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Language

Hindi and Urdu are the official languages of the state, whilst the majority of the people speak one of the Bihari languages - Bhojpuri, Magadhi, Maithili or Angika. Bihari languages were once mistakenly thought to be dialects of Hindi, but they has been more recently shown to be descendant of the language of the erstwhile Magadha kingdom - Magadhi Prakrit, along with Bengali, Assamese, and Oriya.

The number of speakers of Bihari languages are difficult to indicate because of unreliable sources. In the urban region most educated speakers of the language name Hindi as their language because this is what they use in formal contexts and believe it to be the appropriate response because of unawareness. The uneducated and the rural population of the region return Hindi as the generic name for their language.

Despite of the large number of speakers of Bihari languages, they have not been constitutionally recognized in Indiamarker. Hindi is the language used for educational and official matters in Bihar. These languages was legally absorbed under the subordinate label of HINDI in the 1961 Census. Such state and national politics are creating conditions for language endangerments.The first success for spreading Hindi occurred in Bihar in 1881, when Hindi displaced Urdu as the sole official language of the province. In this struggle between competing Hindi and Urdu, the potential claims of the three large mother tongues in the region - Magahi, Bhojpuri and Maithili were ignored. After independence Hindi was again given the sole official status through the Bihar Official Language Act, 1950. Urdu became the second official language in the undivided State of Bihar on 16 August 1989.

The relationship of Maithili community with Bhojpuri and Magahi communities – the immediate neighbors have been neither very pleasant nor very hostile. Maithili has been the only one among them which has been trying to constantly deny superimposition of Hindi over her identity. The other two have given up their claims and have resigned to accept the status of dialects of Hindi.

Literature



Bihar has produced a number of writers of Hindi, including Raja Radhika Raman Singh, Shiva Pujan Sahay, Divakar Prasad Vidyarthy, Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar', Ram Briksh Benipuri, Phanishwar Nath 'Renu', Gopal Singh "Nepali" and Baba Nagarjun. Mahapandit Rahul Sankrityayan, the great writer and Buddhist scholar, was born in Uttar Pradeshmarker but spent his life in the land of Lord Buddha, i.e., Bihar.Hrishikesh Sulabh is the prominent writer of the new generation. He is short story writer, playwright and theatre critic. Arun Kamal and Aalok Dhanwa are the well-known poets. Different regional languages also have produced some prominent poets and authors. Sharat Chandra Chattopadhyay, who is among the greatest writers in Bangla, resided for some time in Bihar. Of late, the latest Indian writer in English, Upamanyu Chatterjee also hails from Patna in Bihar. Devaki Nandan Khatri, who rose to fame at the beginning of the 20th century on account of his novels such as Chandrakanta and Chandrakanta Santati, was born in Muzaffarpurmarker, Bihar. Vidyapati Thakur is the most renowned poet of Maithili (c. 14-15th century).

Performing arts

Music of Bihar

Bihar has contributed to the Indian (Hindustani) classical music and has produced musicians like Bharat Ratna Ustad Bismillah Khan and dhrupad singers like the Malliks (Darbhangamarker Gharana) and the Mishras (Bettiahmarker Gharana)). Bihar has a very old tradition of beautiful folk songs, sung during important family occasions, such as marriage, birth ceremonies, festivals, etc. They are sung mainly in group settings without the help of many musical instruments like Dholak, Bansuri and occasionally Tabla and Harmonium are used. Bihar also has a tradition of lively Holi songs known as 'Phagua', filled with fun rhythms.During the 19th century, when the condition of Bihar worsened under the Britishmarker misrule, many Biharis had to migrate as indentured laborers to West Indian islands, Fijimarker, and Mauritiusmarker. During this time many sad plays and songs called biraha became very popular, in the area. Dramas on that theme continue to be popular in the theaters of Patnamarker.

Dance of Bihar

Dance forms of Bihar are another expression of rich traditions and ethnic identity. There are several folk dance forms that can keep one enthralled, such as dhobi nach, jhumarnach, manjhi, gondnach, jitiyanach, more morni, dom-domin, bhuiababa, rah baba, kathghorwa nach, jat jatin, launda nach, bamar nach, jharni, jhijhia, natua nach, bidapad nach, sohrai nach, and gond nach.

