context of the American Civil
War, the term border states refers to the five
slave states of Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri, and
bordered a free state and
were aligned with the Union.
All but Delaware
share borders with states that joined the Confederacy
. In Kentucky and
Missouri, there were both pro-Confederate and pro-Union government
factions. West Virginia was formed in 1863 from those
northwestern counties of Virginia which had
seceded from Virginia, after Virginia had
declared its secession from the Union. Though every slave
state (except South
some troops to the Union as well as the Confederate side, the split
was most severe in these border states, with men from the same
family often fighting on opposite sides.
addition, two territories not yet states the Indian Territory (now the state of Oklahoma) and the
New Mexico Territory (now the
states of Arizona and New Mexico) also permitted slavery.
Yet very few slaves
could actually be found in these territories, despite the
institution's legal status there. During the war, the major
in Oklahoma signed an alliance with the Confederacy, and
participated in its military efforts. Residents of the New Mexico
Territory were of divided loyalties; the region was split between
the Union and Confederacy at the 34th Parallel. Oklahoma is often
cited as a "border state" today, but Arizona and New Mexico are
rarely, if ever, so characterized.
With geographic, social, political, and economic connection to both
the North and the South, the border states were critical to the
outcome of the war, and still delineate the cultural border that
separates the North from the South. After Reconstruction
of the border states adopted Jim Crow
resembling those enacted in the South, but in recent
decades some of them (most notably Delaware and Maryland) have
become more Northern in their political, economic, and social
orientation, while others (particularly Kentucky and West Virginia)
have adopted a Southern way of life.
Lincoln's 1863 Emancipation
, designed as a war measures act, applied only to
territories not already under Union control, so it did not apply to
the border states. Maryland and West Virginia each changed their
state constitution to prohibit slavery. Slavery in Kentucky,
Missouri, and Delaware (as well as remnants of slavery in West
Virginia and New Jersey) was not ended until the 1865 ratification
of the Thirteenth
The five border states
Both houses of Delaware's General Assembly
secession overwhelmingly, the House of Representatives
The Maryland Legislature rejected secession in 1861, and Governor
voted against it.
result of the Union Army's heavy presence
in the state and the suspension of habeas
corpus by Abraham Lincoln,
several Maryland state legislators, as well as the mayor and police chief of Baltimore, who supported secession, were arrested and
imprisoned by Union authorities. With Virginia having
seceded, Union troops had to go through Maryland to reach the
national capital at Washington
Had Maryland also joined the Confederacy,
Washington DC would have been totally surrounded. Maryland
contributed troops to both the Union (60,000), and the Confederate
Maryland was not affected by the 1863 Emancipation Proclamation
it had not seceded; only States in rebellion fell under the
Proclamation's jurisdiction. Maryland adopted a new state
constitution in 1864, which prohibited slavery and thus emancipated
all slaves in the state.
Kentucky was strategic to Union victory in the Civil War. Lincoln
once said, "I think to lose Kentucky is nearly the same as to lose
the whole game. Kentucky gone, we cannot hold Missouri, nor
Maryland. These all against us, and the job on our hands is too
large for us. We would as well consent to separation at once,
including the surrender of this capital" (Washington, which was
surrounded by slave states: Confederate Virginia and
Union-controlled Maryland). He is further reported to have said
that he hoped
to have God on his side, but he had
to have Kentucky.
Kentucky did not secede, but a faction, known as the Russellville Convention
, formed a
government of Kentucky
, which was recognized by the Confederate
States of America as a member state. Kentucky was represented by
the central star on the Confederate
Kentucky Governor Beriah Magoffin
proposed that slave states like Kentucky should conform to the
, and remain in the
Union. When Lincoln requested 75,000 men to serve in the Union
army, however, Magoffin, a Southern sympathizer, countered that
Kentucky would "furnish no troops for the wicked purpose of
subduing her sister Southern states."
Kentucky tried to remain neutral, even issuing a proclamation May
20, 1861, asking both sides to keep out. The neutrality was
broken when Confederate General Leonidas
Polk occupied Columbus, Kentucky, in the summer of 1861, though the Union had been
openly enlisting troops in the state before this.
response, the Kentucky Legislature passed a resolution directing
the governor to demand the evacuation of Confederate forces from
Kentucky soil. Magoffin vetoed
proclamation, but the legislature overrode his veto. The
legislature further decided to back General Ulysses S. Grant, and
his Union troops stationed in Paducah, Kentucky, on the grounds that the Confederacy voided the
original pledge by entering Kentucky first.
