The Boeing 767
is a mid-size, wide-body twinjet airliner
produced by Boeing Commercial Airplanes
Passenger versions of the 767 can carry between 181 and 375
passengers, and have a range of 5,200 to 6,590 nautical miles
(9,400 to 12,200 km)
depending on variant and seating configuration. The Boeing 767 has
been produced in three fuselage lengths. The original 767-200
first entered into airline service in 1982,
followed by the 767-300
in 1986, and the
in 2000. Extended range
versions of the original -200 and -300 models, the 767-200ER
, have been produced with added payload
and operating distance capability. The 767-300F
, a freighter version, entered service in
The first wide-body twinjet produced by Boeing, the 767 was
conceived and designed in tandem with the narrow-body Boeing 757
twinjet. Both airliners share design
features and flight decks
pilots to obtain a common type rating
operate the two aircraft. The 767 was the first Boeing wide-body
airliner to enter service with a two-person crew flight deck,
eliminating the need for a flight
. Following in-service indications of its twinjet
design reliability, the 767 received regulatory approval allowing
extended transoceanic operations beginning in 1985.
the 1990s, the Boeing 767 became commonly used on medium long-haul
routes, and the aircraft has ranked as the most commonly-used
airliner for transatlantic flights
between the United
States and Europe.
been over 1,000 Boeing 767s ordered with over 900 delivered as of
2009. The -300/-300ER models are the most popular variants,
accounting for approximately two-thirds of all 767s ordered. There
was a total of 864 Boeing 767s in service with 48 different
airlines as of July 2009.
In 1972, following the introduction of the first generation
, Douglas DC-10
, and the Lockheed L-1011 TriStar wide-body
airliners into passenger
service, Boeing embarked on parallel development studies for two
new airliners. Code-named 7X7 and 7N7, these studies aimed to take
advantage of new materials and propulsion advances in the civil
aerospace industry. The 7N7, which developed into the Boeing 757,
was conceived as a narrow-body twinjet replacement for the Boeing 727
. The 7X7 was intended to be a mid-size
wide-body airliner slotted between the Boeing
and Douglas DC-10. With aging fleets of 707s needing
replacement, the 7X7 would slot between the Boeing's narrow-body
jetliners and the 747. Initially, the 7X7 studies focused on a
design, with possible configurations
including overwing engines, a T-tail
others. In 1976, a twinjet wide-body configuration, similar to the
earlier Airbus A300B
, became the
preferred configuration, reflecting increased industry confidence
in the reliability and economics of new generation turbofan
engines. Airlines remained ambiguous in their requirements for the
aircraft, which was roughly focused on the medium-haul,
In 1978, Boeing formally designated its new wide-body airliner as
the 767, and the company planned to offer three variants: a 767-100
with 180 seats, a larger 767-200 with 210 seats, and a trijet
767MR/LR version with 200 seats intended for intercontinental
routes. The 767MR/LR was eventually dropped in favor of
standardizing around the twinjet configuration, and the 767-100 was
ultimately not offered for sale, as its capacity was too close to
the 757's. On July 14, 1978, the Boeing 767 was formally launched
by United Airlines
, which placed an
order for 30 767-200s, followed later that year with orders from
and Delta Air
The Boeing 767 design phase occurred at the same time as the
, its narrow-body sibling. Development
occurred in partnership with Italy's Aeritalia
along with a consortium of Japanese
aerospace companies. Both the 757 and 767 became the first Boeing
jetliners to share common flight decks and handling
characteristics. The aircraft were also the first Boeing jetliners
after the 737 to be designed with two-crew cockpits. The 767 was
intended to be operated with a two-person flight crew, with
electronics to assist with the monitoring of systems. As a result
of their shared flight deck
after a short conversion course, pilots rated in the 757 were also
qualified to fly the 767 and vice versa. Both twinjets were further
designed with similarly configured systems, shared instrumentation,
, and flight management systems
For the 767 design, Boeing incorporated the engines used on the
747, namely the Pratt &
, with wings sized to match. The 767 was the first
Boeing jetliner to offer a choice of engines at its launch. The
wings were large relative to fuselage size and provided
higher-altitude cruise performance, along with capacity for
possible stretched variants. Moreover, the larger wings only
increased fuel usage slightly and provided better takeoff and
landing performance. The 767 wings had increased thickness for
added fuel capacity, and their aft-loaded design produced the best
spanwise distribution of lift on a Boeing jetliner to date.
