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Boulder is a Home Rule Municipality that is the county seat and most populous city of Boulder Countymarker, Coloradomarker, in the United Statesmarker. Boulder is the 11th most populous city in the state of Colorado. The United States Census Bureau estimates that in 2008 the population of the city of Boulder was 93,895, while the population of the Boulder Metropolitan Statistical Area was 280,420. Boulder is the home of the main campus of the University of Coloradomarker, the state's largest university, and Naropa Universitymarker, one of two accredited Buddhist-inspired universities in the United States. Located at the base of the foothills of the Rocky Mountains at an elevation of , Boulder is northwest of Denvermarker.


As of the census of 2000, there are 94,673 people, 39,596 households, and 16,788 families residing in the city. The population density is 1,499.9/km² (3,884.1/sq mi), making Boulder's population density higher than Denvermarker's and among the highest in the state; of Colorado's twenty-one largest cities, only Englewoodmarker and Northglennmarker (two close-in Denver suburbs) have greater population densities. There are 40,726 housing units at an average density of 1,670.8/sq mi (645.2/km²). The racial makeup of the city is 88.33% White, 1.22% Black or African American, 0.48% Native American, 4.02% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 3.50% from other races, and 2.40% from two or more races. 8.9% of the population are Hispanic or Latino/Latina of any race.

There are 39,596 households out of which 20.0% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.3% are married couples living together, 6.5% have a female householder with no husband present, and 57.6% are non-families. 33.7% of all households are made up of individuals and 6.2% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.20 and the average family size is 2.84.

Boulder's population is younger than the national average, largely due to the presence of university students. The median age is 29 years compared to the U.S. median of 35.1 years. In Boulder, 14.8% of the residents are under the age of 18, 25.9% from 18 to 24, 33.0% from 25 to 44, 18.4% from 45 to 64, and 7.8% are 65 years of age or older. For every 100 females there are 106.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and older, there are 107.4 males.

According to a 2007 estimate, the median household income in Boulder is $50,209, and the median family income is $85,807. Males have a median income of $41,829 versus $32,100 for females. The per capita income for the city is $31,539. 17.4% of the population and 6.4% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 10.4% of those under the age of 18 and 6.5% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line. The higher population poverty line is due to the large number of college students living in the area.

Boulder housing tends to be priced higher than surrounding areas. For the 2nd quarter of 2006, the median single family home in Boulder sold for $548,000 and the median attached dwelling (condo or town home) sold for $262,000. According to that National Association of Realtors, during the same period the median value of single family homes nationwide was $227,500.

Geography and climate

The City of Boulder is in Boulder Valley where the Rocky Mountains meet the Great Plainsmarker. Just west of the city are imposing slabs of sedimentary stone tilted up on the foothills, known as the Flatironsmarker. The Flatirons are a widely recognized symbol of Boulder.

The primary water flow through the city is Boulder Creek. The creek was named well ahead of the city's founding, for all of the large granite boulders that have cascaded into the creek over the eons. It is from Boulder Creek that Boulder City and hence Boulder is believed to have taken its name. Boulder Creek has significant water flow, derived primarily from snow melt and minor springs west of the city. The creek is a tributary of the South Platte River.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 25.4 square miles (65.7 km²). 24.4 square miles (63.1 km²) of it is land and 1.0 square miles (2.6 km²) of it (3.94%) is water.

The 40th parallel (40 degrees north latitude) runs through Boulder and can be easily recognized as Baseline Road today.

Boulder lies in a wide basin beneath Flagstaff Mountain just a few miles east of the continental divide and about 30 miles northwest of Denver. Arapahoe glacier provides water for the city, along with Boulder Creek, which flows through the center of the city. The climate in Boulder is typically mild with dry, moderate summers and relatively comfortable winters. The city boasts more than 300 sunny or mostly sunny days each year. Nearby mountains shield Boulder from the most severe winter storms. Most precipitation occurs during the winter and spring months, with snowfall averaging 83.1 inches. Snow can fall as late as May.

Boulder's winters are somewhat mild, and although large amounts of snow can fall, the effects of orographic lift usually dry out the air passing over the Front Range, shadowing the city from precipitation for much of the season. Temperatures during the winter generally average between 45°F (7°C) to 50°F (10°C) for the daytime highs, and overnight the temperatures plunge to typically settle between 17°F (-8°C) and 23°F (-5°C). These rather cold temperatures that occur overnight are mostly due to Boulder's "High-Desert" climate. Additionally, warm chinook winds occur as air passing over the mountains heats as it descends, in addition to the sunshine, quickly melting most snow accumulations and making Boulder's winters relatively mild.

