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Black Widow (Natalia Romanova, also known as Natasha Romanoff) is a fictional character – a secret agent in the Marvel Comics Universe. She was created by writers Stan Lee and Don Rico and artist Don Heck, and first appeared in Tales of Suspense #52 (April 1964).

Black Widow will be featured in the upcoming 2010 Iron Man sequel, Iron Man 2, where she will be played by Scarlett Johansson.

Publication history

The Black Widow's first appearances were as a recurring, non-costumed, Sovietmarker-spy antagonist in the Tales of Suspense feature Iron Man, recruiting a besotted Hawkeye to her cause. Her government later supplied her with her first Black Widow costume and high-tech weaponry, but she eventually defected to the United Statesmarker after appearing, temporarily brainwashed against the U.S., in the superhero-team series The Avengers #29 (July 1966). The Widow later became a recurring ally of the team before officially becoming its sixteenth member.

The Black Widow appeared for the first time in her trademark skintight black costume in The Amazing Spider-Man #86 (July 1970). In short order, she starred in her own series in Amazing Adventures #1-8 (August 1970 September 1971), sharing that split book with the feature Inhumans. Immediately after her initial solo feature ended, the Black Widow co-starred in Daredevil #81–124 (November 1971–August 1975) and then in the super-team series The Champions, which ran 17 issues (October 1975–January 1978).

Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the Black Widow appeared frequently as both an Avengers member and a freelance agent of S.H.I.E.L.D. She starred in a serialized feature within the omnibus comic-book series Marvel Fanfare #10–13 (August 1983–March 1984), written by George Pérez and Ralph Macchio, with art by penciller Perez. These stories were collected in the one-shot Black Widow: Web of Intrigue #1 (June 1999).

The Widow guest-starred in issues of Solo Avengers, Force Works Iron Man, Marvel Team-Up, and other comics. She appeared in several mid-1980s issues of Daredevil, as well as a four-issue arc in issues #368-371 (October 1997–January 1998) and as a recurring guest in Daredevil Vol. 2 (1998–present). She co-starred in two graphic novelsFury/Black Widow: Death Duty with Nick Fury, Marvel UK's Night Raven and Punisher/Black Widow: Spinning Doomsday's Web with the Punisher — as well as a three-issue arc, "The Fire Next Time" by writer Scott Lobdell and penciller Randy Green in Journey into Mystery #517–519 (Feb.–April 1998).

Limited series and specials

Aside from the arcs in Marvel Fanfare and Journey into Mystery, the Black Widow has starred in four limited series and four graphic novels.

The three-issue Black Widow (June-August 1999), under the Marvel Knights imprint, starred Romanova and fully introduced her appointed successor, Captain Yelena Belova, who had briefly appeared in an issue of the 1999 series Inhumans. The writer for the story arc, "The Itsy-Bitsy Spider" was Devin K. Grayson while J. G. Jones was the artist. The next three-issue, Marvel Knights mini-series, also titled Black Widow (Jan.-March 2001) featured both Black Widows in the story arc "Breakdown," by writers Devin Grayson and Greg Rucka with painted art by Scott Hampton.

Romanova next starred in another solo miniseries titled Black Widow (November 2004 - April 2005), also under the Marvel Knights imprint and written by science fiction novelist Richard K. Morgan with art initially by Bill Sienkiewicz and later by Sienkiewicz over Goran Parlov layouts. A six-issue sequel, Black Widow: The Things They Say About Her (November 2005 - April 2006; officially Black Widow 2: The Things They Say About Her in the series' postal indicia), by writer Richard K. Morgan, penciller Sean Phillips, and inker Bill Sienkiewicz, picks up immediately where the previous mini-series left off, continuing the story using many of the same characters.

She starred in the solo graphic novel Black Widow: The Coldest War (April 1990), and co-starred in three more: Punisher/Black Widow: Spinning Doomsday's Web (December 1992); Daredevil/Black Widow: Abattoir (July 1993); and Nick Fury/Black Widow: Death Duty (June 1995), also co-starring Marvel UK's Night Raven.

