" is a song by the British
. It was written by Freddie Mercury
for the band's 1975 album
A Night at the
. "Bohemian Rhapsody" is in the style of a stream-of-consciousness
nightmare that has unusual song
, more akin to a classical
than popular music
song has no chorus
, instead consisting
of three main parts including an operatic segment, an a cappella
passage, and a heavy rock solo
When it was released as a single
"Bohemian Rhapsody" became an unlikely commercial success, staying
at the top of the UK Singles Chart
for nine weeks. It reached number one again in 1991, after Freddie
Mercury's death, achieving total sales of 2,176,000 and becoming
the UK's third best selling single of all time—beaten only by
"Do They Know It's Christmas?
and Elton John
's "Candle In The Wind 1997
The single was accompanied by a promotional video; considered
groundbreaking, it helped establish the visual language
of the modern music video
. Although critical reaction was
initially mixed, especially in the United States, "Bohemian
Rhapsody" is often considered to be Queen's magnum opus
and one of the greatest rock songs
of all time.
History and recording
Freddie Mercury wrote most of "Bohemian
Rhapsody" at his home in Holland Road, Kensington, in West London.
The song's producer, Roy Thomas Baker, related how Mercury once
played the opening ballad section on the piano for him: "He played
the beginning on the piano, then stopped and said, 'And this is
where the opera section comes in!' Then we went out to eat dinner."
Guitarist Brian May
says the band thought
that Mercury's blueprint for the song was "intriguing and original,
and worthy of work." Much of Queen's material was written in the
studio according to May, but this song "was all in Freddie's mind"
before they started. Music scholar Sheila Whiteley suggests that
"the title draws strongly on contemporary rock ideology, the
of the bohemian
artists' world, with rhapsody
affirming the romantic ideals
of art rock." Commenting on bohemianism, Judith Peraino said that
"Mercury intended... [this song] to be a 'mock opera,' something
outside the norm of rock songs, and it does follow a certain
operatic logic: choruses of multi-tracked voices alternate with
arialike solos, the emotions are excessive, the plot
was recorded over three weeks, beginning at Rockfield Studio
1 near Monmouth on 24 August
1975, after a 3-week rehearsal in Herefordshire.
making of the track, an additional four studios—Roundhouse, SARM
(East), Scorpion, and Wessex—were used. According to some band
members, Mercury mentally prepared the song beforehand and directed
the band throughout. Mercury used a Bechstein
piano, which he played in the promotional video and the UK tour. It
was the most expensive single ever made and remains one of the most
elaborate recordings in music history.
May, Mercury, and Taylor sang their vocal parts continually for ten
to twelve hours a day, resulting in 180 separate overdubs. Since
the studios of the time only offered 24-track analogue tape, it was
necessary for the three to overdub themselves many times and
"bounce" these down to successive sub-mixes. In the end,
eighth-generation tapes were used. The various sections of tape
containing the desired submixes had to be spliced
(cut with razor
blades and assembled in the correct sequence using adhesive
Composition and analysis
The song consists of six sections: introduction, ballad, guitar solo
. This format, with abrupt changes in
style, tone, and tempo, was unusual to rock
. An embryonic version of this style had already been
utilised by the band in "My
." The New York
commented that "the song's most distinct feature is
the fatalistic lyrics." Mercury refused to explain his composition
other than saying it was about relationships; the band is still
protective of the song's secret. Following the single's release,
Brian May confirms suggestions that the song contained veiled
references to Mercury's personal traumas. He recalls "Freddie was a
very complex person: flippant and funny on the surface, but he
concealed insecurities and problems in squaring up his life with
his childhood. He never explained the lyrics, but I think he put a
lot of himself into that song." May, though, says the band had
agreed that the core of a lyric was a private issue for the
composer. In a BBC Three
the making of "Bohemian Rhapsody", Roger Taylor maintains that the
true meaning of the song is "fairly self-explanatory with just a
bit of nonsense in the middle."
when the band released a Greatest Hits cassette in
Iran, a leaflet in Persian
was included with translation and explanations (refers to a book
published in Iran called "The March of the black Queen" by "Sarah
Sefati" & "Farhad Arkani", which included the whole biography
of the band & complete lyrics with Persian translation
In the explanation, Queen states that "Bohemian
Rhapsody" is about a young man who has accidentally killed someone
and, like Faust
, sold his soul to the devil.