Drama and theater

Theatre is another form in which the Bihari culture expresses itself. Some forms of theater with rich traditions are Bidesia, Reshma-Chuharmal, Bihula-Bisahari, Bahura-Gorin, Raja Salhesh, Sama Chakeva, and Dom Kach. These theater forms originate in the Anga region of Bihar.

Visual arts

Painting



Madhubani paintings is a style of Indian painting, practiced in the Mithila region of Bihar. Tradition states that this style of painting originated at the time of the Ramayana, when King Janak commissioned artists to do paintings at the time of marriage of his daughter, Sita, to Lord Ram. The painting was traditionally done on freshly plastered mud wall of huts, but now it is also done on cloth, hand-made paper and canvas. Madhubani painting mostly depict nature and Hindu religious motifs, and the themes generally revolve around Hindu deities like Krishna, Ram, Shiva, Durga, Lakshmi, and Saraswati. Natural objects like the sun, the moon, and religious plants like tulsi are also widely painted, along with scenes from the royal court and social events like weddings. Generally no space is left empty. Traditionally, painting was one of the skills that was passed down from generation to generation in the families of the Mithila Region, mainly by women. The painting was usually done on walls during festivals, religious events, and other milestones of the life-cycle such as birth, Upanayanam (Sacred thread ceremony), and marriage.Manjusha Kala or Angika Art is an art form of Anga region of Bihar.Patna School of Painting or Patna Qalaam, some times also called Company painting, offshoot of the well-known Mughal Miniature School of Painting flourished in Bihar during early 18th to mid 20th century. The practitioners of this art form were descendants of Hindu artisans of Mughal painting who facing persecution from the Mughal Emperor, Aurangzeb found refuge, via Murshidabadmarker, in Patnamarker during late 18th century. They shared the characteristics of the Mughal painters, but unlike them (whose subjects included only royalty and court scenes), the Patnamarker painters also started painting bazaar scenes. The paintings were executed in watercolours on paper and on mica. Favourite subjects were scenes of Indianmarker daily life, local rulers, and sets of festivals and ceremonies. Most successful were the studies of natural life, but the style was generally of a and undistinguished quality. It is this school of painting that formed the nucleus for the formation of the Patna Art School under the leadership of Shri Radha Mohan. College of arts and crafts Patna is an important center of Fine Arts in Bihar.

Sculpture

The first sculptures in Biharmarker date back to the Mauryan empire, where stone and bronze figures have been discovered. Pillars of Ashoka and Didarganj Yakshi is estimated to be at least 2000 years old; and is carved out of a single piece of stone. The statues found all over the Biharmarker. A multiplicity of statues, ranging from Hellenistic gods, to various Gandharan lay devotees, are combined with what are thought as some of the early representations of the and Bodhisattvas. Today, it is still unclear when the Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara exactly emerged, but the findings in Sirkap do indicate that this art was already highly developed before the advent of the Kushans. Mandar Hill is also very important as it has the unique of Gupta period's image of Lord Vishnu, in his man-lion incarnation, has not been shown as tearing Hiranyakashipu. The image is 34 inches high and made of black stone. Most the Hindu and Buddhism sculptures was destroyed by Muslim invaders along with the other major centers of Hinduism andBuddhism in Indiamarker.

Architecture



The first Architectures in Biharmarker date back to the vedic period While the Mauryan period marked a second transition to use of brick and stone, wood was still the material of choice. Chanakya in the arthashastra advises the use of brick and stone for their durability. Megasthenes mentions that the capital city of Pataliputramarker was encircled by a wooden palisade. Evidence of this has been found in recent excavations in Kumrahar in modern day Patnamarker. Remains of an 80 pillared hall has also been unearthed. Many stupas like those at Nalandamarker and Vikramshilamarker were originally built as brick and masonry mounds during the reign of Ashoka.

The Buddhist stupa, a dome shaped monument, was used in India as a commemorative monument associated with storing sacred relics. The stupa architecture was adopted in Southeast and East Asia, where it became prominent as a Buddhist monument used for enshrining sacred relics. Upon its discovery, this architectural became known as pagoda to the people from the Western world. Fortified cities with stūpas, viharas, and temples were constructed during the Maurya empire (c. 321–185 BCE). Wooden architecture was popular and rock cut architecture became solidified. Guard rails—consisting of posts, crossbars, and a coping—became a feature of safety surrounding a stupa. Temples—build on elliptical, circular, quadrilateral, or apsidal plans—were constructed using brick and timber. The Indian gateway arches, the torana, reached East Asia with the spread of Buddhism. Some scholars hold that torii derives from the torana gates at the Buddhist historic site of Sanchimarker (3rd century BCE - 11 century CE).

