Bodyguard: Map

  
  
  
  

Wikipedia article:

Map showing all locations mentioned on Wikipedia article:



A bodyguard (or close protection officer) is a type of security guard or government agent who protects a person—usually a famous, wealthy, or politically important figure—from assault, kidnapping, assassination, stalking, loss of confidential information, or other threats.

Most important public figures such as heads of state or governors are protected by several bodyguards or by a team of bodyguards from an agency, security forces, or police forces (e.g., in the US, the United States Secret Service or the State Departmentmarker's Diplomatic Security Service). In countries where the head of state is a military leader or dictator, the leader's bodyguards may also be part of an elite military unit. Less-important public figures, or those with lower risk profiles, may be accompanied by a single bodyguard who doubles as a driver. A number of high-profile celebrities and CEOs also use bodyguards.

Roles

Popular misconceptions

The role of bodyguards is often misunderstood by the public, because the typical layperson's only exposure to bodyguarding is usually in highly dramatized action film depictions of the profession. In contrast to the exciting lifestyle depicted on the film screen, the role of a real-life bodyguard is much more mundane: it consists mainly of planning routes, pre-searching rooms and buildings where the client will be visiting, researching the background of people that will have contact with the client, searching vehicles, and attentively escorting the client on their day-to-day activities.

Breakdown of responsibilities

A bodyguard keeps crowds away from his client, a model, during a photo shoot.
The role of a bodyguard depends on several factors. First, it depends on the role of a given bodyguard in a close protection team. A bodyguard can be a driver-bodyguard, a close-protection officer (who escorts the client), or part of an ancillary unit that provides support such as IED detection, electronic "bug" detection, counter-sniper monitoring, pre-searches facilities, and background-checks people who will have contact with the client. Second, the role of a bodyguard depends on the level of risk that the client faces. A bodyguard protecting a client at high risk of assassination will be focusing on very different roles (e.g., checking cars for IED bombs, watching for potential shooters, etc) than a bodyguard escorting a celebrity who is being stalked by aggressive tabloid photographers (e.g., the role will be to ask the photographers to maintain their distance and block the path of aggressive cameramen).

Driving

In some cases, bodyguards also drive their clients. Normally, it is not sufficient for a client to be protected by a single driver-bodyguard, because this would mean that the bodyguard would have to leave the car unattended when they escort the client on foot. If the car is left unattended, this can lead to several risks: an IED bomb may be attached to the car; an electronic "bug" may be attached to the car; the car may be sabotaged; or city parking officials may tow away the vehicle or place a wheel lock on the tire. If parking services tow away or disable the car, then the bodyguard cannot use the car to escape with the client in case there is a security threat while the client is at his or her meeting.
A Croatian close protection unit practices flanking a client during a demonstration exercise
The driver should be trained in evasive driving techniques, such as executing short-radius turns to change the direction of the vehicle, high-speed cornering, and so on. The car used by the client will typically be a large sedan with a low center of gravity and a powerful V8 engine, such as a Lincoln Continental, Crown Victoria, or Mercedes Benz. Some bodyguard firms may also use large trucks, such as Suburbans or Ford Explorers. At a minimum, the vehicle should have ballistic glass, some type of armor reinforcement to protect the client from gunfire, and a foam-filled gas tank. "Run-flat" tires and armor protection for the driver are also desirable.

The car may also be equipped with an additional battery; dual footpedal controls, such as those used by driving instruction companies (in case the driver is wounded or incapacitated), a PA system with a microphone and a megaphone mounted on the outside of the car, so that the driver can give commands to other convoy vehicles or bodyguards who are on foot; fire extinguishers inside the vehicle in case the vehicle is struck by a Molotov cocktail bomb or other weapon; a reinforced front and rear bumper, to enable the driver to ram attacking vehicles; and additional mirrors, to give the driver a better field of view.

Weapons and weapon tactics

US Secret Service agents guarding the former First Lady (Laura Bush)
Depending on the laws in a bodyguard's jurisdiction and on which type of agency or security service they are in, bodyguards may be unarmed (as in the UK), armed with a non-lethal weapon such as a baton, stun gun, pepper spray, or a Taser, or with a lethal weapon such as a pistol. Bodyguards from government security agencies protecting heads of state may even carry a fully automatic machine pistol or a mini-submachine gun concealed under their clothing or in a briefcase. A machine pistol is a handgun-style, magazine-fed and self-loading firearm; it is capable of fully automatic or burst fire, yet it is typically smaller and more concealable than a submachine gun.
In addition to concealed weapons on their person, a bodyguard team may also have additional weapons in the main or additional cars, such as scope-equipped carbine rifles (for anti-sniper protection); shotguns (either loaded with buckshot as an anti-personnel weapon or with lead slugs as a weapon to be used to fire on vehicles; a lead slug can perforate the radiator of an attacking vehicle). In a war zone or similarly dangerous setting, bodyguards may also have assault rifles in the cars, such as an M-16, AK-47, or similar weapons.