On the night before his execution
calls for God in Arabic
), and with the help of angels,
regains his soul from Shaitan
Despite this, critics, both journalistic and academic, have
speculated over the meaning behind the song's lyrics. Some believe
the lyrics describe a suicidal murderer hunted by demons or depict
events just preceding an execution. The latter explanation points
to Albert Camus
's novel The Stranger
, in which a young man
confesses to an impulsive murder and has an epiphany before he is
executed, as probable inspiration. Others believe the lyrics were
only written to fit with the music, and have no meaning; Kenny Everett
quoted Mercury as claiming the
lyrics were simply "random rhyming nonsense."
Still others interpreted them as Mercury's way of dealing with
personal issues. Music scholar Sheila Whiteley observes that
Mercury reached a turning point in his personal life in the year he
wrote "Bohemian Rhapsody." He had been living with Mary Austin for
seven years but had just embarked on his first gay love affair. She
suggests that the song provides an insight into Mercury's emotional
state at the time, "living with Mary ("Mama"
, as in Mother
Mary) and wanting to break away "Mama Mia let me
The song begins with a close four-part harmony a cappella
introduction in B
—entirely multi track recordings
although the video has all four members lip-syncing
this part. The lyrics question whether
life is "real" or "just fantasy" before concluding that there can
be "no escape from reality." Scholar Sheila Whiteley
The multi-tracked vocals... the rhythm following the
natural inflection of the words, the block chords and lack of
foreground melody creating an underlying ambiguity... heightened by
the harmonic change from B (6) to C7 in bars 1 and 2; the
boundaries between "the real life" and "fantasy" are marked by
instability and "caught in a landslide."
Highlighting the phallic nature of guns, Peraino also suggests that
the song is a "melodrama of homoeroticism
", although, unlike Whiteley, she
does not draw upon biographical details. Peraino gives an Oedipal
reading, quoting some lyrics with sexual
connotations ("Too late, my time has come/Sends shivers down my
spine/Body's aching all the time"
). Like Whiteley, Peraino
identifies the themes of both guilt and desire.
For many adolescents listening to the song, these
phrases could describe the physical sensations of sexual awakening
and the conflicting emotions that accompany them.
If that sexual awakening is queer, then the greater the
guilt and the need for confession.
After 15 seconds, the grand piano enters, and Mercury's voice
alternates with the other vocal parts. The narrator introduces
himself as "just a poor boy" but declares that he "needs no
sympathy" because he is "easy come, easy go"; chromatic
side-slipping on "easy come, easy go"
highlight the dream-like atmosphere. The end of this section is
marked by the bass entrance and the familiar cross-handed piano
in B .
The piano continues the 4-bar vamp
. Deacon's bass guitar
the first note, and the vocals change from harmony to an
impassioned solo performance by Mercury. The narrator explains to
his mother that he has "just killed a man", with "a gun against his
head" and with that act thrown his life away. This "confessional"
section, Whiteley comments, is "affirmative of the nurturant and
life-giving force of the feminine and the need for
The chromatic bass line
brings about a
modulation to E , underpinning the mood of desperation. Taylor's
drums enter (1:19), (this features the 1-1-2 rhythm of "We Will Rock You
" in ballad form) and the
narrator makes the second of several invocations to his "mama" in
the new key, reusing the original theme. The narrator explains his
regret over "mak[ing] you cry" and urging mama to "carry on as if
nothing really matters" to him. A truncated phrase connects a two
repeat of the vamp
in B .
As the ballad proceeds into its second verse, the narrator shows
how tired and beat down he is by his actions (as May enters on
guitar and mimics the upper range of the piano at 1:50). May sends
"shivers down my spine" by scratching the strings on the other side
of the bridge. The narrator bids the world goodbye announcing he
has got to go and prepares to "face the truth" admitting "I don't
want to die / I sometimes wish I'd never been born at all." Another
chromatic bass descent brings a modulation to the key of A, and the
Guitar solo (2:36–3:03)
As Mercury sings the rising line "I sometimes wish I'd never
been born at all",
the band builds in intensity, leading up to
a guitar solo by May that serves as the bridge from ballad to
opera. The intensity continues to build, but once the bass line
completes its descent establishing the new key, the entire band
cuts out abruptly at 3:03 except for quiet A
quaver chords on the piano.