Walled and moated cities with large gates and multi-storied buildings which consistently used arched windows and doors are important features of the architecture during this period. The Indian emperor Ashoka (rule: 273 BCE to 232 BCE) himself established a chain of hospitals throughout the Mauryan empire by 230 BCE.Piercey & Scarborough (2008) One of the edicts of Ashoka (272—231 BCE) reads: "Everywhere King Piyadasi (Asoka) erected two kinds of hospitals, hospitals for people and hospitals for animals. Where there were no healing herbs for people and animals, he ordered that they be bought and planted." Buddhist architecture blended with Roman architecture and Hellenestic architecture to give rise to unique blends—such as the Greco-Buddhist school.The state was largely in ruins when visited by Hsüan-tsang, and suffered further damage at the hands of Mughal raiders in the 12th century.Though parts of the Biharmarker have been excavated, much of it still lies buried beneath modern Biharmarker.Rock-cut stepwells in India date from 200-400 CE. Subsequently, the wells at Dhank (550-625 CE) and construction of stepped ponds at Bhinmalmarker (850-950 CE) takes place.Livingston & Beach, page xxiii

Mughal tombs of sandstone and marble show Persianmarker influence.Mughal architecture. Encyclopedia Britannica (2008) Sher Shah Suri and his successor had created some eligent Mughal architecture like Sher Shah Suri Tomb. Ibrahim Khan, Governor of Biharmarker, who was also Makhdum Daulat's disciple finished the construction of Makhdum Daulat in mausoleum in 1616. The building at Maner Sharif is a marvelous one. The walls of the building are adorned with intricate designs. There is a big dome on the top and the ceiling is full of inscriptions depicted from the Quran.Patna High Court, Bihar Vidhan Sabha, Bihar Vidhan Parishad, Transpert Bhawan, Patna, Golgharmarker St. Mary's Churchmarker and Patna Museummarker are some example of Indo-Saracenic Architectures.

Craft

The artisans of Bihar have been very skillful in creating articles using local materials. Baskets, cups and saucers made from bamboo-strips or cane reed are painted in vivid colors are commonly found in Bihari homes. A special container woven out of sikki grass in the north, the "pauti", is a sentimental gift that accompanies a bride when she leaves her home after her wedding. The weavers of Bihar have been practicing their trade for centuries. Among their products in common use are the cotton dhurries and curtains. They are produced by artisans in central Bihar, particularly in the Patna and Biharsharif areas. These colourful sheets, with motifs of Buddhist artifacts, pictures of birds, animals, and/or flowers, gently wafting in the air through doors and windows, blown by a cool summer breeze, used to be one of the most soothing sights as one approached a home or an office.Bhagalpurmarker is well known for its seri-culture, manufacture of silk yarn and weaving them into lovely products. It is known as the tussah or tusser silk.

Cuisine

The cuisine of Bihar for the Hindu upper and middle classes is predominantly vegetarian, although some of the Hindu classes do eat meat. The Muslims in Bihar however do generally eat meat as well as vegetables. The staple food is bhat (boiled rice), dal, roti, tarkari and achar. It is prepared from rice, lentils, wheat flour, vegetables, and pickle. The traditional cooking medium is mustard oil. Khichdi, a broth of rice and lentils seasoned with spices and served with several accompanying items, constitutes lthe mid-day meal for most Hindu Biharis on Saturdays. The favourite dish among Biharis is litti-chokha. Litti is made up of sattu and chokha is made of smashed potatoes, tomatoes, and brinjals.

Chitba and Pitthow which are prepared basically from rice, are special foods of the Anga region. Tilbamarker and Chewda of Katarni rice are also special preparations of Anga. Kadhi bari is a popular favorite and consists of fried soft dumplings made of besan (gram flour) that are cooked in a spicy gravy of yoghurt and besan. This dish goes very well with plain rice.

Bihar offers a large variety of sweet delicacies which, unlike those from Bengalmarker, are mostly dry. These include Anarasa, Belgrami, Chena Murki, Motichoor ke Ladoo, Kala Jamun, Kesaria Peda, Khaja, Khurma, Khubi ki Lai, Laktho, Parwal ki Mithai, Pua & Mal Pua, Thekua, Murabba and Tilkut. Many of these originate in towns in the vicinity of Patnamarker. Several other traditional salted snacks and savouries popular in Bihar are Chiwra, Dhuska, Litti, Makhana and Sattu.