Southern sympathizers were outraged at the legislature's decisions,
citing that Polk's troops in Kentucky were only en route to
countering Grant's forces. Later legislative resolutions—such as
inviting Union General Robert Anderson
volunteers to expel the Confederate forces, requesting the governor
to call out the militia, and appointing Union General Thomas L. Crittenden
in command of Kentucky
forces—only incensed the Southerners further. (Magoffin vetoed the
resolutions but all were overridden.) In 1862, the legislature
passed an act to disenfranchise citizens who enlisted in the
Confederate States Army
Thus Kentucky's neutral status evolved into backing the Union. Most
of those who originally sought neutrality turned to the Union
Confederate General Albert Sidney
Johnston occupied Bowling Green, Kentucky in the summer of 1861, the pro-Confederates in
western and central Kentucky moved to establish a Confederate state
government. The Russellville Convention met in
County on November 18, 1861.
One hundred sixteen
delegates from 68 counties elected to depose the current
government, and create a provisional government
Kentucky's new unofficial Confederate Governor George W. Johnson
. On December 10, 1861,
Kentucky became the 13th state admitted to the Confederacy.
Kentucky, along with Missouri, was a state with representatives in
both Congresses, and with regiments in both Union and Confederate
still functioning as official governor in Frankfort, would not recognize the Kentucky Confederates, nor
their attempts to establish a government in his state.
continued to declare Kentucky's official status in the war was as a
neutral state—even though the legislature backed the Union.
Magoffin, fed up with the party divisions within the population and
legislature, announced a special session of the legislature, and
then resigned his office in 1862.
Bowling Green remained occupied by the Confederates until February
1862, when General Grant moved from Missouri, through Kentucky,
along the Tennessee line. Confederate Governor Johnson fled Bowling
Green with the Confederate state records, headed south, and joined
Confederate forces in Tennessee. After Johnson was killed fighting in the
Shiloh, Richard Hawes was
named Confederate governor.
Shortly afterwards, the Provisional Confederate
was adjourned on February 17, 1862, on the eve of
inauguration of a permanent Congress. However, as Union occupation
henceforth dominated the state, the Kentucky Confederate
government, as of 1863, existed only on paper, and its
representation in the permanent congress was minimal. It was
dissolved when the Civil War ended in the spring of 1865.
After the secession of Southern states began, the newly elected
governor of Missouri called upon the legislature to authorize a
state constitutional convention on secession. A special election
approved of the convention, and delegates to it. This Missouri
voted to remain within the Union, but
rejected coercion of the Southern States by the United States.
Pro-Southern Governor Claiborne
with the outcome. He called up the state militia to their districts
for annual training. Jackson had designs on the St. Louis
Arsenal, and had been in secret correspondence with
Confederate President Jefferson
Davis, to obtain artillery for the militia in St.
Aware of these developments, Union Captain
encircling the camp, and forcing the state militia to surrender.
marching the prisoners to the arsenal, a deadly riot erupted (the
These events caused greater Confederate support within the state.
The already pro-Southern legislature passed the governor's military
bill creating the Missouri State
. Governor Jackson appointed Sterling Price
, who had been president of the
convention, as major
of this reformed and expanded militia. Price, and Union
district commander Harney, came to an agreement known as the
, that calmed
tensions in the state for several weeks. After Harney was removed,
and Lyon placed in charge, a meeting was held in St. Louis at the
Planters' House between Lyon, his political ally Francis P. Blair, Jr.
, Price, and Jackson. The
negotiations went nowhere, and after a few fruitless hours Lyon
made his famous declaration, "this means war!" Price and Jackson
rapidly departed for the capital.
Price, and the state legislature, were forced to flee the state
capital of Jefferson
City on June 14, 1861, in the face of Lyon's rapid
advance against the state government.
