :category:bicycle parts
Social and historical aspects
The bicycle has had a considerable effect on human society, in both
the cultural and industrial realms.
In daily life
Around the turn of the 20th century, bicycles reduced crowding in
tenements by allowing workers
from more spacious
dwellings in the suburbs. They also reduced dependence on horses.
Bicycles allowed people to travel for leisure into the country,
since bicycles were three times as energy efficient as walking and
three to four times as fast.
several European cities and Montreal have
implemented successful schemes known as community bicycle programs or
These initiatives complement a city's public transport
system and offer an
alternative to motorized traffic to help reduce congestion and
In cities where the bicycle is not an integral part of the planned
transportation system, commuters often use bicycles as elements of
a mixed-mode commute
, where the
bike is used to travel to and from train
or other forms of rapid
. Folding bicycles
useful in these scenarios, as they are less cumbersome when carried
Angeles removed a small amount of seating on some trains to
make more room for bicycles and wheel
Bicycles offer an important mode of transport in many developing countries
. Until recently,
bicycles have been a staple of everyday
throughout Asian countries. They are the most frequently
used method of transport for commuting
to work, school, shopping, and
life in general.
Trondheim in Norway, the
lift has been developed to encourage cyclists by giving
assistance on a steep hill.
Woman with bicycle, 1890s
The safety bicycle
unprecedented mobility, contributing to their emancipation
in Western nations.
As bicycles became safer and cheaper, more women had access to the
personal freedom they embodied, and so the bicycle came to
symbolize the New Woman
of the late 19th
century, especially in Britain and the United States.
The bicycle was recognized by 19th-century feminists
as a "freedom machine" for women. American Susan B. Anthony
said in a New York World
interview on February 2 1896
: "Let me tell
you what I think of bicycling. I think it has done more to
emancipate women than anything else in the world. It gives women a
feeling of freedom and self-reliance. I stand and rejoice every
time I see a woman ride by on a wheel...the picture of free,
untrammeled womanhood." In 1895 Frances Willard, the tightly-laced
president of the Women’s Christian
, wrote a book called How I Learned to Ride
, in which she praised the bicycle she learned to
ride late in life, and which she named "Gladys", for its
"gladdening effect" on her health and political optimism. Willard
used a cycling metaphor to urge other suffragists to action,
proclaiming, "I would not waste my life in friction when it could
be turned into momentum."
at the freedom symbolized by the New (bicycling) Woman was
demonstrated when the male undergraduates of Cambridge
University showed their opposition to the admission of women
as full members of the university by hanging a woman bicyclist in
effigy in the main town square.
This was as late as 1897. The bicycle
in the 1890s also led to a movement for so-called
, which helped liberate
women from corsets and ankle-length skirts and other restrictive
garments, substituting the then-shocking bloomers
Bicycle manufacturing proved to be a training ground for other
industries and led to the development of advanced metalworking
techniques, both for the frames themselves and for special
components such as ball
. These techniques later enabled
skilled metalworkers and mechanics to develop the components used
in early automobiles
They also served to teach the industrial models later adopted,
including mechanization and mass
(later copied and adopted by Ford
and General Motors
), vertical integration (also
later copied and adopted by Ford), aggressive advertising (as much
as 10% of all advertising in U.S. periodicals in 1898 was by
bicycle makers), lobbying for better roads (which had the side
benefit of acting as advertising, and of improving sales by
providing more places to ride), all first practised by Pope. In
addition, bicycle makers adopted the annual model change (later
derided as planned
, and usually credited to General Motors), which
proved very successful.
Furthermore, early bicycles were an example of conspicuous consumption
adopted by the fashionable elites. In addition, by serving as a
platform for accessories, which could ultimately cost more than the
bicycle itself, it paved the way for the likes of the Barbie doll
Moreover, they helped create, or enhance, new kinds of businesses,
such as bicycle messengers, travelling seamstresses, riding
academies, and racing rinks (Their board tracks were later adapted
to early motorcycle
and automobile racing
.) Also, there were a
variety of new inventions, such as spoke tighteners, and
specialized lights, socks and shoes, and even cameras (such as the
Probably the best known and most widely used of these inventions,
adopted well beyond cycling, is Charles Bennett's Bike Web, which
came to be called the "jock strap
They also presaged a move away from public transit that would
explode with the introduction of the automobile.