767 was designed with enough range to fly across North America and across the northern
The 767's fuselage width was set at , midway between Boeing
narrow-bodies and the 747. It was narrower than previous wide-body
designs but produced less drag, thus increasing overall range.
Seating capacity was set at a seven-abreast cross-section, enabling
Boeing to taper the rear fuselage to a shorter length, and allowing
parallel aisles for the entire length of the passenger cabin.
However, the fuselage width did not allow larger Unit Load Devices
such as LD6s and LD11s to
be carried side-by-side as is the case on other wide-body
Production and service
Construction of the prototype Boeing 767, a -200 variant, began on
July 6, 1979. Despite Boeing's two-person cockpit design, United
Airlines initially demanded a conventional three-person crew with
two pilots and a flight engineer. Boeing tried to convince United
and others to adopt its new cockpit design with data from the
two-person crew Boeing 737. In 1981, a US Presidential task force
studied the safety of operations with two crew on wide-body
aircraft. The task force determined that a crew of two was safe for
flight in July 1981, which paved the way for acceptance of the
767's two-person flight deck.
The first aircraft, registered N767BA and equipped with Pratt &
Whitney JT9D turbofans, was rolled out August 4, 1981. The 767 made
its first flight on September 26, 1981. Enlisted for the 767
program flight test phase, the first four aircraft produced were
equipped with JT9D engines, while the fifth and sixth aircraft were
fitted with General Electric CF6-80A turbofans. The sixth airframe
was used in route-proving flights. Following the successful
completion of the flight test period, the JT9D-powered 767-200
(FAA) certification on July 30, 1982.
The first 767 with a two-person flight deck completed its maiden
flight on May 27, 1982. The CF6-80A-powered 767-200 was certified
by the FAA on September 30, 1982.
Following the first delivery to United Airlines in August 1982, the
767-200 entered airliner service on September 8, 1982, with its
first flight from Chicago to Denver. Delta Air Lines commenced
service with the CF6-powered 767-200 on December 15 of the same
year. Deliveries to mainline U.S. carriers American and TWA
followed. The 767 received early international
orders from Air Canada
, All Nippon Airways
, Ansett Australia
, Britannia Airways
, El Al
, Ethiopian Airlines
, and Transbrasil
. The 767 was approved for U.S.
landing operation in March 1984. This revision permitted operations
with minimums as low as RVR 300 (Runway Visual Range 300 feet). The
767 was the first aircraft certificated for CAT IIIb by the
A key issue in early Boeing 767 operations was proving the
aircraft's reliability for overseas operations. Prior to the 767,
the FAA restricted twin-engine aircraft to over-water flights of 90
minutes or less distance from diversion airports.Haenggi 2003, pp.
38–40. In June 1985, the FAA granted 120 minutes ETOPS
(Extended-range Twin-engine Operational
Performance Standards) approval to 767 operators, on an individual
airline basis, provided the operator met flight safety standards.
The increased safety margin changes were permitted due to the
improved reliability demonstrated by the 767's turbofan
Boeing developed the higher gross weight 767-200ER (Extended Range)
variant, the lengthed 767-300, and the longer range 767-300ER in
the 1980s. In the late 1980s, Boeing proposed a stretched version
of the 767 and then a partial double deck version with parts of a
757 fuselage built over the aft (rear) fuselage. These concepts
were not accepted, and Boeing shifted to an all new airliner that
later became the 777
. Boeing later
developed another stretched 767 version in the form of the
767-400ER in the late 1990s.
The 767-400ER was the first Boeing jet
resulting from two stretches.