Bodyguards that protect high-risk clients may wear body armor such as kevlar vests, or, in a war zone, a vest with ceramic plates capable of protecting against rifle fire. The bodyguards may also have other ballistic shields, such as kevlar-reinforced briefcases or clipboards which, while appearing innocuous, can be used to protect the client. In a high-risk setting, the client may also wear body armor.

Counter-sniper weapons and tactics

A sniper is a marksman who fires at targets from a concealed position using an optical scope-equipped rifle designed for accurate long-range firing—typically a bolt-action rifle. Snipers may fire from as close as 100 meters or as far away, in the case of a top-level expert, as 1000 meters. For a close protection officer, the primary tactic against sniper attacks is defensive: avoid exposing the client to the risk of being fired upon. This means that the client should ideally be either in their armored car (which offers protection first and foremost in that it allows the bodyguard to escape from threats, and secondarily because the ballistic protection will stop most standard handgun and rifle rounds) or a secure structure. As well, when the client moves between the vehicle and the building, the client must be moved quickly (to avoid presenting a good target) and with a flanking escort of close protection officers. The use of offensive tactics against snipers will occur very rarely in a bodyguard context.

Daily tasks

A bodyguard team protecting a high-profile politician who is at risk of attack would be based around escorting the client from a secure residence (e.g., an embassy) to the different meetings and other activities he has to attend during the day (whether professional or social), and then to escort the client back to his residence.

Planning and assigning responsibilities

The day would begin with a meeting of the bodyguard team led by the team leader. The team would review the different activities that the client plans to do during the day, and discuss how the team would undertake the different transportation, escorting, and monitoring tasks. During the day, the client (or "principal") may have to travel by car, train, and plane and attend a variety of functions, including meetings and invitations for meals at restaurants, and do personal activities such as recreation and errands. Over the day, the client will be exposed to a range of risk levels, ranging from higher risk (meeting and greeting members of the public at an outdoor rally) to low risk (dining at an exclusive, gated country club with high security).

Some planning for the day would have begun on previous days. Once the itinerary is known, one or more bodyguards would travel the route to the venues, to check the roads for unexpected changes (road work, detours, closed lanes) and to check the venue. The venue needs to be checked for bugs and the security of the facility (exits, entrances) needs to be inspected. As well, the bodyguards will want to know the names of the staff who will have contact with the client, so that a simple electronic background check can be run on these individuals.

Searching vehicles

An hour prior to leaving with the client to his first appointment, the driver-bodyguard and another bodyguard remove the cars that will be used to transport the client from the locked garage and inspect them. There may be only one car for a lower risk client. A higher risk client will have additional cars to form a protective convoy of vehicles that can flank the client's vehicle. The vehicles are inspected before leaving.

Transferring client to vehicle

US Secret Service agents protect President Bush as he leaves a limousine.


Once the cars have been inspected and they are deemed to be ready for use, they are brought into position near the exit door where the client will leave the secure building. At least one driver-bodyguard stays with the cars while waiting, because the now-searched cars cannot be left unattended. If the convoy is left unattended, an attacker could attach an IED or sabotage one or more of the cars. Then the bodyguard team flanks the client as he moves from the secure residence to his car.

Travelling

The convoy then moves out towards the destination. The team will have chosen a route which avoids the most dangerous "choke points", such as one-lane bridges or tunnels, because these routes have no way of escape and they are more vulnerable to ambush. In some cases, if the client has to travel by train, the bodyguards will inspect the rail car they are traveling in and the other cars he/she will use.



Arrival at destination

Taiwanese Secret Service officers flank Premier of Taiwan Su Tseng-chang in Taipei.
The briefcases carried by the officers are actually folded bullet-proof shields
When the convoy arrives at the location, one or more bodyguards will exit first to confirm that the location is secure and that the staff who were booked to work that day are the ones who are present. If the location is secure, these bodyguards signal that it is safe to bring in the client. The client is escorted into the building using a flanking procedure. If the client is attending a private meeting inside the building, and the building itself is secure (controlled entrances) the client will not need to have a bodyguard escort in the building. The bodyguards can then pull back to monitor his or her safety from a further distance. Bodyguards could monitor entrances and exits and the driver-bodyguard watches the cars.