The summer months in Boulder are warm, with daytime highs averaging between 80°F (27°C) and 90°F (32°C), and occasional days reaching 95°F (35°C) not uncommon. Lows in the summer are in the 50°F (10°C) - 60°F (16°C) range; rather cold due to Boulder's altitude and wind patterns.

The all time highest recorded temperature in Boulder of 104°F (40°C) occurred on June 23 and July 11, 1954. The lowest temperature ever recorded in Boulder was -24°F (-31°C), which occurred on February 5, 1989, and December 22, 1990.


Pearl Street Mall in Boulder
In the early to mid 1800s, the nomadic Southern Arapaho Native American tribe frequently wintered at the base of the foothills in the Boulder area. Chief Niwot and his band called the site their home. Other nomadic tribes included the Utes, Cheyennes, Comanches, and Sioux.

The first recorded European settlers in the area were gold prospectors who arrived in 1858, when Boulder was part of the Nebraska Territory (The former boundary between Nebraska and Kansas territories is the present Baseline Road in Boulder). The "Boulder City Town Company" was founded on February 10, 1859. Boulder's first school house was built in 1860, followed by the creation of the Colorado Territory in 1861. In 1871 then 'Boulder City' was incorporated. In 1873 the railroad was extended to Boulder and, in 1890, the Boulder Railroad Depot was constructed to serve as a station for the Union Pacific Railroad. In 1876 Colorado was granted statehood, and in that same year the University of Colorado at Boulder opened.

Mining gold, silver, and coal continued to be a prominent part of the local economy until the mid 1900s. A coal miners strike lasted from 1910 to 1915, causing a military presence in nearby Louisvillemarker. Mining's relevance in the local economy declined in the 1940s, when the city began actively recruiting clean industry, such as the National Bureau of Standards, which today is the National Institute of Standards and Technology. (Home of the atomic clock.)

Streetcars operated in Boulder from the late 1800s through 1931. A lobbying group exists today to restore the streetcar to Boulder, albeit with a new route.

Boulder adopted an anti-saloon ordinance in 1907. Statewide prohibition started in Colorado in 1916 and ended with the repeal of national prohibition in 1933.[14093]

Boulder was the second city in the United States to implement the Hare (or Single Transferable Vote) method of voting in 1917. It was repealed in 1947.

On January 19, 1952, the Denver-Boulder Turnpike opened as a tollway between Boulder and the northern Denvermarker suburb of Westminstermarker. In 1967, the bonds for building the highway were paid off early, its tollway status was lifted, and it became part of U.S. Highway 36. (Many still refer to the road as the Denver-Boulder Turnpike or simply Boulder Turnpike, however.) [14094]

Politics and government

Politically, Boulder is one of the most Democratic cities in Colorado. Boulder Countymarker, which includes Boulder's more conservative suburbs, is 37% Democratic, 27% Republican, and 36% independent. [14095] Although in Denvermarker, Democratic views are prevalent in city politics, Boulder has the more widespread reputation as a pocket of liberal political views within its largely conservative state, garnering the oft-used nickname "The People's Republic of Boulder."

In 1974 the Boulder City Council passed Colorado's first ordinance prohibiting discrimination based on sexual orientation. Boulder voters, however, repealed the measure by referendum within a year. In 1975, Boulder County Clerk Clela Rorex was the second in the United States to ever grant same-sex marriage licenses, prior to state laws being passed to prevent such issuance. [14096] In 1987, Boulder voters reversed their 1974 vote, and the city became the first in the United States to prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation by a direct vote of the people. In 1996, Boulder became the first city in Coloradomarker to enact a smoking ban that included bars.

Coexisting with the liberal tendencies of the population at large are the less numerous but politically active conservative and libertarian residents. Bob Greenlee, a Republican, was briefly the mayor of Boulder and ran against Mark Udall in 1998 for Colorado's 2nd congressional district. The Promise Keepers, an evangelical organization for men, was conceived of in Boulder in 1990 by then-coach of the University of Colorado football team Bill McCartney. The organization has since relocated to Denvermarker.[14097]


Outdoor sports

Hiking trails and rock climbing in Boulder are very popular at Chautauqua park.
Boulder is surrounded by more than 36,000 acres (149 km²) of recreational open space, conservation easements, and nature preserves. There are ample opportunities for hiking, biking, running, and rock climbing. Many of the trails start at the edge of the city, while others are a short drive away. The trails vary in difficulty: some are quite easy while there are some that are technically challenging. A trail map is available online or from a variety of local retailers. The City of Boulder Open Space website is a great resource for information about outdoor activities and volunteer opportunities.