In the absence of the
now exiled state government, the Missouri
reconvened in late July. On July 30,
the convention declared the state offices vacant, and appointed a
new provisional government with Hamilton
as governor. President Lincoln's Administration
immediately recognized the legitimacy of Gamble's government, which
provided both pro-Union militia forces for service within the
state, and volunteer regiments for the Union Army.
ensued between Union forces, and a combined army of General Price's
Missouri State Guard and Confederate troops from Arkansas and Texas, under
General Ben McCulloch.
winning victories at the battle of Wilson's
Creek, and the siege of Lexington, Missouri, the secessionist forces had little
choice but to retreat again to Southwestern Missouri, as Union
reinforcements arrived. There, on October 30, 1861 in the town of
Neosho, Jackson called the exiled state legislature into
session, where they enacted a secession ordinance.
recognized by the Confederate congress, and Missouri was admitted
into the Confederacy on November 28.
The exiled state government was forced to withdraw into Arkansas in
the face of a largely reinforced Union Army. Though regular
Confederate troops staged several large-scale raids into Missouri,
the fighting in the state for the next three years consisted mainly
of guerrilla warfare
guerrillas were primarily Southern partisans, including William Quantrill
, the Younger brothers
and William T. Anderson
. Such small unit tactics
pioneered by the Missouri Partisan Rangers were seen in other
occupied portions of the Confederacy during the Civil War. The
James' brothers outlawry after the war has been seen as a
continuation of guerrilla warfare.
The serious divisions between the western and eastern sections of
Virginia did not begin in the winter of 1860-1861. West Virginia
C. H. Ambler wrote that “there
are few years during the period from 1830 to 1850 which did not
bring forth schemes for the dismemberment of the commonwealth.” The
western part of the state during this time was “the growing and
aggressive section,” while the east was “the declining and
conservative one.” The west centered its grievances on the east’s
disproportionate (based on population) legislative representation,
and share of state revenues. The east justified this dominance
because of its dependence on slaves, “the possession of which could
be guaranteed and secured only by giving to masters a voice in the
government adequate to the protection of their interests.” In 1851,
the Virginia Reform Convention, forced to recognize that the White
population of the western part of the state outnumbered the east,
made significant changes. Universal white suffrage was granted, and
the governor was to be determined by the direct vote of the people.
The lower house of the legislature was apportioned strictly based
on population, although the upper house still used a combination of
population and property in determining its electoral
By 1859 there were again strong sectional tensions at work within
the state, although the west itself was split between the north and
the south, with the south more satisfied with the changes made in
1851. Historian Daniel W. Crofts wrote, “Northwesterners complained
that they had become ‘the complete vassals of Eastern Virginia,’
taxed ‘unmercifully and increasingly, at her instance and for her
benefit.’” Internal improvements important to the west, such as the
James River and Kanawha
, or railroads connecting the west to the east, had been
promised but not built. Slaves, for tax purposes, were not valued
above $300, despite a top field hand being worth five times that
amount. The west had 135,000 more whites than the east, but the
east controlled the state Senate. In the United States House of
Representatives, because of the three-fifth rule
, only five of
Virginia’s thirteen representatives came from western districts. In
the 1859 gubernatorial elections there was disenchantment with both
parties in the west. Western grievances were ignored as “both
parties engaged in a proslavery shouting match.” Antislavery Whigs
began to move towards the Republican Party; in the 1860
presidential election, Abraham Lincoln received 2,000 votes from
the western panhandle.
Crofts wrote that “no document better captures the mood of
unconditional northwestern Virginia Unionists” than the following
from a March 16, 1861 letter by Henry Dering of Morgantown to
Waitman T. Willey
Virginia’s secession and western reaction
By December 1860 secession was being publicly debated throughout
Virginia. Leading eastern newspapers such as the Richmond Inquirer,
Richmond Examiner, and Norfolk Argus were openly calling for
secession. The Wellsburg Herald on December 14 warned the east that
the west would not be “legislated into treason or dragged into
trouble to gratify the wishes of any set of men, or to subserve the
interests of any section.” The Morgantown Star on January 12 said
that their region was “unwilling that slavery in Virginia shall be
used to oppress the people of our section of the state. ... We
people in Western Virginia have borne the burden just about as long
as we can stand it. We have been ‘hewers of wood and drawers of
water’ for Eastern Virginia long enough.” In addition to
traditional east- west differences, the specter of secession raised
new issues for the northwest. This section shared a border with
Ohio and Pennsylvania and, by virtue of the state’s failure to
build roads, was isolated from the rest of the state. A leading
unionist said, “We would be swept by the enemy from the face of the
earth before the news of the attack could reach our Eastern
friends.” Another unionist, addressing the section’s close economic
links with the North, asked, “Would you have us ... act like madmen
and cut our own throats merely to sustain you in a most
Despite unionist opposition, a special session of the state
legislature in early January called for the election of delegates
to a state convention on February 4 to consider secession. A
proposal by Waitman T. Willey to have the convention also consider
reforms to taxation and representation went nowhere. The convention
first met on February 13 and voted for secession on April 17, 1861.