Black Widow is also featured in the short story Love Is Blindness, where she instigates a humorous fight with Elektra over Daredevil's affections. The comic is stylized to look like Japanese animation and uses images, not words, inside the speech and thought bubbles to convey what the characters are saying/thinking.

Fictional character biography

Early life

Natasha was born in Stalingradmarker (now Volgogradmarker), Russiamarker. The first and best-known Black Widow is a Sovietmarker agent trained as a spy, martial artist, and sniper, and outfitted with an arsenal of high-tech weaponry, including a pair of wrist-mounted energy weapons dubbed her "Widow's Bite". She wears no costume during her first few appearances but simply evening wear and a veil. Romanova eventually defects to the U.S. for reasons that include her love for the reluctant-criminal-turned-superhero archer Hawkeye.

Romanova's parents were killed in a fire when Romanova was a child. She was saved from death herself by Ivan Petrovitch, who raised her as a surrogate father. He first appears in Marvel continuity in the Widow's 1970s Amazing Adventures feature, in which he is introduced as her chauffeur and confidant, without this back-story revealed. Romanova as a child appears in a flashback to 1941, in which Petrovitch, the superhero Captain America, and the mutant Logan who would become the superhero Wolverine, rescue her from Nazis on the fictional island principality of Madripoor.

A revised, retcon origin establishes her as being raised from early childhood by the U.S.S.R.'s "Black Widow Ops" program, rather than solely by Ivan Petrovitch. With other young female orphans, she is trained in combat and espionage at the covert "Red Room" facility. There, she is biotechnologically and psycho technologically enhanced — an accounting that provides a rationale for her unusually long and youthful lifespan. While there, she was trained by, and a lover of, the Winter Soldier. Each Black Widow is deployed with false memories to help ensure her loyalty. Romanova eventually discovers this, including the minor fact that she had never, as she'd believed, been a ballerina. She further discovers that the Red Room was still active as "2R".

Natasha married the renowned Soviet test pilot Alexi Shostakov. When the Soviet government decided to make Alexi into their new operative, the Red Guardian, he is told that he can have no further contact with his wife. Natasha is told that he had died and is trained as a secret agent separately.

The Avengers

Romanova grows up to serve as a femme fatale who attempts to seduce American defense contractor Tony Stark and inevitably confronts his superhero alter ego, Iron Man. Later, Romanova defected to the United States and eventually joins the super-team the Avengers as a costumed superhero.

On her first mission in the United States, she and her partner Boris Turgenev were sent to America to assassinate Prof. Anton Vanko and Iron Man. The pair battled Iron Man, and Boris stole and wore the Crimson Dynamo suit. Vanko killed himself and Boris to save Iron Man, using an unstable experimental laser light pistol. Natasha later met Hawkeye and set him against Iron Man, and later helped Hawkeye battle Iron Man.

Natasha later attempted to defect from the Soviet Union, and was wounded by a KGB agent. The KGB brainwashed her, and with Power Man I and the Swordsman she battled the Avengers.

S.H.I.E.L.D. and Daredevil

Later still, she began freelancing as an agent of the international espionage group S.H.I.E.L.D. She was sent on a secret S.H.I.E.L.D. mission to China by Nick Fury. There, with the Avengers, she battled Col. Ling, Gen. Brushov, and her ex-husband the Red Guardian. During her romantic involvement with Matt Murdock in San Francisco, Californiamarker, she operated as an independent superhero alongside Murdock's alter ego, Daredevil. Natasha was less taken with Matt's law partner Foggy Nelson, who was manipulated by the villain Mr. Kline into prosecuting her for the murder of the Scorpion (it was actually a robot of the Scorpion created by Mr. Kline).