The 767 sold very well from the late 1980s to the late 1990s, with
a decrease during the recession of the early 1990s. After strong
sales in 1997, sales have declined significantly because of the
economic recession of the early 2000s, increased competition from
, and the recent emergence of a direct
replacement program, the Boeing 787
early 2007, UPS Airlines
prolonged the 767's production with orders for
767-300 freighters of 27 and 6, respectively. By August 2008,
Boeing had received two orders that year for the 767-300ER, but
Boeing has been offering versions of the 767 to tide customers
affected by the 787 launch delays, specifically to Japanese
carriers All Nippon Airways
Japan Air Lines
, who are said to be
in serious talks for new build passenger airframes. Boeing has also
kept the line open in hopes of winning the US Air Force's KC-X
tanker competition (KC-767 tanker program, which
uses the 767 airframe).
The renewed interest in the 767-300 freighter has Boeing
considering enhanced versions of the 767-200 and 767-300 freighter,
with increased gross weights, 767-400ER wing technology, and
777-200 avionics. Boeing sees the advanced 767-200F and 767-300F as
complementing the 777F, and allowing Boeing to compete more
effectively against the A330-200F, which is larger than the
proposed 767-200F and 767-300F, but smaller than the 777F.
The Boeing 767 has 1,036 orders, with 977 of those delivered as of
August 2009. Delta Air Lines
currently the world's largest 767 operator, with 102 airplanes as
of 2009, consisting of 767-300, 767-300ER, and 767-400ER
The Boeing 767 is a low-wing cantilever monoplane with a
conventional tail unit with a single fin and rudder. It has a
retractable tricycle landing gear and is powered by two wing
mounted turbofan engines. The wings are swept at 31.5 degrees and
optimized for a cruising speed of Mach 0.8.
The original 767 cockpit design, shared with the 757, uses six
Rockwell Collins cathode-ray tube
(CRT) screens to display
electronic flight instrumentation. The displays are used for
electronic flight instrumentation system (EFIS) and Engine
Indication and Crew Alerting System (EICAS) information, taking
over the former role of the flight engineer. With the 767-400ER,
the cockpit layout was simplified further, and adapted for
similarities with the Boeing 777 and the 737 Next Generation.
767-300 economy cabin in 2-3-2 layout
with traditional interior.
767-400ER economy cabin with Boeing
The 767's design offers a twin aisle configuration of 2+3+2 in
economy with the most common business configuration of 2+2+2. It is
possible to squeeze an extra seat for a 2+4+2 configuration.
However, this seating is cramped and therefore uncommon. The 767
has a seat-to-aisle ratio in economy class of an efficient 3.5
seats per aisle, allowing for quicker food service and quicker exit
of the airplane than many other jetliners, which typically have
four to six seats per aisle in economy class. In the cargo hold,
the fuselage width allows LD3 Unit Load
containers to be carried only in a single row, which can
create unused space.
Newer 767-200s and 767-300s, as well as all 767-400ERs, feature a
777-style cabin interior, known as the Boeing Signature Interior.
The 767-400ER also features larger windows exactly like those found
on the 777. All new 767s built feature the Signature Interior, and
it is also available as a retrofit for older 767s. In addition to
the Boeing Signature Interior retrofit option, a simpler
modification known as the Boeing 767 Enhanced Interior is
available. This retrofit borrows styling elements from the Boeing
Signature Interior; however, the outer section overhead bins are
traditional-style shelf bins rather than the 777-style pivot
There are three basic variants of the 767, differing in fuselage
length, which were launched on three separate occasions. The
767-200 was the original variant launched in 1978, followed by the
767-300 in 1982, and the 767-400ER in 1997. Extended-range models,
the 767-200ER and 767-300ER, were launched in 1982 and 1984,
respectively. Several versions of the -200 and -300 variants have
been produced. In the 2000s, all three basic variants were in
The first model of the Boeing 767 family, the 767-200 was launched
in 1978 and entered service with United
in 1982. This model is used mainly for continental
routes such as New York City to Los Angeles. The 767-200 typically
is outfitted with 181 seats in a 3-class layout or 224 in a 2-class
layout. All -200 models have a capacity limit of 255 due to
exit-door limitations. An additional exit door can be specified
when the aircraft is ordered to allow for up to 290 seats in a
high-capacity, all-coach (30 in pitch 2+4+2) layout. Its main
competition was the Airbus A300
. Some 767-200 models were later
converted to the -200ER specification; and since March 2005
holds a supplemental type certificate for conversion
of 767-200s to 767-200SF (Special Freighter) specification.