J. K. Starley's company became the Rover Cycle Company Ltd. in the
late 1890s, and then simply the Rover
when it started making cars. The Morris Motor Company (in Oxford) and
Škoda also began in the bicycle
business, as did the Wright
Alistair Craig, whose company eventually
emerged to become the engine manufacturers Ailsa Craig
, also started from
manufacturing bicycles, in Glasgow in March 1885.
In general, U.S. and European cycle manufacturers used to assemble
cycles from their own frames and components made by other
companies, although very large companies (such as Raleigh) used to
make almost every part of a bicycle (including bottom brackets,
axles, etc.) In recent years, those bicycle makers have greatly
changed their methods of production. Now, almost none of them
produce their own frames.
Many newer or smaller companies only design and market their
products; the actual production is done by Asian companies. For
example, some 60% of the world's bicycles are now being made in
China. Despite this shift in production, as nations
such as China and India become more
wealthy, their own use of bicycles has declined due to the
increasing affordability of cars and motorcycles.
One of the
major reasons for the proliferation of Chinese-made bicycles in
foreign markets is the lower cost of labor in China.
One of the profound economic implications of bicycle use is that it
liberates the user from oil consumption (Ballantine, 1972). The
bicycle is a inexpensive, fast, healthy and environmentally friendly
transport (Illich, 1974)
Reflectors for riding after dark
Early in its development, as with automobiles
, there were restrictions on the
operation of bicycles. Along with advertising, and to gain free
publicity, Albert A. Pope
litigated on behalf of cyclists.
The 1968 Vienna
Convention on Road Traffic
of the United Nations
considers a bicycle to be a
vehicle, and a person controlling a bicycle (whether actually
riding or not) is considered an operator. The traffic codes of many
countries reflect these definitions and demand that a bicycle
satisfy certain legal requirements before it can be used on public
roads. In many jurisdictions
, it is an
offense to use a bicycle that is not in a roadworthy
In most jurisdictions, bicycles must have functioning front and
when ridden after dark.
As some generator or dynamo
-driven lamps only
operate while moving, rear reflectors
are frequently also mandatory.
Since a moving bicycle makes little noise, some countries insist
that bicycles have a warning bell for use when approaching
pedestrians, equestrians, and other cyclists.
Some countries require child and/or adult cyclists to wear helmets
, as this may protect riders from head
trauma . Countries which require adult cyclists to
wear helmets include Spain, Canada , New Zealand and Australia.
Special uses and related vehicle types
- DidYouKnow.org. There are
about a billion or more bicycles in the world. Retrieved
30 July 2006.
- Norcliffe, Glen. The Ride to Modernity: The Bicycle in
Canada, 1869-1900 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press,
2001), p.50, citing Derek Roberts.
- Norcliffe, p.47.