Producer Baker recalls that May's solo was done on only one track,
rather than recording multiple tracks. May stated that he wanted to
compose "a little tune that would be a counterpart to the main
melody; I didn't just want to play the melody." The guitarist said
that his better material stems from this way of working: in which
he thought of the tune before playing it: "the fingers tend to be
predictable unless being led by the brain."
Judith Peraino comments that the "young hero, having confessed his
crime to his mother leaves home to "face the truth"
finds himself in a queer world of Italian
." His voyage is represented by a melodious guitar solo
that abruptly segues to a simple piano beat." She compares the
instrumental interlude to the "same structural moment" in The Beatles
' "A Day
in the Life
", when "the grand orchestral texture of the first
dreamy section suddenly comes to a crashing cadence and is followed
by a simple piano beat."
A rapid series of rhythmic and harmonic changes introduces a
pseudo-operatic midsection, which contains the bulk of the
elaborate vocal multi-tracking, depicting the narrator's descent
into hell. While the underlying pulse of the song is maintained,
the dynamics vary greatly from bar to bar, from only Mercury's
voice accompanied by a piano, to a multi-voice choir supported by
drums, bass, piano and a timpani
. The choir
effect was created by having May, Mercury, and Taylor sing their
vocal parts continually for ten to twelve hours a day, resulting in
180 separate overdubs. These overdubs were then combined into
successive submixes. According to Roger Taylor, the voices of May,
Mercury and himself combined created a wide vocal range: "Brian
could get down quite low, Freddie had a powerful voice through the
middle, and I was good at the high stuff." The band wanted to
create "a wall of sound
, that starts
down and goes all the way up." The band used the bell effect
for lyrics "Magnifico"
"Let me go"
. Also, on "Let me go"
, Taylor singing
the top section carries his note on further after the rest of the
"choir" have stopped singing.
Lyrical references in this passage include Scaramouche
, the fandango
," as rival factions fight over the
narrator's soul. Peraino calls the sequence both a "comic courtroom
trial and a rite of passage
chorus prosecutes, another defends, while the hero presents himself
as meek through mily." The song's introduction is recalled with the
chromatic inflection on "I'm just a poor boy, nobody loves me." The
section concludes with a full choral treatment of the lyric
"Beelzebub has a devil put aside for me!"
, on a block B major
chord. Roger Taylor tops the final
chord with a falsetto
B in the fifth octave
Using the 24-track technology available at the time, the "opera"
section took about three weeks to finish. Producer Roy Thomas Baker
said "Every time Freddie came up with another 'Galileo', I would
add another piece of tape to the reel. Baker recalls that they kept
wearing out the tape, which meant having to do transfers.
Relating the theme of entrapment to Mercury wanting to express his
sexuality, Whiteley points out the "heavy timbres of the lower
voices ... traditionally connote the masculine ("We will not
let you go"
) while the shrill higher voices in the first
chords imply the
feminine 'other' ("Let me go"
). They signal entrapment and
a plea for release."
Hard rock (4:07–4:55)
The operatic section leads into an aggressive hard rock musical
interlude with a guitar riff
Mercury. At 4:15, a double-tracked
Mercury sings angry lyrics addressed to an unspecified "you",
accusing him/her of betrayal and abuse and insisting "can't do this
to me, baby"—which could be interpreted as a flashback
to certain events that led to the
earlier ballad section ("just killed a man"). Three ascending
guitar runs follow, which May described as something he had to
battle with when performing the song live. Mercury then plays a
similar run on the piano. It took three attempts for Mercury to hit
in the "die" of "So you think you
can love me and leave me to die"
, further explained by the
more than one vocal track for just that one word.
Peraino writes that following the courtroom trial "the hero becomes
defiant ['So you think you can stone me...']
victorious from the trial by opera as a rock and roll rebel."
Critic Sheila Whitely related this "heightened sense of urgency" to
Mercury's "inner turmoil [of] leaving the security of Mary Austin,
coming to terms with gay life, and living with a man." Although she
comments that Austin was understanding and remained a close friend,
"the "just gotta get out"
supplies a metaphor for
desperation as it moves towards the climax."