Matt broke up with his long-time love, Karen Page, so that he could be with Natasha and the two moved to San Francisco to start a new life together. They fought against menaces such as Man-Bull, Blue Talon, Dark Messiah, Angar the Screamer, Ramrod, Terrex, Kraven the Hunter, Death-Stalker, Owl, El Jaguar, HYDRA, and Damon Dran, the Indestructible Man.

Natasha wanted to find a new career for herself beyond the day-to-day adventures she and Daredevil enjoyed and attempted to become a fashion designer, but her career never took off. Eventually, her relationship with Matt became strained. Natasha left Daredevil briefly to accept an offer of membership in the Avengers after aiding them against Magneto, but she soon left them after determining from a battle against the Lion God that she did not fit into a team environment. Natasha and Matt reconciled for a while, but after a lengthy romance, Natasha finally broke up with Matt because she felt he did not treat her as an equal in battle.

She eventually returned to Matt's life just as he began dating Heather Glenn. After a brief period as Matt's partner, Natasha realized that he was growing closer to Glen and elected to leave New York so she did not prove to be a negative influence.

After being poisoned by members of the Hand, Natasha denied medical aid and fought her way past S.H.I.E.L.D agents in a bid to seek out Matt. Her body briefly succumbed to the poison, but she was revived by Stone, a pupil of Matt's mentor Stick. Natasha found that Matt had been going through personal hardships in light of his one true love, Elektra's reappearance, apparent betrayal, surprising redemption, and recent murder. She also reconciled with Foggy, and learned from him that Matt's relationship with his fiance Heather had degenerated into a bitter, almost misogynistic power struggle stemming from Matt's depression over Elektra's death. Natasha and Foggy arranged for the two to break up, sending forged farewell letters to both parties.

Despite helping Matt to overcome the Hand and revive Elektra, Natasha realized that Matt still only thought of her in platonic terms, despite how much they loved the other, and elected to restrain herself from any advances.

The Champions

After their breakup, the Widow moves to Los Angelesmarker and becomes leader of the newly created and short-lived super team known as The Champions, consisting of her, Ghost Rider (Johnny Blaze), Hercules (with whom she has a brief romance), and former X-Men Angel and Iceman.

Her friends often call her "Natasha", the informal version of "Natalia". She has sometimes chosen the last-name alias "Romanoff" — evidently as a private joke on those who are not aware that Russian family names use different endings for males and females. She has been hinted to be a descendant of the destroyed Romanov royal family and a relation to Nicholas II of Russia.

21st century

Natasha crosses Daredevil's (Matt Murdock) path again when he attempts to slay an infant he believes to be the Anti-Christ. After Daredevil's one-time love, Karen Page, dies protecting the child, Natasha reconciles with Murdock, revealing she still loves him, but noting that he is too full of anger to commit to a relationship with her.

Natasha later becomes aware of another Black Widow, a younger woman named Yelena Belova who had also been trained at the Red Room. Yelena, obsessed with being the sole Black Widow, encounters Natasha while each attempts to retrieve the "Endless Fury" bioweapon, which explodes near them. Natasha later has herself and Yelena trade appearances through plastic surgery. Natasha later discovers that dozens of other women had been trained as Black Widows, and all are now being hunted down and killed. While investigating the murders, freelance agents Max Hunter and a female known only as Kestrel are hired to kill Natasha; during their pursuit of her, they gun down Natasha's old friend Phillip Dexter. In retaliation, Natasha kills Hunter and publicly humiliates Kestrel. With information gleaned from Kestrel, Natasha finds and kills the mastermind of the Black Widow murders: an aging CEO who intended to use part of their genetic structure to create a new chemical weapon.

Civil War/Initiative

During the Superhero Civil War, Natasha becomes a supporter of the Superhuman Registration Act and a member of the taskforce led by Iron Man. Afterward, the registered Natasha joins the reconstituted Avengers. When S.H.I.E.L.D. director Tony Stark is presumed killed and deputy director Maria Hill incapacitated, Natasha assumes temporary command of S.H.I.E.L.D. as the highest-ranking agent present.