If the client is moving about in a fairly controlled environment such as a private golf course, which has limited entrances and exits, the security detail may drop down to one or two bodyguards, with the other bodyguards monitoring the entrances to the facility, the cars, and remaining in contact with the bodyguards escorting the client. Throughout the day, as the client goes about his activities, the number of bodyguards escorting the client will increase or decrease according to the level of risk.

Return to secure location

After the day's activities, the client will be brought back to the secure residence location. Exiting from the vehicle and walking to the door exposes the client to risk. Once the client is inside, the bodyguards assigned to the overnight detail will take up their positions outside or inside the residence. The vehicles are then parked in a locked garage (to prevent tampering, sabotage, or IED placement). Some team members may spend additional time doing maintenance on the equipment used by the team.




Job requirements

The bodyguard of Sheik Sattar, who was killed during the assassination of the Sheik


Bodyguards often work long shifts in order to provide 24-hour protection, and shifts often include evenings, weekends, and holidays. Since bodyguards follow their clients throughout their daily activities, the work locations may range from indoor office meetings or social events to outdoor rallies or concerts. Bodyguards often have to travel by car, motorcycle, train, and airplane to escort their client. In some cases, international travel is required, which means that a bodyguard must have appropriate travel documentation.
Bodyguards often have backgrounds in the armed forces, police or security services, or martial arts, although this is not required. The exception to this is in the case of bodyguards protecting heads of state; in some countries, these bodyguards must be trained in military bodyguard training programs. Military experience in foot patrol and convoys escort through urban areas in conflict or war as in Afghanistanmarker, Iraqmarker, West Bankmarker, Northern Irelandmarker, Beirutmarker, Basque countrymarker, Sowetomarker and other areas under non conventional enemy stress around civilians is highly considered and difficult to match with any training time though, usually those experienced do not always seek these careers or further exposure in less stressful circumstances but familiar environments.

Bodyguards must be physically fit, with good eyesight and hearing, and they need to have a presentable appearance, especially for close protection work for dignitaries and heads of state. A drivers license is usually required, so that the bodyguard can double as a driver. In the United Kingdommarker and some other countries, bodyguards have to have a license or certification with the SIA, (for the UK,) which involves identity and criminal record checks. To be a bodyguard in an agency protecting a head of state, a bodyguard will have to undergo extensive background and loyalty checks.

Bodyguards need to be observant, and retain their focus on their job, despite distractions such as fatigue. As well, they need to be able to work as member of a team, with assigned tasks, or be able to act independently, and adapt and improvise an appropriate response if the need arises. Bodyguards need to be able to recognize potentially dangerous situations and remain calm under pressure. A bodyguard has to have a strong dedication to their protective role.Since bodyguards often have to collaborate or coordinate their protection with other security forces, such as local police other private security guards, bodyguards need good interpersonal and communications skills. Since bodyguards accompany their client throughout their day, the bodyguard will be privy to the private life of the client, which means that a bodyguard has to show discretion and maintain confidentiality.

Training

Bodyguards often have training in firearms tactics, unarmed combat, tactical driving, and first aid. In multi-agent units (like those protecting a head of state) one or more bodyguards may have training in specific tasks, such as providing a protective escort, crowd screening and control, or searching for explosives or electronic surveillance devices ("bugs"). Bodyguards also learn how to work with other security personnel to conduct threat or risk assessment and analyze potential security weaknesses.

Bodyguards learn how to examine a premises or venue before their clients arrive, to determine where the exits and entrances are, find potential security weaknesses, and meet the staff (so that a would-be attacker cannot pose as a staff member). As well, some bodyguards learn how to do research to be aware of potential threats to their client, by doing a thorough assessment of the threats facing the principal, such as a protest by a radical group or the release from custody of person who is a known threat. Close protection officers also learn how to escort a client in potentially threatening situations.

The militaries in many countries offer close protection training for the members of their own armed forces who have been selected to work as bodyguards to officers or heads of state (e.g., the British SAS). As well, there are a number of private bodyguard training programs, which offer training in the legal aspects of bodyguarding (e.g., use of force, use of deadly force); how to escort clients; driving; searching facilities and vehicles, and so on.


Notable organizations

In the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, most bodyguards are former or current police officers, or sometimes former military or other government agency personnel. In countries where the head of state is a military leader or dictator, the leader's bodyguards may also be part of an elite military unit. Such was the case with the Schutzstaffelmarker in Nazi Germany, the former Iraqi Special Republican Guard, or the Praetorian Guard in the Roman Empire.

In Indiamarker, VIPs are protected by National Security Guards (NSG), an organization under the Ministry of Home Affairs. In 1984 Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi was assassinated by two of her security guards, Beant Singh and Satwant Singh.