There is a distinctive Bihari flavor to the non-vegetarian cuisine as well, although some of the names of the dishes may be the same as those found in other parts of North India. Roll is a typical Bihari non-vegetarian dish. These are popular and go by the generic name Roll Bihari in and around Lexington Avenue (South) in New York City.

Islamic culture and food, with Bihari flavor are also part of Bihar's unique confluence of cultures. Famous food items include Biharee Kabab, Shami Kabab, Nargisi Kufte, Shabdeg, Yakhnee Biryanee, Motton Biryani, Shaljum Gosht, Baqer Khani, Kuleecha, Naan Rootee, Sawee ka Zarda, Qemamee Sawee, Gajar ka Halwa, Ande ka ZfraniHalwa etc.

Religion



Gautam Buddha attained Enlightenment at Bodh Gayamarker, a town located in the modern day district of Gayamarker. Vardhamana Mahavira, the 24th and the last Tirthankara of Jainism, was born in Vaishalimarker around sizth century B.C. .

A typical Bihari household would begin the day with religious devotion. The blowing of a conch shell heralds the dawn of a new day while somewhere in the distance; a Hindu priest intones the ancient incantations. The low-pitched chanting of a Buddhist monk or the tolling of a church bell reminds people to pay their salutations to god.

In Bihar, every aspect of life is suffused with religious significance and its manifestations abound in every corner of the state. While shrines are located everywhere - at the foot of trees, roadsides, etc, religious symbols or images of deities can be found in the most obscure or the most public places. From the dashboard of a dilapidated taxi to the plush office of a top executive, holy symbols or idols have their place.

Hinduism being the main religion of the state, most of the festivals stem from it. There are many variations on the festival theme. While some are celebrated all over the state, others are observed only in certain areas. But Bihar being so diverse, different regions and religions have something to celebrate at sometime or the other during the year. So festivals take place round the year.

On arrival in any part of this state, a tourist finds around him evidence of the extent to which religion enters into the daily life of the people. The calendar is strewn with festivals and fairs of different communities living together. Many of these are officially recognized by the days on which they take place being proclaimed as Government holidays.

The battle cries of the Bihar Regiment, consisting of 17 battalions, are "Jai Bajrang Bali" (Victory to Lord Hanuman).

Dariya Sahib, was a saint (who was born in Shahabad in the 1700s) influenced by Kabirdas and Dharamdas, united the Hindu and Muslim communities. Dariya Sahib, like many other Bhakti saints, is known as Dariyadas. He was listed by Brahm Sankar Misra as one of India's greatest saints. Many of his followers believe that he is the reincarnation of Kabir.

Festivals

Chhath, also called Dala Chhath - is an ancient and major festival in Bihar, and is celebrated twice a year: once in the summers, called the Chaiti Chhath, and once around a week after Deepawali, called the Kartik Chhath. The latter is more popular because winters are the usual festive season in North Indiamarker, and Chhath being an arduous observance requiring the worshippers to fast without water for more than 24 hours, is easier to do in the Indian winters. Chhath is the worship of the Sun God. Wherever people from Bihar have migrated, they have taken with them the tradition of Chhath. This is a ritual bathing festival that follows a period of abstenance and ritual segregation of the worshiper from the main household for two days. On the eve of Chhath, houses are scrupulously cleaned and so are the surroundings. The ritual bathing and worship of the Sun God takes place, performed twice: once in the evening and once on the crack of the dawn, usually on the banks of a flowing river, or a common large water body. The occasion is almost a carnival, and besides every worshipper, usually women, who are mostly the main ladies of the household, there are numerous participants and onlookers, all willing to help and receive the blessings of the worshiper. Ritual rendition of regional folk songs, carried on through oral transmission from mothers and mothers-in-law to daughters and daughters-in-law, are sung on this occasion for several days on the go. These songs are a great mirror of the culture, social structure, mythology and history of Bihar and eastern Uttar Pradeshmarker. Chhath being celebrated at the crack of the dawn is a beautiful, elating spiritual experience connecting the modern Indian to his ancient cultural roots. Chhath is believed to be started by Karna, the king of Anga Desh (modern Bhagalpurmarker region of Bihar).Among ritual observances, the month long Shravani Mela held along a 108 kilometre route linking the towns of Sultanganjmarker and Deogharmarker (now in Jharkhandmarker state) is of great significance. Shravani Mela is organised every year in the Hindu month of Shravan, that is the lunar month of July-August. Pilgrims, known as Kanwarias, wear saffron coloured clothes and collect water from a sacred Ghatmarker (river bank) at Sultanganjmarker, walking the 108 km stretch barefooted to the town of Deogharmarker to bathe a sacred Shiva-Linga. The observance draws thousands of people to the town of Deogharmarker from all over India.