Early 767-200s have been converted
A total of 128 767-200s and 121 -200ERs have been delivered with no
unfilled orders remaining. A total of 166 767-200/-200ER aircraft
were in airline service as of July 2009. Although the 767-200ER has
no direct replacement, it is expected to be replaced indirectly in
Boeing's lineup by the 787-8
flown by American Airlines
average of 15,982 gallons
of jet fuel flying
round-trip between New York City and Los Angeles; the 787 is
expected to be 20% more fuel efficient per passenger.
The extended-range variant of the original Boeing 767, the
767-200ER, was first delivered to El Al
model became the first 767 to complete a nonstop transatlantic
journey, and broke the flying distance record for a twinjet
airliner on April 17, 1988, with an Air
Mauritius 767-200ER flying between Halifax, Nova
Scotia and Port Louis, Mauritius.
The 767-200ER became popular overseas with
smaller operators seeking wide-body airliners but not needing the
The 767-300 is a lengthened 767 ordered by Japan Airlines
in 1983. It first flew on
January 30, 1986, and was delivered to JAL on September 25.
The 767-300's direct competitor from Airbus
is the A330-200
. "Airbus A330-200"
. Flug Revue online
18, 2000. Retrieved: October 5, 2009. The 767-300 is expected to be
replaced by the 787-8
in Boeing's lineup.
As of August 2009, total orders for the 767-300/300ER/300F stand at
749 with 690 delivered. This includes 104 orders (all delivered)
for the -300, 563 orders for the -300ER (535 delivered), and 82
orders for the -300F (51 delivered). A total of 661 Boeing
767-300/-300ER/-300F aircraft were in airline service as of July
The 767-300ER is the extended-range version of the -300. It first
flew in 1986 and received its first commercial orders when American Airlines
purchased several in
1987. The aircraft entered service with AA in 1988. In 1995,
used a 767-300ER to inaugurate the
first transpacific 767 service. The -300ER has a takeoff run of up
to 11,800 ft (3,600 m). The 767-300ER can be retrofitted with
Partners Boeing. These winglets are 11 ft (3.4 m) long and
will decrease fuel consumption an estimated 6.5% on the
The 767-300F is the air freight version of the 767-300ER, first
ordered by UPS Airlines
in 1993 and
delivered in 1995. The 767-300F can hold up to 24 standard
88 inch by 125 inch pallets or containers on its main
deck and any combination of up seven 88 in by 125 in or 96 in by
125 in pallets or containers. This model has two doors on the main
deck plus three on the lower deck. The two upper doors comprise of
one for the crew and one for the cargo. Of the three doors on the
bottom, two are on the right side, and one is at the rear left
October 2007, All Nippon Airways (ANA) sent one of its Boeing
767-300 (JA8286) to ST Aviation Services Co., in Paya Lebar, Singapore, to undergo the world's first 767 PTF (Passenger To
The conversion was completed, on
schedule, in June 2008 and designated as a Boeing 767-300BCF, or
"Boeing Converted Freighter".