In Pakistanmarker, the President and Prime Minister receive close protection teams from the military's elite Special Service Group unit. President Pervez Musharraf, as civilian head of state, was due to have this withdrawn after retiring as Chief of Army Staff, but the Pakistan Army has retained his close protection unit.

In Turkeymarker, the President is closely protected by two organizations: the Karşı Saldırı Timi'nde (KST) and the Cumhurbaskanligi Muhafiz Alayi Komutanligi. The KST is an elite counterattack team which provides close protection to the President and the First Family. The Cumhurbaskanligi Muhafiz Alayi is an elite special forces military unit of 65,000 specially selected personnel and is charged with the duty of protecting the President (and members of his family), security of the Presidential palaces and also the manning of the Turkish President's mode of transport (e.g. pilots for TC-ANA, the presidential plane etc).

In the United Statesmarker, the United States Secret Service safeguards the lives of the President, his family, and other executive officials, including former presidents and vice-presidents. Another agency, the State Departmentmarker's Bureau of Diplomatic Security, is responsible for protecting U.S. missions and their personnel overseas, as well as selected dignitaries in the U.S., including the Ambassador to the United Nations, the Secretary of State, and visiting foreign dignitaries other than heads of state. While the Secret Service's close-protection role is its most visible, its historic role as agents of the United States Treasurymarker (although they are now agents of the Department of Homeland Security) made it unusual internationally, as usually "official" bodyguards are part of general police forces.
A Nepalese Gurkha bodyguard in Nangarhar


In the UK during 1913-1914 the suffragette movement did protests in an attempt to change the UK law so that women would be able to vote. After suffragette leaders were threatened, activists formed an all-female close protection unit to protect the leaders of the Women's Social and Political Union both from harassment by the general public and from arrest under the so-called Cat and Mouse Act. In the modern UK, Royalty and Diplomatic Protection Department of the Metropolitan Police is responsible for the security of the Sovereign.

In the Vatican, the Pope and other senior Vatican officials are protected by Swiss Guards, Swiss mercenary soldiers who act as bodyguards, ceremonial guards, and palace guards. After the May 13, 1981 assassination attempt on Pope John Paul II by Mehmet Ali Ağca, the guards were given enhanced training in unarmed combat and firearm use.

Fictional individuals

The brave and fiercely protective bodyguard who is willing to die to protect his master has long been depicted in fiction. The character of the Scottish hero Quentin Durward appears in stories as the bodyguard of the king of France. The character Charles d'Artagnan appears in stories as the bodyguard of the French crown. The character Atticus Kodiak is a professional bodyguard who acts as narrator and protagonist in a series of novels by Greg Rucka. Bodyguards also appear in Usagi Yojimbo - Stan Sakai's anthropomorphic-rabbit samurai based upon Miyamoto Musashi and in the Artemis Fowl series of children's books.

Bodyguards are also depicted in a number of films. Japanese director Akira Kurosawa's film Yojimbo depicts a samurai bodyguard in Japan. The Bodyguard is a film about a bodyguard who protects a celebrity singer. Gogo Yubari is O-Ren Ishii's bodyguard in the film Kill Bill 1. In the science-fiction/fantasy Star Wars films, MagnaGuard is General Grievous's bodyguard, duties performed on special occasions by the Jedi Knights. In the film Lord of War, the main character's brother protects him while he makes arms deals in war-torn countries.

In the film Man on Fire, John Creasy (Denzel Washington) is a burnt-out ex-CIA officer and counter-insurgency operative who grudgingly becomes the bodyguard of a young girl (played by Dakota Fanning). When kidnappers attempt to snatch the girl, Creasy is severely wounded in a gun battle. The film depicts his perseverance in attempting to continue to protect the girl despite his gunshot wounds, until he becomes unconscious. Several films have been made about the Secret Service's role in guarding the President of the U.S., such as In the Line of Fire and The Sentinel.

Bodyguards are also depicted in television shows, comics, and other media. Bodyguard is a Japanese television series starring Reiko Takashima. In the UK, Bodyguards was a late 1990s UK television series about a specialized Close Protection Group that protected members of the UK government. In the Mortal Kombat fighting game series, Sheeva is the personal protector of Sindel. Suki is a Japanese manga about a relationship between a teenage girl and a 32-year old bodyguard. Kevin Nash is Shawn Michaels' bodyguard. The Human Target is an American comic book and television series about a bodyguard who also works as a private detective who impersonates his principal to draw his would be murderer's attention

In the Artemis Fowl books, Domovoi Butler is a bodyguard with high competences, who comes from a bodyguards family.

See also



References

External links

General information:


Embed code:






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message