After Mercury plays ascending octaves of notes from the B mixolydian
scale, the song then returns to
the tempo and form of the introduction. A guitar accompanies the
chorus "ooh, ooh yeah, ooh yeah." A double-tracked twin guitar
melody is played through an amplifier designed by John Deacon,
affectionately nicknamed the "Deacy Amp
Mercury's line "Nothing really matters…" appears again, "cradled by
light piano arpeggios suggesting both resignation (minor
tonalities) and a new sense of freedom in the wide vocal
According to music scholar Judith Peraino, this final section adds
"a level of complex resistance to the song's already charming
subversion of macho rock and roll." This resistance is achieved
through the "bohemian stance toward identity, which involves a
necessarily changeable self-definition ("Any way the wind
." The final line, "Any way the wind blows", is
followed by the quiet sound of a large tam-tam
that finally expels the tension built up
throughout the song.
When the band wanted to release the single in 1975, various
executives suggested to them that, at 5 minutes and 55 seconds, it
was too long and would never be a hit. According to producer Roy
Thomas Baker, he and the band bypassed this corporate decision by
playing the song for Capital Radio
: "we had a reel-to-reel
copy but we told him he could only have it if he promised not to
play it. 'I won't play it,' he said, winking..." Their plan worked
– Everett teased his listeners by playing only parts of the song.
Audience demand intensified when Everett played the full song on
his show 14 times in two days. Hordes of fans attempted to buy the
single the following Monday, only to be told by record store that
it had not yet been released. The same weekend, Paul Drew, who ran
stations in the States, heard the track
on Everett's show in London. Drew managed to get a copy of the tape
and started to play it in the States, which forced the hand of
Queen's USA label, Elektra
. In an
interview with Sound on
, Baker reflects that "it was a strange situation
where radio on both sides of the Atlantic was breaking a record
that the record companies said would never get airplay!" Eventually
the unedited single was released, with "I'm in Love with My Car" as
The song dominated the 1975 UK Christmas number one, holding the
top position for nine weeks. "Bohemian Rhapsody" was the first song
ever to get to number one twice with the same version, and is also
the only single to have been UK Christmas Number 1
twice with the same version. The second was upon its re-release (as
a double A-side
"These Are the Days of
") in 1991 following Mercury's death, staying at
number one for five weeks.
In the United States, the single was a success (although on a
smaller scale from that of the UK release). The original single,
released in early 1976, reached #9 on the Billboard Hot 100
, while a
re-release in 1992 (released to tie in with the song's appearance
in the hit film Wayne's
) hit #2. In a retrospective interview, Anthony DeCurtis
from Rolling Stone
magazine explains the
song's relatively poor performance in the US charts by saying that
it's "the quintessential example of the kind of thing that doesn't
exactly go over well in America." Queen's popularity in America was also
harmed when they appeared in drag for
their "I Want to Break Free"
video, Americans not knowing it was a parody of the British soap
However, according to Anthony
DeCurtis, its use in Wayne's World
"masculinised the song
and made it OK for people."
Though some artists, including Queen themselves (for example,
"Keep Yourself Alive
," "Seven Seas Of Rhye
," "Killer Queen
" and "Liar" already had "pop
promos", as they were known at the time), had made video clips
to accompany songs, it wasn't until
after the success of "Bohemian Rhapsody" that it became regular
practice for record companies
produce promo videos for artists' single releases. These could then
be shown on television shows, such as the BBC
Top of the Pops
the need for the artist to appear in person. A promo video also
allowed the artist to have their music broadcast and accompanied by
their own choice of visuals, rather than dancers such as Pan's People
. According to May, the video was
produced so that the band could avoid miming on Top of the
, since it did not fit their style. He says "it was a
reaction to having to go on the normal programmes and do the normal
mime, so we sold our story" with the video. May explains that they
would have looked off miming to such a complex song. Also, the band
knew that they would be touring and unable to appear on the
programme anyway. The video has been hailed as launching the
The band was signed to a company called Trillian, who supplied
sports coverage for ITV
. They hired one of
their trucks and got it to Elstree Studios, where the band were rehearsing for their
tour. The video was directed by Bruce Gowers, who had directed a video of the
band's 1974 performance at the Rainbow Theatre in London, and was recorded by cameraman Barry Dodd
and assistant director/floor manager Jim McCutcheon.
took only four hours to videotape and cost between £4,000 and
£4,500. The director says that the band was involved in the
discussion of the video and the end result, and "was a co-operative
to that extent, but there was only one leader."