The 767-400ER is the final extended variant and was launched in
1997 on an order for Delta Air Lines
and Continental Airlines
replace their aging Lockheed L-1011
and McDonnell Douglas DC-10
fleets. Orders were also placed by others including Kenya Airways
these were eventually canceled. Kenya Airways and ILFC converted
their orders to the Boeing 777
-400ER was stretched from the -300 for a total of . It also saw a
wingspan increase of over the previous two variants. The -400ER is
the only 767 variant to also feature "raked" wingtips for increased
fuel efficiency. Its first flight was on October 9, 1999, and
entered into service with Continental Airlines on September 14,
2000. This variant is only available as the 767-400ER, as there was
no 767-400 variant. However it has less range than the other two ER
Boeing offered a longer range version, named 767-400ERX for sale in
2000. It was introduced along with the Boeing 747X
and was to be powered by
747X engines (Engine Alliance
and Rolls Royce
Trent 600). The
-400ERX offered an increased maximum takeoff weight of and range of
. Kenya Airways provisionally ordered three -400ERXs to supplement
their 767 fleet. However, in 2001 Boeing cancelled -400ERX
development. Kenya Airways converted their order to the 777-200ER
The 767-400ER's closest competitor from Airbus is the A330-200
. "Boeing 767-400ER"
. Flug Revue online
4, 2002. Retrieved: October 5, 2009. The 767-400ER is expected to
be replaced in Boeing's line-up by the 787-9
. A total of 38 767-400ERs had been
delivered, with 16 to Continental Airlines and 21 to Delta Air
Lines as of 2009. A total of 37 767-400ERs were in airline service
as of July 2009.
Versions of the 767 serve prominently in a number of military
applications. Most military 767s are derived from the
Airborne Surveillance Testbed
The Airborne Optical Adjunct
(AOA) was built from
the prototype 767-200. The aircraft was later renamed the
Airborne Surveillance Testbed
to the aircraft included a large "cupola" or hump which ran along
the top of the aircraft from above the cockpit to just behind the
trailing edge of the wings. Inside the cupola was a suite of
infrared seekers that were used to track theater ballistic missile
launches in a series of tests. The aircraft remained in storage at the
Victorville Airport in California for a number of years before being
scrapped in July 2007.
The E-767 AWACS
platform is used by
the Japan Self-Defense
; it is essentially the E-3
mission package on a 767-200ER platform. Japan operates
was developed from the -200ER for the
USAF to replace some of its oldest KC-135E
tankers. Boeing's tanker was
selected and later designated KC-767A
. However the
Pentagon suspended the contract due to a conflict of interest
scandal and later
Boeing KC-767 tanker
The KC-767 Tanker Transport
, a 767-200ER-based
aerial refueling platform has been ordered by the Italian Aeronautica Militare
and the Japan Self-Defense Forces
have designated it KC-767J
. For the USAF KC-X
Tanker competition, Boeing offered the
KC-767 Advanced Tanker
, which was based on the
in-development 767-200LRF (Long Range Freighter), rather than the
The E-10 MC2A
was to be a 767-400ER-based
replacement for the Boeing 707
E-3 Sentry AWACS
, the E-8 Joint STARS
aircraft, and EC-135
aircraft. This included an all-new
system, with a powerful Active Electronically
and was not based on the Japanese E-767 AWACS
aircraft. One 767-400ER aircraft was produced as a testbed for
systems integration. But the program was canceled and the prototype
was sold to Bahrain as a VIP transport in January 2009.
As of August 2009, 864 Boeing 767 aircraft were in airline service
with 93 on order. Airline operators included Delta Air Lines (102),
UPS Airlines (67), All Nippon Airways (59), American Airlines (58),
Air Canada (48), Japan Airlines (46), ABX Air (38), United Airlines
(35), and others with fewer aircraft.
Incidents and accidents
As of May 2009, the 767 has been in 40 incidents, including 11
, resulting in a total of 569 fatalities. The 767 has
been in six hijacking
- Notable incidents and accidents
July 23, 1983, Air Canada
Flight 143, a Boeing
767-200, ran out of fuel in flight and had to glide to an emergency
landing. The pilots used the aircraft's ram air turbine to power the aircraft's
hydraulic systems for control. There were no fatalities. This
aircraft was nicknamed "Gimli Glider". The aircraft (C-GAUN)
continued service within Air Canada until its retirement in January
- On May
26, 1991, Lauda Air
Flight 004 crashed following the in-flight deployment of the
left engine thrust reverser. None of the 223 aboard
survived. As a result of this incident engine thrust reversers on
all 767s were ordered to be deactivated until the system was
redesigned. It is the first fatal crash of a Boeing 767.