The decision was dependent on ratification by a statewide
On April 22, 1861 John S. Carlisle led a meeting of 1,200 people in
Harrison County. The meeting approved the “Clarksburg Resolutions”,
calling for the creation of a new state separate from Virginia. The
resolutions were widely circulated and each county was asked to
choose five “of their wisest, best, and distinguished men” as
delegates. Historian Allan Nevins wrote, “ The movement,
spontaneous, full of extralegal irregularities, and varying from
place to place, spread like the wind. Community after community
held mass meetings.”
Unionists in Virginia met at the Wheeling Convention
from May 13 to May
15 to await the decision of the state referendum called to ratify
the decision to secede. In attendance were over four hundred
delegates from twenty-seven counties. Most delegations were chosen
by public meetings rather than elections and some attendees came
strictly on their own. The editor of the Wheeling Western Star
called it “almost a mass meeting of the people instead of a
Carlisle, in front of a banner proclaiming “New Virginia, now or
never”, spoke for the immediate creation of a new state consisting
of thirty-two counties. Speaking of the actions of the Virginia
secession convention, he said, “Let us act; let us repudiate these
monstrous usurpations; let us show our loyalty to Virginia and the
Union at every hazard. It is useless to cry peace when there is no
peace; and I for one will repeat what was said by one of Virginia’s
noblest sons and greatest statesmen, ‘Give me liberty or give me
Speaking in opposition to action at this time, Willey argued that
the convention had no authority to take such an action and referred
to it as “triple treason”. Francis H. Pierpont supported Willey and
helped to work out a compromise that secured the withdrawal of the
Carlisle motion, declared the state’s Ordinance of Secession to be
“unconstitutional, null, and void", and called for a second
convention on June 11 if secession was ratified.
Willey’s closing remarks to the convention set the stage for the
Second Wheeling Convention
The statewide vote in favor of secession was 132,201 to 37,451. In
the core Unionist region of northwestern Virginia the vote was
30,586 to 10,021 against secession, although the total vote in the
counties that would become West Virginia was a closer 34,677 to
The Second Wheeling Convention opened on June 11 with more than 100
delegates from 32 western counties representing nearly one-third of
Virginia’s total voting population. Members of the Virginia General
Assembly were accepted as long as they were loyal to the Union "and
still others were seemingly self-appointed." The convention met “
in open defiance of the Richmond authorities” and efforts were made
in many counties to restrict attendance. Delegates were required to
take a loyalty oath to the United State Constitution “anything in
the Ordinance of the Convention which assembled in Richmond, on
February 13 last, to the contrary notwithstanding.”.
Arthur I. Boreman
, the future governor of West
Virginia, was chosen as president, but the main leaders were
Carlisle and Frank Pierpont. While many still supported Carlisle’s
original plan to create a new state, Article IV Section 3 of the
Constitution presented a problem. This section guaranteed that “no
new states shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of
any other state... without the Consent of the Legislatures of the
States Concerned as well as of Congress.” The legal solution chosen
by the convention is described by author W. Hunter Lesser:
This restored Virginia government would then, under this theory,
have the authority to the creation of a new state within the Old
Dominion’s old borders as long as the federal government approves
of this new state.
On June 13 Carlisle presented his “Declaration of Rights of the
People of Virginia” to the convention. It accused the secessionists
of “usurping” the rights of the people, creating an “illegal
confederacy of rebellious states”, and declared it was now their
duty “to abolish” the state government as it existed. The
convention approved this declaration on June 17 by a 56 to 0 vote.
On June 14 “An Ordinance for the Re-organization of the State
Government” was presented which provided for the selection of a
governor, lieutenant governor, and a five-member governor’s council
by the convention, declared all state government offices vacant,
and recognized a “rump legislature” composed of loyal members of
the General Assembly who had been elected in the May 23 statewide
voting. This ordinance was approved on June 19.