Later, Tony Stark assigns Natasha to convey the late Captain America's shield to a secure location, but is intercepted by her former lover, Bucky Barnes, the Winter Soldier, who steals the shield. Natasha and the Falcon then rescue Barnes from the Red Skull's minions, and bring him to the S.H.I.E.L.D. Helicarrier, where Stark convinces Bucky to become the new Captain America. Afterward, Natasha accompanies Bucky as his partner for a brief time until she is called back by S.H.I.E.L.D. She later rejoins him and Falcon for the final confrontation with the Red Skull, helping to rescue Sharon Carter. She and Bucky have restarted their relationship. She later plays an important role in the capture of Hercules. However due to her respect of the Greek god, she let him go. Soon Natasha, along with the rest of the Avengers, gets involved in the current Skrull invasion. Afterwards, she stayed as Bucky's partner. She also assists former director Maria Hill in delivering a special form of data to Bucky.


Norman Osborn discovered Yelena Belova breaking into an abandoned S.H.I.E.L.D. facility, and offered her the position of field leader of the new Thunderbolts. On her first mission, she and Ant-Man take control of Air Force One with the Goblin, Doc Samson, and the new President aboard. It was suggested she faked her apparent death (as the Adaptoid) but it is never explained how.

A conversation with the Ghost implies that Yelena is working as a mole for someone else and that she may even be someone else disguised as Yelena. She is later seen talking privately through a comm-link to Nick Fury.

Osborn orders Yelena to lead the current Thunderbolts to kill former Thunderbolt, Songbird. Fury orders "Yelena" to rescue and retrieve Songbird, for the information she might possess about Osborn and his operations. Yelena finds Songbird, and reveals to her that she was really Natasha Romanova in disguise. She tries delivering Songbird to Fury, but the Thunderbolts have also followed them. The trio are captured as Osborn reveals he had been impersonating Fury in messages all along to set Natasha up in order to strengthen the Thunderbolts and lead him to Fury. She and Songbird are brought to be executed but manage to escape when Ant-Man, Headsmen and Paladin turn on the rest of the Thunderbolts and let them go.

Powers and abilities

The Black Widow is a world class athlete and gymnast, expert martial artist (including karate, judo, aikido, savate, various styles of kung fu, and boxing), markswoman, and weapons specialist as well as having extensive espionage training. She is also an accomplished ballerina.

The Black Widow uses a variety of equipment invented by Soviet scientists and technicians, with later improvements by S.H.I.E.L.D. scientists and technicians. She usually wears distinctively shaped bracelets which fire "widow sting" energy blasts, as well as "widow line" grappling hooks, and tear gas pellets. She wears a belt of metallic disc-charges containing plastic explosives. Her costume consists of synthetic stretch fabric equipped with micro-suction cups on fingers and feet, enabling her to adhere to walls and ceilings.

The Black Widow has been enhanced by biotechnology that enhances her body's resistance to aging and disease.

Other versions


In Marvel 1602, a world where superheroes have started to appear several hundred years early, Natasha is a freelance spy and "the most dangerous woman in Europe". Initially allied with Matthew Murdoch (Daredevil's 1602 counterpart), she later betrays him to Count Otto Von Doom.

Natasha is still working (and sleeping) with Count von Doom during Marvel 1602: Fantastick Four, when she is captain of his flying ship. However, when she questions his plan to take the ship to the edge of the world, he pushes her over the side and appoints the Wizard captain.

The Avengers: United They Stand

Natasha Romanoff/Black Widow appeared in the comic-book series based on the animated television series The Avengers: United They Stand comics.

House of M

Natasha is seen as a member of the Soviet Super Soldiers. Natasha later appears a member of Shang-Chi's Red Dragons, and is mentioned as a member of S.H.I.E.L.D.