The video opens with a shot of the four band members in near
darkness as they sing the a cappella part. The lights fade up, and
the shots cross-fade into close-ups of Freddie. The composition of
the shot is the same as Mick Rock
photograph for their previous album Queen
. The photo, inspired by a photograph of actress
, was the band's
favourite image of themselves.
All of the special effects
achieved during the recording. The effect of the face zooming away
was accomplished by pointing the camera at a monitor, giving
, a visual glare,
analogous to audio feedback
honeycomb effect was achieved by using a shaped lens
Then it fades into them playing their instruments. In the opera
section of the video, it goes back to them just standing there,
then performing on the stage in the heavy metal part, and in the
closing seconds of the video Roger Taylor is depicted stripped to
the waist, striking the tam tam
in the manner
of the trademark of the Rank
, familiar in the
UK as the opening of all Rank film productions.
The video was edited within five hours because it was due to be
broadcast the same week in which it was taped. It was shipped to
the BBC as soon as it was completed and aired for the first time on
Top of the Pops
in November 1975. After a few weeks at
number 1, an alternative edit
of the video was created.
The most obvious difference is the flames superimposed over the
Nearly a third of respondents in a 2007 poll commissioned by the UK
telephone company O2
this video as "the UK's best music video of all time".
Critical reaction and acclaim
Although the song has become one of the most revered in popular
music history, some initial critical reaction was poor.
said that Queen
"contrived to approximate the demented fury of the Balham Amateur
Operatic Society performing The Pirates of Penzance
newspaper's critic Allan Jones
heard only a "superficially impressive pastiche" of operatic
The song has won several awards, and has been covered and parodied
by many artists. In 1977, only two years after its release, the
named "Bohemian Rhapsody" as the best British single
of the period 1952-77. It is a regular entry in greatest-songs
polls, and it was named by the Guinness Book of Records in 2002 as
the top British single of all time.
It also came in tenth in a BBC World
poll to find the world's favourite song. In 2000 it
came second to "Imagine
" by John Lennon
in a Channel
television poll of The 100 Best Number 1s
. It has
been in the top 5 of the Dutch annual "Top 100 Aller Tijden"
("All-Time Top 100 Singles") since 1977, reaching number 1 eight
times. In the annual "Top 2000
since 1999) it had, until 2005, been number 1 every year. In 2005,
it went down one place to number 2, only to reclaim the top spot in
2006. In the 2007 and 2008 editions, it once again ended at the
top. For popularity comparison: the 2005 edition of the top 2000
was listened to by more than 60% of the total Dutch populace.
In 2004 the song was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame
. As of 2004,
"Bohemian Rhapsody" is the second most played song on British
radio, in clubs and on jukeboxes collectively, after Procol Harum
's "A Whiter Shade of Pale
". On 30
September 2007 on the Radio 1 Chart Show
, for BBC Radio 1
's 40th birthday, it was revealed
that "Bohemian Rhapsody" was the most played song since Radio 1's
launch. In 2004, BBC Three
song as part of their The Story of...
documentaries dedicated to specific songs. First broadcast in
December 2004, the programme charted the history of the song,
discussed its credentials, and took Roger Taylor and Brian May of
Queen back to one of the studios in which it was recorded.
The song enjoyed renewed popularity in 1992 as part of the
soundtrack to the film Wayne's
. The film's director, Penelope Spheeris
, was hesitant to use the
song, as it did not entirely fit with the lead characters, who were
fans of harder rock and heavy metal. However, Mike Myers
insisted that the song fit the
According to music scholar Theodore Gracyk, by 1992, when the film
was released, even "classic rock" stations had stopped playing the
six-minute song. Gracyk suggests that beginning the tape in the
middle of the song after "the lyrics which provide the song's
narrative ... forces the film's audience to respond to its presence
in the scene without the 'commentary' of the lyrics." Helped by the
song, the soundtrack album of the film was a major hit.
In connection with this, a new video was released, intercutting
excerpts from the film with footage from the original Queen video,
along with some live footage of the band. The Wayne's World video
version of "Bohemian Rhapsody" won Queen its only MTV Video Music Award
for "Best Video from
." When surviving members Brian May and Roger Taylor took
the stage to accept the award, Brian May was overcome with emotion
and said that "Freddie would be tickled."