Teej and Chitragupta Puja are other local festivals celebrated with fervor in Bihar. Bihula-Bishari Puja is celebrated in the Anga region of Bihar. The Sonepurmarker cattle fair is a month long event starting approximately half a month after Deepawali and is considered the largest cattle fair in Asia. It is held at the conflunce of river Ganges & Gandak in the town of Sonepurmarker. The constraints of the changing times and new laws governing the sale of animals and prohibiting the trafficking in exotic birds and beasts have eroded the once-upon-a-time magic of the fair.

Apart from Chhath, all major festivals of Indiamarker are celebrated in Bihar, such as Makar Sankranti, Saraswati Puja, Holi, Eid-ul-Fitr, Eid-ul-Adha (often called Eid-ul-Zuha in the Indian Subcontinent), Muharram, Ram Navami, Rath yatra, Rakshabandhan, Maha Shivaratri, Durga Puja, Diwali, Laxmi Puja, Christmas, Mahavir Jayanti, Buddha Purnima, Chitragupta Puja, and several other local festivals as well.

Media

Print Media

Hindustan, Dainik Jagran, Navbharat Times, Aj and Prabhat Khabar are some of the popular Hindi news papers of Bihar. E-papers, Bihar Times and Patna Daily have become very popular among the educated Biharis, specially the non-resident Biharis. Jaibihar is a similar e-paper, which has been recently started. National English dailies like The Times of India and The Economic Times have reads in the urban regions.

National Hindi Daily Rashtriya Sahara was launched in Bihar on 20th July 2006. Mr. Onkareshwar Pandey, who was heading the newspaper at national level as Resident editor, was deputed to launch the paper from Bihar. This dynamic young Editor had come with a new vision. He gave a new slogan..JILE KA NAHI PRADESH KA AKHBAR..(Newspaper of whole state and not just of a district). This slogan changed the whole scenario in the print media of Bihar. The largest circulated daily HINDUSTAN had to introduce 6 PAGE SUPPLEMENT COVERING WHOLE BIHAR to counter the threat from Rashtriya Sahara. Now a few other newspapers has also been launched from Patna, but has not made any significant impact.

Television and Radio

Several national and International Televission channels are popular in Biharmarker. DD Bihar, Sahara Bihar and ETV Bihar-Jharkhand are the television channels dedicated to Biharmarker. Recently couple of dedicated Bhojpuri channel, Mahuaa TV and Purva TV has been launched.


Cinema

Biharmarker has a robust cinema industry for the Bhojpuri language. There arwe also a small Maithili, Angika and Magadhifilm industry. First Bhojpuri Film was Ganga Jamuna released in 1961. "Lagi nahin chute ram" was the alltime superhit Bhojpuri film which was released against "Mugle Azam" but was a superhit in all the eastern and northern sector. Bollywood's Nadiya Ke Paar is among the most famous Bhojpuri language movie. The first Maithili movie was Kanyadan released in 1965, of which a significant portion was made in the Maithili language. Bhaiyaa a Magadhi film was released in 1961.Bhojpuri's history begins in 1962 with the well-received film Ganga Maiyya Tohe Piyari Chadhaibo ("Mother Ganges, I will offer you a yellow sari"), which was directed by Kundan Kumar. Throughout the following decades, films were produced only in fits and starts. Films such as Bidesiya ("Foreigner," 1963, directed by S. N. Tripathi) and Ganga ("Ganges," 1965, directed by Kundan Kumar) were profitable and popular, but in general Bhojpuri films were not commonly produced in the 1960s and 1970s.