- On April 6, 1993, TACA Flight
510, a Boeing 767-200ER was flying from San Salvador, and made
a stop over at La Aurora. The 767 overshot the runway in wet
conditions with a tail wind, and fell down a hill at the end of the
runway where the aircraft struck a cinder block house and hit
another house. The front of the aircraft was severely damaged.
There were three injuries on the ground and no deaths. Due to the
damage, this 767 was removed from service.
November 23, 1996, Ethiopian Airlines Flight 961
was hijacked, ran out of fuel, and crash-landed in the Indian Ocean
near Comoros. The
pilots used the aircraft's ram air
turbine as an emergency power source. Of the 175 aboard, 125
died. Still, the incident is one of the few instances of a large
land-based aircraft landing on water with survivors.
October 31, 1999, EgyptAir Flight 990, a scheduled Los Angeles–New York–Cairo flight, in
a Boeing 767-300ER, crashed off Nantucket Island, Massachusetts in international
waters killing all 217 people on board. According to the
NTSB, the aircraft was flown into the water by
the first officer. This cause is disputed by the Egyptian
Boeing 767 aircraft were involved in the September 11, 2001 attacks, and both
crashed into the two towers of the World Trade Center, resulting in the collapse of both
buildings. In addition to those on board the planes, 2,602
people perished on the ground, mostly in the two towers.
- On December 22, 2001, Richard C. Reid tried to shoe-bomb American Airlines Flight 63, a Boeing
767 flight from Paris to Miami.
Passengers and crew prevented him from bombing the aircraft and he
was arrested, convicted, and imprisoned.
April 15, 2002, Air China Flight 129 a Boeing 767-200ER from Beijing to Busan, South
Korea, crashed into a hill while trying to land at Gimhae
International Airport during inclement weather, killing 128 of the 166
people on board.
Retirement and display
As new 767s roll off the assembly line, older models have been
retired and scrapped. One aircraft is known to have been retained
for exhibition, specifically the first 767-200 to operate for Delta
Air Lines, N102DA. The display aircraft, named "The Spirit of
Delta" by the employees who helped purchase it in 1982, is
undergoing restoration at the Delta Air Lines Air Transport Heritage
Museum in Atlanta, Georgia.
||181 (3 class)
224 (2 class)
255 optional 290 (1 class)
|218 (3 class)
269 (2 class)
350 (1 class)
||245 (3 class)
304 (2 class)
375 (1 class)
||2,875 ft³ (81.4 m³)
|3,770 ft³ (106.8 m³)
|16,034 ft³ (454 m³)
30 LD2s + 24 pallets
|4,580 ft³ (129.6 m³)
||159 ft 2 in
|180 ft 3 in
|201 ft 4 in
||156 ft 1 in
|170 ft 4 in
||3,050 ft² (283.3 m²)
||3,130 ft ² (290.7 m²)
||17 ft 9 in (5.41 m)
||16 ft 6 in (5.03 m)
|Cabin width (interior)
||15 ft 6 in (4.72 m)
|Maximum take-off weight
||Mach 0.80 (470 kn, 530 mph, 851 km/h at
35,000 ft cruise altitude)
|Max. Cruise speed
||Mach 0.86 (493 kn, 568 mph, 913 km/h at
35,000 ft cruise altitude)
|5,600 ft (1,710 m)
||7,900 ft (2,410 m)
||9,501 ft (2,896 m)
||GE: 50,000 lbf (222 kN)
||PW: 63,300 lb (282 kN)
GE: 62,100 lbf (276 kN)
|PW: 50,000 lbf (220 kN)
||PW: 63,300 lbf (282 kN)
GE: 62,100 lbf (276 kN)
RR: 59,500 lbf (265 kN)
|PW: 63,300 lbf (282 kN)
GE: 63,500 lbf (282 kN)
Sources: Boeing 767 specifications, Boeing 767 airport report,
Airliners.net 767 pages,
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Marvel. Zenith Press, 2001. (Proposal was referred to by at
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neighboring the Everett assembly plant.)
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DHL U.S. Operations". Boeing
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Surveillance Testbed Tracks Missiles With New Seeker
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