Ultimate Black Widow

Under the Ultimate Marvel imprint Black Widow is a member of the Ultimates, this realm's analogue of The Avengers. She debuted in Ultimate Marvel Team-Up #14 (June 2002) in a story written by Brian Michael Bendis and drawn by Terry Moore, before becoming one of the major characters in writer Mark Millar and penciller Bryan Hitch's The Ultimates, debuting there in Vol. 1, #7 (September 2002).

Natasha Romanova is a former KGBmarker spy and assassin, nicknamed the Black Widow. She was originally part of the Ultimates' covert operations ("black ops") team but with the emergence of the Chitauri threat was subsequently moved to public status after a publicly acceptable background was written for her. The Widow has genetic or cybernetic enhancements making her far better in combat than the average human. After accepting a marriage proposal from Tony Stark, she receives a black suit of Iron Man armor as an engagement present, along with a set of nanites bonded to her skin to control the armor.

Romanova is later revealed as a traitor, responsible for killing Hawkeye's wife and children, revealing Bruce Banner's connection to the Hulk to the public and collaborating with the Liberators in their invasion of the United States. After she holds Stark hostage in an attempt to extort his fortune, Stark activates the nanites in her bloodstream, freezing her body in place, before knocking her unconscious. She appears later in an emergency clinic, having cut open her wrists to bleed out the disabling nanites. Hawkeye kills her in revenge for her part in the murder of his family.

By Ultimates 3 #1 a sex tape between Natasha and Tony Stark has been leaked to the public. According to Janet Pym, the tape is of unknown origin and seems to have been professionally done with "close ups". Stark is shown to be in a state of depression over Natasha's betrayal and subsequent death. It is later revealed that one of the Ultrons, calling himself Yellowjacket had leaked the tape. During the Brotherhood attack on the Stark Mansion, Mystique shapeshifts into Natasha to get close to Tony in an attempt to kill him but is knocked unconscious by Wasp.

A new Black Widow will make her first appearance in Ultimate Comics: Avengers during the first story arc.

Marvel Zombies

Black Widow is among the Avengers who are infected by the Sentry in Marvel Zombies vs. the Army of Darkness. Later, in the original Marvel Zombies series, she is among the zombies who attack the Silver Surfer, and is presumably destroyed.

In other media


  • Black Widow appeared in the Iron Man portion of The Marvel Super Heroes.
  • Black Widow appears in The Super Hero Squad Show episode "Deadly is the Black Widow's Bite" voiced by Lena Headey. Mystique poses as her in order to gain the Super Hero Squad's trust and claim the Infinity Fractals for Doctor Doom. After Mystique is defeated alongside MODOK, Abomination, Klaw, and Toad, Captain America reveals that the real Black Widow is safe and sound.


  • In March 2009 Scarlett Johansson signed on to play Black Widow in the film Iron Man 2. On July 16, 2009 the first look at Scarlett Johansson as Black Widow was released by Entertainment Weekly.