In the 1980s, enough Bhojpuri films were produced to tentatively make up an industry. Films such as Mai ("Mom," 1989, directed by Rajkumar Sharma) and Hamar Bhauji ("My Brother's Wife," 1983, directed by Kalpataru) continued to have at least sporadic success at the box office. However, this trend faded out by the end of the decade, and by 1990, the nascent industry seemed to be completely finished.

The industry took off again in 2001 with the super hit Saiyyan Hamar ("My Sweetheart," directed by Mohan Prasad), which shot the hero of that film, Ravi Kissan, to superstardom. This success was quickly followed by several other remarkably successful films, including Panditji Batai Na Biyah Kab Hoi ("Priest, tell me when I will marry," 2005, directed by Mohan Prasad) and Sasura Bada Paisa Wala ("My father-in-law, the rich guy," 2005). In a measure of the Bhojpuri film industry's rise, both of these did much better business in the states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar than mainstream Bollywood hits at the time, and both films, made on extremely tight budgets, earned back more than ten times their production costs. Sasura Bada Paisa Wala also introduced Manoj Tiwari, formerly a well-loved folk singer, to the wider audiences of Bhojpuri cinema. In 2008, he and Ravi Kissan are still the leading actors of Bhojpuri films, and their fees increase with their fame. The extremely rapid success of their films has led to dramatic increases in Bhojpuri cinema's visibility, and the industry now supports an awards show and a trade magazine, Bhojpuri City, which chronicles the production and release of what are now over one hundred films per year. Many of the major stars of mainstream Bollywood cinema, including Amitabh Bachchan, have also recently worked in Bhojpuri films.

Recreation and sports

Cultural Region

Angika Region

Angika region, comprises of the districts of Banka, Bhagalpurmarker, Mungermarker, Jamuimarker, Lakhisaraimarker, and Shekhpura in the eastern part of Indiamarker. Angika is the mother-tongue of people of this area.

Bhojpuri Region

Bhojpuri region, comprises of the districts of Rohtas, Kaimur, Buxarmarker and Bhojpurmarker to the south of the Ganges; and, Saranmarker, Siwanmarker, Gopalganjmarker, East Champaran and West Champaran to the north of the Gangesmarker in the eastern part of Indiamarker. Bhojpuri is the mother-tongue of people of this area.

Magadh Region

Magadh region, comprises of the districts of Patnamarker, Nalandamarker, Nawadamarker, Gayamarker, Arwalmarker, Aurangabad, and Jehanabad, in the Central Biharmarker region, are the nourishing ground of the ancient Magahi (Magadhi) culture in the eastern part of Indiamarker. Magadhi is the mother-tongue of people of this area.

Maithili Region

Mithila region broadly comprises of the districts of Vaishalimarker, Muzaffarpurmarker, Madhubanimarker, Darbhangamarker, Samastipur, Sheoharmarker, Sitamarhimarker, Begusaraimarker, Khagariamarker, Katiharmarker, Madhepuramarker, Saharsamarker, Supaulmarker, Purniamarker, Arariamarker, and Kishanganjmarker in the eastern part of Indiamarker. Maithili is the mother-tongue of people of this area.

The relationship of Maithili community with Bhojpuri and Magahi communities – the immediate neighbors have been neither very pleasant nor very hostile. Maithili has been the only one among them which has been trying to constantly deny superimposition of Hindi over her identity. The other two have given up their claims and have resigned to accept the status of dialects of Hindi.

It goes without saying that the relationship of Maithili and Hindi have been most complicated. While almost all Maithils have accepted Hindi as a language of formal occasions, the retention of Maithili for cultural, social , familial as well as literary purposes have also been more or less steady. The trend among the youngest generation to use Maithili in lesser and lesser occasions should be viewed in the context of the same thing happening among Hindi, Telugu or Marathi speakers who are tilting towards use of English rather than their mother tongue.

See also



Further reading

  • Pathak Prabhu Nath, Society and Culture in Early Bihar (C.A.D. 200 - 600), Commonwealth Publishers, 1988
  • Basham A. L., The Wonder that was India, Picador, 1954, ISBN 0 330 43909 X
  • Nambisan Vijay, Bihar in the eye of the beholder, Penguin Books, 2000, ISBN 9780140294491
  • Chitta Ranjan Prasad Sinha, Early Sculpture of Bihar, Indological Book Corp., 1980
  • Susan Lubin Huntington The Origin and Development of Sculpture in Bihar and Bengal, University of California, 1972


References and footnotes




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