Myers was horrified that the record company had mixed clips from
original video, fearing that this would upset the band. He said,
"they've just whizzed
on a Picasso."
He asked the record company to tell Queen that the video was not
his idea, and that he apologized to them. The band, though, sent a
reply simply saying, "Thank you for using our song." This shocked
Myers, who said it should be more like him telling Queen, "Thank
you for even letting me touch the hem of your garments!"
In the final scene of the video, a pose of the band from the video
from the original "Bohemian Rhapsody" clip morphs
into an identically-posed 1985 photo, first
featured in the "One Vision
" video. This
re-release (with "The Show Must Go On" as a double-A side) hit #2
in the US in 1992, 16 years after the original 1976 US release
peaked at #9.
The a cappella opening was too complex to perform live, so Mercury
tried various ways of introducing the song. When the song "Mustapha
" became a live favourite, Mercury would
often sub in that song's a cappella opening, which was easier to
reproduce live as it was only one voice. During the Hot Space
tour, and occasionally at other
times, Mercury would do a piano improvisation (generally the
introduction to "Death on Two
") that ended with the first notes of the song. Often, the
preceding song would end, and Mercury would sit at the piano, say a
quick word and start playing the ballad section.
Initially following the song's release, the operatic, middle
section proved a problem for the band. Because of extensive
multi-tracking, it could not be performed on stage. The band did
not have enough of a break between the "Sheer Heart Attack
" and "A Night at the Opera
" tours to
find a way to make it work live, so they split the song into three
sections that were played throughout the night. The opening and
closing ballads were played as part of a medley, with "Killer Queen
" and "March of the Black Queen
" taking the place of the
operatic and hard rock sections. Those two sections, in virtually
all gigs, were played as an introductory piece leading into "Ogre
Starting with the "A Day at
" tour in 1977, the band adopted their lasting way of
playing the song live. The opening ballad would be played on stage,
and after Brian May's guitar solo, the lights would go down, the
band would leave the stage, and the operatic section would be
played from tape. A blast of pyrotechnics
after Roger Taylor's high note on
the final "for me" would announce the band's return for the hard
rock section and closing ballad. Queen played the song in this form
all through the Magic Tour of 1986. This style was also used for
the Freddie Mercury
, with Elton John
singing the opening ballad and then after the taped operatic
section, Axl Rose
singing the hard rock
section. John and Rose sang the closing ballad part together in a
The Queen + Paul Rodgers
play a video of Mercury performing vocals and piano for the first
segment, while the other musicians played along, with Paul Rodgers
sitting out. Footage from the
Live at Wembley '86
was used for
the 2005/6 tour, and the 1981
used for the Rock the Cosmos Tour
. As with the Queen
tours, the band went backstage for the operatic section, which was
accompanied by a video tribute to Freddie Mercury and John Deacon,
the latter having retired from touring. When the hard rock section
began, the lights came back up to the full band on stage, including
Rodgers, who took over lead vocals. Rodgers duetted with the
recording of Mercury for the "outro" section, allowing the audience
to sing the final "Nothing really matters to me", while the taped
Mercury took a bow for the crowd. Rodgers would then repeat the
line, and the final line ("Any way the wind blows"
delivered with one last shot of Mercury smiling at the audience.
Commenting upon this staging, Brian May says that they "had to rise
to the challenge of getting Freddie in there in a way which gave
him his rightful place, but without demeaning Paul in any way. It
also kept us live and 'present', although conscious and proud of
our past, as we logically should be."
- Freddie Mercury: lead vocal, piano, backing vocals
- Brian May: lead and rhythm guitar, backing vocals
- John Deacon: bass guitar and backing vocals.
- Roger Taylor: drums, backing vocals, timpani, gong
- "The Story of Bohemian Rhapsody", BBC Three, prod. & dir.
Carl Johnston, First broadcast 2004-12-04.
- Whiteley, p. 252.
- Peraino, p. 230.
- Whiteley, p. 253.
- Peraino, p. 231.
- Peraino, p. 232.
- Top 100 Aller Tijden
- Gracyk, p. 64.
- Gracyk, p. 63.
- Gracyk, p. 65.
- Made in Heaven video documentary "Champions of the
- Queenpedia - detailed worldwide release
- Queenonline - A Night At The Opera release