Video games

  • The Black Widow appears in the 2005 Punisher video game for one level, as a non-playable character (NPC) who fights alongside the Punisher. voiced by Nika Futterman.
  • Black Widow appears in the video game Marvel: Ultimate Alliance voiced again by Nika Futterman. She is an exclusive character in the PlayStation Portable (PSP) version, and in all other versions of the game as a non-playable character in which she appears to be working for S.H.I.E.L.D. A major subplot involves concern over whether she is a double agent traitor, with evidence being uncovered suggesting that she is secretly working for Doctor Doom, although it is later revealed that this was only part of a scheme by S.H.I.E.L.D. to learn Doom's plans. However, in dialogue featured after the game's credits featuring Black Widow and Weasel, it is made apparent that Black Widow was in fact a double agent working for an unknown third party. Yelena is also a costume for Black Widow, so both Widows are playable. Black Widow has special dialogue with Deadpool, Iceman, Elektra, Spider-Man, Spider-Woman, and Daredevil. A mod available for the PC version of the game unlocks her as a playable character.
  • Black Widow appears in Spider-Man: Web of Shadows voiced by Salli Saffioti. She has been stationed by her superiors to oversee the quarantine of Manhattan when Venom's symbiotic army invades. Spider-Man first encounters her near one of the S.H.I.E.L.D. Quarantine Zones when Electro attacks looking for his sister. Spider-Man runs into Black Widow and some S.H.I.E.L.D. Agents again when he breaks Tinkerer out of Ryker's Island. With some persuasion from Kingpin, Black Widow allows Tinkerer to come up with a way to defeat the Symbiotes while recruiting Spider-Man to help out with the evacuation. When Tinkerer reveals his plans for the Sonic Emitter, Kingpin persuades Black Widow to arrange the 25 Million Dollars and a full pardon as part of Tinkerer's conditions. When most of Manhattan has been evacuated, Black Widow makes contact with her men on the status of the Sonic Emitter being placed on the Trask Building after telling Tinkerer that his money has been wired. Following the Black Suit choice on Symbiote-Black Cat, Black Widow will berate Spider-Man for "infecting" Black Cat and states to her men that Spider-Man can no longer be trusted when he heads out to fight Symbiote-Vulture. Depending on what the outcome is with Symbiote-Vulture, she will be informed that Venom is attacking the S.H.I.E.L.D. Helicarrier. In both Black Suit endings, Black Widow (after being told by Kingpin that the Tinkerer is ready) appoints the symbiote-controlled Wolverine (who is in full control over his symbiote) to bring her Spider-Man dead or alive.
  • Nika Futterman reprises her role of Black Widow who appears in Marvel: Ultimate Alliance 2. She appers as a boss on the Anti-Registration side, and as an ally and assist on the Pro-Registration side. She also is seen as one of the heroes presumed dead during the funeral scene.