Francis H. Pierpont was chosen as governor by the convention on
June 20. Historian Virgil Lewis said this process was carried out
in an “irregular... unjustifiable mode.” The next day Governor
Pierpont notified President Lincoln of the convention’s decisions.
Noting that there were “evil-minded persons” who were “making war
on the loyal people of the state” and “pressing citizens against
their consent into their military organization and seizing and
appropriating their property to aid in the rebellion,” Pierpont
requested aid “to suppress such rebellion and violence.” Secretary
of War Cameron, replying for Lincoln, wrote:
"Restored" Virginia and dismemberment
The Restored Government
granted permission for the formation of a new state
on August 20, 1861. The Lt. Governor of the Restored Government,
, strongly objected to
the ordinance for the new state, saying in a speech on August
The October 24, 1861 popular vote on the new state drew only 19,000
voters (compared to the 54,000 who had voted in the original
secession referendum), one hundred of whom, in Hampshire County
alone, according to officials of the Wheeling government, were Ohio
The Second Wheeling Convention had proposed that only 39 counties
be included in the new state. This number included 24
anti-secession counties and 15 secessionist counties which the new
state would find “imperative” because of their geographic
relationship with the rest of the new state. These 39 counties
contained a white population of 272,759, 78% of whom had a Unionist
orientation. While there was overwhelming support at this
convention for statehood, there was a “small, effective minority”
that opposed this and they used “obstructionist tactics at every
opportunity” in their efforts to defeat the majority. It was this
group opposed to statehood that was largely responsible for the
inclusion of additional counties beyond this core.
When the constitutional convention was held in Wheeling on November
16, 1861, the obstructionists attempted to have 71 counties
included in the new state, a move which would have created a white
confederate sympathizer majority of 316,308. Eventually a
compromise was worked out to include 50 counties. Historian Richard
O. Curry summed the results up this way:
However, as observed by Chapman J. Stuart at the Constitutional Convention in Wheeling, December 10, 1861-
Curry further concluded:
However, despite Mr. Curry's interpretations, the Wheeling
legislators themselves approved of coercion. Ephraim B. Hall of
Marion County, said at the Constitutional Convention in Wheeling,
December 5, 1861
Counties approving Virginia's
secession from the United States.
Military events and statehood
While the above political events were unfolding, in the late spring
of 1861 Union troops from Ohio moved into western Virginia with the
primary strategic goal of protecting the B & O Railroad.
General George B. McClellan
in June 3 at Philippi, July 11
at Rich Mountain, and September 10 at Carnifex Ferry “completely
destroyed Confederate defenses in western Virginia.” However after
these victories most Federal troops were sent out of the new state
to support McClellan elsewhere, leading Governor Boreman to write
from Parkersburg "The whole country South and East of us is
abandoned to the Southern Confederacy." In central, southern and
eastern West Virginia a guerrilla war ensued that lasted until
1865. Raids and recruitment by the Confederacy took place
throughout the war. Estimates of Union and Confederate soldiers
from West Virginia have varied widely, but some recent studies
indicate that the numbers were about equal, from 22-25,000 each.
Historian Richard Nelson Current places the number of West
Virginians fighting for the Union at approximately 29,000.
The new state constitution was passed by the Unionist counties in
the spring of 1862 and this was approved by the restored Virginia
government in May 1862. The statehood bill for West Virginia was
passed by Congress in December and signed by President Lincoln on
December 31, 1862. As a condition for statehood the US Congress
required that a policy of gradual emancipation be granted to the
slaves of the new state, called the Willey Amendment
, which was amended to the
state constitution on March 26, 1863.
New Mexico and Arizona territories
Conventions at Mesilla, New
Mexico, on March 18, 1861, and Tucson, Arizona, on March 23 adopted an ordinance of
The conventions established a pro-Southern
government for the southern portions of the territory and called
for the election of representatives to petition the Confederacy for
admission and relief. Lewis Owings
Mesilla was elected the territory's first provisional governor, and
Granville Henderson Oury
Tucson presented the territory's petition for admission into the
In July 1861, Confederate forces from
Texas, under Lieutenant Colonel John
, entered Mesilla, described as "a strongly
The following day, Union Major Isaac Lynde
approached Mesilla to engage
Baylor's forces. Baylor's men, accompanied by militia out of
Mesilla, attacked and defeated Lynde at the Battle of
Mesilla on July 27.