- "Bicycle Technology", S.S. Wilson, Scientific
American, March 1973
- "Johns Hopkins Gazette", 30 August 1999
- How Much Do Bicycles Pollute? Looking at the Carbon
Dioxide Produced by Bicycles
- History Loudly Tells WhyThe Recumbent Bike Is Popular
- The TC149 ISO bicycle committee, including the TC149/SC1
("Cycles and major sub-assemblies") subcommittee, has published the
following standards: * ISO
4210 Cycles—Safety requirements for bicycles * ISO 6692 Cycles—Marking of cycle
components * ISO 6695
Cycles—Pedal axle and crank assembly with square end
fitting—Assembly dimensions * ISO 6696 Cycles—Screw threads used in bottom
bracket assemblies * ISO
6697 Cycles—Hubs and freewheels—Assembly dimensions *
ISO 6698 Cycles—Screw
threads used to assemble freewheels on bicycle hubs * ISO 6699 Cycles—Stem and handlebar
bend—Assembly dimensions * ISO 6701 Cycles—External dimensions of spoke
nipples * ISO 6742
Cycles—Lighting and retro-reflective devices—Photometric and
physical requirements * ISO 8090 Cycles—Terminology (same as BS 6102-4) *
ISO 8098 Cycles—Safety
requirements for bicycles for young children * ISO 8488 Cycles—Screw threads used
to assemble head fittings on bicycle forks * ISO 8562 Cycles—Stem wedge angle *
Cycles—Splined hub and sprocket—Mating dimensions * ISO 11243 Cycles—Luggage carriers
for bicycles—Concepts, classification and testing Other ISO
Technical Committees have published various cycle relevant
standards, for example: * ISO 5775 Bicycle tire and rim designations *
ISO 9633 Cycle
chains—Characteristics and test methods Published cycle standards
from CEN TC333 include: *
EN 14764 City and
trekking bicycles – Safety requirements and test methods *
EN 14765 Bicycles for
young children – Safety requirements and test methods *
Mountain-bicycles – Safety requirements and test methods *
EN 14781 Racing
bicycles – Safety requirements and test methods * EN 14782 Bicycles – Accessories for
bicycles – Luggage carriers * EN 15496 Cycles – Requirements and test methods for
cycle locks Yet to be approved cycle standards from CEN TC333: * EN 15194 Cycles—Electrically power assisted cycles
(EPAC bicycle) * EN 15532 Cycles—Terminology *
00333011 Cycles – Bicycles trailers – safety requirements and test
- Newnham College Cambridge: The History of the
- Norcliffe, Glen. The Ride to Modernity: The Bicycle in
Canada, 1869-1900 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press,
2001), pp.23, 106, & 108. GM's practice of sharing chassis,
bodies, and other parts is exactly what the early bicycle
manufacturer Pope was doing.
- Norcliffe, p.106.
- Norcliffe, pp.142–7.
- Norcliffe, p.145.
- Norcliffe, p.108.
- Norcliffe, p.23.
- Babaian, Sharon. The Most Benevolent Machine: A Historical
Assessment of Cycles in Canada (Ottawa: National Museum of
Science and Technology, 1998), p.97.
- Babaian, p.98.
- Norcliffe, pp.8, 12, 14, 23, 147–8, 187–8, 208, &
- Norcliffe, pp.23, 121, & 123.
- Norcliffe, p.212.
- Norcliffe, p.214.
- Norcliffe, p.131.
- Norcliffe, p.30 & 131.
- Norcliffe, p.125.
- Norcliffe, p.123 & 125.
- Norcliffe, p.125 & 126.
- Norcliffe, p.238.
- Norcliffe, p.128.
- Norcliffe, p.214–5.
- Norcliffe, Glen. The Ride to Modernity: The Bicycle in
Canada, 1869-1900 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press,
- All About Bicycling, Rand McNally.
- Richard Ballantine,
Richard's Bicycle Book, Pan, 1975.
- Caunter C. F. The History and Development of Cycles
Science Museum London 1972.
- Daniel Kirshner. Some nonexplanations of bicycle
stability. American Journal of Physics, 48(1), 1980. The
abstract reads "In this paper we attempt to verify a nongyroscopic
theory of bicycle stability, and fail".
- David B. Perry, Bike Cult: the Ultimate Guide to
Human-powered Vehicles, Four Walls Eight Windows, 1995.
- Roni Sarig, The Everything Bicycle Book, Adams Media
- US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway
Administration. "America's Highways 1776-1976", pp. 42–43.
Washington, DC, US Government Printing Office.
- David Gordon Wilson,
Bicycling Science, MIT press, ISBN 0-262-73154-1
- David V. Herlihy, Bicycle: The History, Yale
University Press, 2004
- Frank Berto, The Dancing Chain: History and Development of
the Derailleur Bicycle, San Francisco: Van der Plas
Publications, 2005, ISBN 1-892495-41-4.
- The Data Book: 100 Years of Bicycle Component and Accessory
Design, San Francisco: Van der Plas Publications, 2005, ISBN
Other authors: Eddie Borysewicz
, Davis Phinney
, Connie Carpenter