  • Amazing Adventures Vol. 2 #1-8
  • Amazing Spider-Man #86, 124, 3438
  • Avengers / Invaders #2, 4-6, 8
  • Avengers #16, 29-59, 63-64, 76, 83, 111-112, 137, 151, 163, 176-177, 181, 211, 221, 305, 313, 229-402, 502-503 Annual #1, 18, 20, 22
  • Avengers Vol. 3 # 1-3, 32-34, 43-44, 55, Annual Vol. 3 1999
  • Avengers Earth's Mightiest Heroes Vol. 2 #2, 5, 8
  • Avengers Spotlight #27
  • Avengers: The Initiative #2-3, 8, 19
  • Avengers: West Coast #69, 101-102, Annual #6
  • Bizarre Adventures #25
  • Black Panther Vol. 4 #23
  • Black Widow Breakdown #1-3
  • Black Widow Vol. 1 #1-3
  • Cable & Deadpool #50
  • Captain America #373, 376, 401-402, 408, 422-425, 430-431, 434, 440-445, 600
  • Captain America Vol. 3 #3, 17, 50
  • Captain America Vol. 5 #27-50
  • Captain Marvel Vol. 1 #12
  • Captain Marvel Vol. 6 #1
  • Champions #1-17
  • Daredevil/Spider-Man Vol 1 #2-4
  • Daredevil #81-124, 155-158, 207-208, 368
  • Daredevil Vol. 2 #2, 4, 8, 14, 21, 61-64, 77
  • Deadpool Vol. 2 #8-9
  • Defenders Vol. 1 #7
  • Fallen Son: The Death of Captain America #2
  • Fantastic Four #367-370, 556 Annual Vol 1 22
  • Force Works #1-22
  • Ghost Rider Vol. 2 #14, 17-18, 23
  • Giant-Size Avengers Vol. 1 #4
  • Giant-Size Avengers Vol. 2 #1
  • Hulk Vol. 2 #8-9
  • Incredible Hercules' #112, 114
  • Incredible Hulk #152
  • Incredible Hulk Vol. 2 #106
  • Invincible Iron Man Vol 1 #14-17
  • Iron Man Vol. 1 #269, 272-277, 284, 288, 315-317, 322-325, Annual #4
  • Iron Man Vol. 3 #6
  • Man-Thing Vol. 1 #1
  • Marvel Comics Presents Vol. 1 #53, 70, 90, 125-132
  • Marvel Fanfare Vol. 1 #10-13
  • Marvel Graphic Novel #75
  • Marvel Knights Vol 1 #1-15
  • Marvel Team-Up Vol. 1 #82-85, 98, 140
  • Marvel Team-Up Vol. 3 #6-7
  • Marvel Two-In-One #3, 10
  • Mighty Avengers #1-20
  • New Avengers #28-30, 36, 38
  • New Warriors Vol. 4 #2
  • Nomad: Girl Without a World#1
  • The Spectacular Spider-Man Vol. 1 #17-18, 36
  • Punisher Vol. 3 #1, 17
  • Quasar #22, 41, 54, 60
  • Reborn #1-5
  • Sensational Spider-Man Vol. 1 #3
  • She-Hulk Vol. 1 #2
  • Solo Avengers #7, 14-16
  • The Spectacular Spider-Man Vol. 2 #19
  • Spider-Man Team-Up #4
  • Spider-Woman Vol. 1 #16
  • Tales of Suspense Vol. 1 #52-55, 57, 60, 64
  • Thor #495
  • Thunderbolts #1, 3, 9, 44, 557, 125-136
  • Thunderstrike #13, 19 20, 23-24
  • Uncanny X-Men #268, 307
  • War Machine Vol. 1 #21-22
  • Warlock and the Infinity Watch #26-28
  • West Coast Avengers Annual #1
  • White Tiger Vol 1 #1, 3, 6
  • Wolverine Vol. 2 #125
  • X-Men Vol. 2 #26, 55
  • Journey into Mystery #517–519 (Feb.–April 1998).
  • Black Widow: The Things They Say About Her #1-6 (November 2005 - April 2006)
  • Black Widow 2: The Things They Say About Her #1-6
  • Black Widow: The Coldest War (April 1990)
  • Punisher/Black Widow: Spinning Doomsday's Web (December 1992)
  • Daredevil/Black Widow: Abattoir (July 1993)
  • Nick Fury/Black Widow: Death Duty (June 1995)

See also


  1. The Uncanny X-Men #268 (September 1990)
  2. Black Widow (miniseries November 2004 - April 2005)
  3. Captain America #27 (August. 2007)
  4. Tales of Suspense #52-53
  5. Tales of Suspense #57
  6. Tales of Suspense #60
  7. Avengers #16
  8. Avengers #29-30
  9. Avengers #38-44
  10. Daredevil #81
  11. Avengers #111-112
  12. Daredevil #124
  13. Daredevil #160-161
  14. Daredevil #165
  15. Daredevil #187-189
  16. Daredevil #190
  17. Champions #1-3
  18. Civil War #3 (Sept. 2006)
  19. Captain America vol. 5, #27-34 (Aug. 2007 - March 2008)
  20. Captain America vol. 5, #41-43
  21. Incredible Hercules #114
  22. Secret Invasion #1-8
  23. Captain America Vol. 5, #42
  24. Invincible Iron Man #14-15
  25. Thunderbolts #128
  26. Thunderbolts #133
  27. Thunderbolts #134
  28. Secret Warriors #7
  29. Thunderbolts #135-136
  30. Civil War: House of M #2
  31. House of M: Avengers #2
  32. House of M #6
  33. Comics Continuum
  34. Lions Gate press release (March 2, 2004)
  35. The Z Review: Black Widow
  36. (June 5, 2006): "The Word on Black Widow"
  37. Scarlett Johansson as Black Widow

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