On August 1, Baylor proclaimed
that the Confederate territory
would extend to the 34th parallel and named himself
the new territorial governor.
The territory was home to several
subsequent engagements and skirmishes between the western armies of
the Union and the Confederacy during the war. The Confederate loss
at the Battle of
Glorieta Pass, in March 1862, drove them back to Texas and ended
involvement of New Mexico in the Civil War.
Though Tennessee had officially seceded, East Tennessee
was pro-Union and had mostly
voted against secession. Attempts to secede from Tennessee were
suppressed by the Confederacy. Jefferson Davis arrested over 3,000
men suspected of being loyal to the Union and held them without
trial. Tennessee came under control of Union forces in 1862 and was
omitted from the Emancipation
. After the war, Tennessee was the first state to
have its elected members readmitted to the US Congress.
County, Alabama, issued a resolution of secession from the state of
Border states and Emancipation
President Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation
designed with the interests of border states in mind. The
Proclamation did not free slaves within current Union-controlled
territory because the presidential war power did not extend there.
Lincoln maintained that under the Constitution, ending slavery in a
state not in active rebellion against the Union could only be done
legally by action of that state, or by amendment to the
- Ambler, Charles H. "The Cleavage between Eastern and Western
Virginia". The American Historical ReviewVol. 15, No. 4,
(July 1910) pp. 762–780 in JSTOR.
- Ash Steven V. Middle Tennessee Transformed, 1860-1870
Louisiana State University Press, 1988.
- Baker Jean H. The Politics of Continuity: Maryland
Political Parties from 1858 to 1870 Johns Hopkins University
- Richard S. Brownlee, Gray Ghosts of the Confederacy:
Guerrilla Warfare in the West, 1861-1865 (1958).
- Coulter E. Merton. The Civil War and Readjustment in
Kentucky University of North Carolina Press, 1926.
- Crofts, Daniel W. Reluctant Confederates: Upper South
Unionists in the Secession Crisis. (1989).
- Current, Richard Nelson. Lincoln's Loyalists: Union
Soldiers From the Confederacy. (1992).
- Curry Richard O. A House Divided: A Study of Statehood
Politics and the Copperhead Movement in West Virginia.
University of Pittsburgh Press, 1964.
- Curry, Richard O. "A Reappraisal of Statehood Politics in West
Virginia". The Journal of Southern History Vol. 28, No. 4.
(November, 1962) pp. 403–421.
- Fellman, Michael. Inside War. The Guerrilla
Conflict in Missouri during the American Civil War
- Fields, Barbara. Slavery and Freedom on the Middle Ground:
Maryland During the Nineteenth Century (1987).
- Frazier Donald S. Blood and Treasure: Confederate Empire in
the Southwest. Texas A&M University Press, 1995.
- Donald L. Gilmore. Civil War on the Missouri-Kansas
- Hancock Harold. Delaware during the Civil War.
Society of Delaware, 1961.
- Harrison Lowell. The Civil War in Kentucky University
Press of Kentucky, 1975.
- Josephy, Alvin M. Jr., The Civil War in the American
- Kerby, Robert L. Kirby Smith's Confederacy: The
Trans-Mississippi South, 1863-1865 Columbia University Press,
- Link, William A. Roots of Secession: Slavery and Politics
in Antebellum Virginia. (2003)
- Lesser, W. Hunter. Rebels at the Gate: Lee and McClellan at
the Front Line of a Nation Divided. (2004)
- Maslowski Peter. Treason Must Be Made Odious: Military
Occupation and Wartime Reconstruction in Nashville, Tennessee,
- McGehee, C. Stuart. "The Tarnished Thirty-fifth Star" in
Virginia at War: 1861. Davis William C. and Robertson,
James I. Jr. (2005).
- Jay Monaghan. Civil War on the Western Border,
- George E. Moore. A Banner in the Hills: West Virginia's
- Nevins, Allan. The War for the Union: The Improvised War
- Parrish William E. Turbulent Partnership: Missouri and the
Union, 1861-1865 University of Missouri Press, 1963.
- Patton James W. Unionism and Reconstruction in Tennessee,
1860-1867 University of North Carolina Press, 1934.
- Rampp Lary C., and Donald L. Rampp. The Civil War in the
Indian Territory. Austin: Presidial Press, 1975.
- Sheeler J. Reuben. "The Development of Unionism in East
Tennessee." Journal of Negro History 29 (1944): 166-203.
- Stiles, T.J. "Jesse James: The Last Rebel of the Civil War".
Alfred A. Knopf, 2002.
- History of the 1st Alabama Cavalry, USV
- World History Blog: Pro-Union Southerners
- Encyclopedia of Southern Culture, by Mary L. Hart, Charles
Reagan Wilson, William Ferris and Ann J. Adadie, Univ. of N.
Carolina Press, 1989. ISBN 0807818232
- Ambler, Charles "The History of West Virginia". re: the discard
of the 1863 State Constitution and adoption of the new 1872
Constitution: "As a consequence of these changes, for more than
twenty years West Virginia was allied with the 'Solid South'...It
gave West Virginia the laws and institutions that best reflected
the sentiments of her people..."
- Telsur Southern Dialect Regional Map
- Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln. Volume 4 page 533 Roy P.
- Ambler (1910) pp. 764-765
- Crofts pp. 57-58
- Crofts p. 159. The only railroad in the area, the B & O,
had been built with out state money. Slaves under age 12 were not
taxed at all.
- Nevins p. 140. Nevins also wrote, “... according to Francis H.
Pierpont, the principal western leader, each year [the east]
escaped paying $900,000 in taxes justly its due” and “all of the
$30,000,000 by which the State debt had been augmented since 1851
had gone for internal improvements in the east.”
- Croft pp. 59, 160. Ambler p. 779. Ambler wrote f the state
Republican platform drafted in Wheeling in the spring of 1860, “It
also alleged that the slave interests of Virginia had encroached
upon the personal rights of the free white men of her western
counties by weighing them down with oppressive taxation and by
denying them a proportionate representation in the general
- Croft p. 102
- Link p. 250
- Crofts p. 162
- Curry “A Reappraisal of Statehood Politics in West Virginia” p.
404. Throughout this article the term “northwest” refers to a
section made up of 35 counties, only twenty four of which had
significant unionist strongholds
- Crofts p. 160
- Crofts p. 161. After the ordinance was passed by the convention
Chester T. Hubard wrote to Willey, “I should like to show those
traitors at Richmond ... that we are not to be transformed like the
cattle on the hills or the slaves on their plantations, without our
knowledge or consent.” Curry “A
Statehood Politics in West Virginia”, p. 406
- Curry “A Reappraisal of Statehood Politics in West Virginia”,
p. 406. Lesser pp. 25-26.
- Nevins p. 141
- Link p. 251
- Lesser p. 26. Curry p. 406
- Lesser p. 27
- Lesser pp. 28-29. “Triple treason” referred to, in Lesser’s
paraphrasing, “treason against the State of Virginia, treason
against the U. S. Constitution, even treason against Virginia’s
alliance with the Confederacy.”
- Crofts p. 341
- Lesser p. 77
- Ambler, "The History of West Virginia", p. 318
- Lesser pp. 77-78
- Lesser pp. 78-79
- Lewis, "How West Virginia Was Made", p. 266
- Current p. 15
- "Mr. Lamb, of Ohio County, whose Unionism could not be doubted,
declared that out of two thousand voters in Hampshire County, one
hundred and ninety-five votes had been cast and he had heard that
of these one hundred had been cast by soldiers. Mr. Carskadon
confirmed this and added that only thirty-nine were the votes of
citizens of the state." McGregor, "The Disruption of Virginia", p.
- Curry “A Reappraisal of Statehood Politics in West Virginia" p.
- Curry “A Reappraisal of Statehood Politics in West Virginia” p.
- Curry “A Reappraisal of Statehood Politics in West Virginia”
- McGehee p. 149
- Curry, "A House Divided", p. 77
- "Exterminating Savages", by Kenneth W. Noe, in "The Civil War
in Appalachia", pp. 104-130
- "Although early estimates noted that Union soldiers from the
region outnumbered Confederates by more than three to one, more
recent and detailed studies have concluded that there were nearly
equal numbers of Union and Confederate soldiers."
- Current p. 216
- Mark Neely, Confederate Bastille: Jefferson Davis and Civil
Liberties 1993 pp. 10–11