World-class rock climbing is found in nearby Eldorado Canyon, near the small unincorporated community of Eldorado Springsmarker, six miles south of Boulder. Eldorado Canyon is a wonder of natural beauty, but it is most famous for its hundreds of world-renowned rock climbing routes. There are also high quality climbing routes available in the city open space, including climbing routes of varying difficulty on the Flatironsmarker themselves. Boulder Canyon, directly west of downtown Boulder, also has many good routes. All three of these areas are affected by seasonal closures for wildlife. [14098] [14099], [14100]


Boulder International Film Festival

BIFF is presented by the Colorado Film Society which is a nonprofit organization founded by local filmmakers, Kathy and Robin Beeck. BIFF is dedicated to providing the large, urban, film–hip audiences of the Boulder/Denver metro area with an early look at the best new films in international cinema, along with conversations with directors, producers and actors, world–class food, parties, and an opportunity to rub elbows with filmmakers in a winter wonderland. BIFF has hosted over 150 filmmakers from around the world since the Boulder–based Beeck sisters lead the inaugural event in 2005. In 2009, actor Chevy Chase attended and was honored with an award. [14101] [14102]

The Shoot Out 24 Hour Filmmaking Festival

Founded in 2004, The Shoot Out 24 Hour Filmmaking Festival has attracted filmmakers and film lovers from across the Front Range with its annual festival in which filmmakers are challenged to make a short film within 24 hours using in-camera editing techniques only and including five of the eleven items required by the organizers. The Top 10 Films are screened and awarded prizes at the Historic Boulder Theater on the same weekend of the event. [14103] [14104]


Boulder is home to a variety of music, from classical to jazz to pop, and from informal street performances to concert music performed in historic Macky Auditorium.

Founded in 1958, the Boulder Philharmonic Orchestra is a critically acclaimed professional orchestra that offers dynamic programming under the leadership of its Music Director Michael Butterman. [14105]. In addition, every year during the second week of January, Boulder is the host city of Colorado MahlerFest, an annual celebration honoring Austrianmarker composer Gustav Mahler, on the University of Colorado at Bouldermarker campus. Each summer features the acclaimed Colorado Music Festival, a six-week classical music festival with professional musicians from around the world, at the historic Chautauqua Auditorium at the base of the Flatirons. The most recent addition to Boulder's classical music scene is the emerging Boulder Chamber Orchestra [14106]. Founded in 2004 by Bahman Saless, this group offers unique and alternative programming and outreach to the community.

Boulder is home to several choruses, including Ars Nova Singers, the Boulder Chorale, the Rocky Mountain Chorale, the Cantabile Singers, the Jubilate Sacred Singers, and the Renaissance Project

The Boulder Theater is located in downtown Boulder, just off the Pearl Street Mall.
Many world-class national and international musicians have played here.

Nick Forster of the bluegrass group Hot Rize tapes the environmental and musical radio program Etown Sunday evenings at the Boulder Theater.

On Wednesday nights from June through mid-August, local bands perform on the Pearl Street Mall just south of the Courthouse. Bands on the Bricks, as the event is called, features a different band each week, with styles ranging from zydeco to oldies, and bluegrass to funk. Buskers are frequently in downtown Boulder especially on warm days and weekends.

Boulder is home to a branch of the Revels organization ( which presents an annual Solstice production at the Boulder Theater. The local branch, called the Rocky Mountain Revels, formed in Boulder in 2001. The Rocky Mountain Revels is the local satellite for the Revels organization founded in Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1971, and is the only Revels troupe in the Intermountain West.

Singer-songwriter Wendy Woo grew up in Boulder. [14107] [14108]Jello Biafra of the Dead Kennedys is originally from Boulder, as are The String Cheese Incident, Leftover Salmon, Big Head Todd and the Monsters, Rose Hill Drive, Baldo Rex, 3OH!3, and The Samples. Jazz musician Chris Wood of Blue Note Records' Medeski, Martin and Wood grew up in Boulder. Al Jourgensen and Paul Barker of the industrial rock group Ministry went to school in Boulder. Award-winning blues musician Otis Taylor has lived in Boulder since 1967. Acoustic Junction, one of the original "Jam Bands" started in Boulder in the early 1990s. Acoustic Junction was lead by Boulder resident and much acclaimed singer/songwriter Reed McGregor Foehl.


Colorado Chautauqua

The Colorado Chautauquamarker has presented programs every summer since 1898 including lectures, music, cinema, adult education classes, and nondenominational sermons. Its grounds, including the historic Chautauqua Auditoriummarker, are located about one mile southwest of downtown Boulder, just south of the intersection of Ninth Street and Baseline Road. In recent years the Colorado Chautauqua has become a year-round operation.

Bolder Boulder

Boulder has hosted a 10 km road run, the “Bolder Boulder,” on Memorial Day, every year since 1979. The race involves over 50,000 runners, joggers, walkers, and wheelchair racers, making it one of the largest road races in the world. It has the largest non-marathon prize purse in road racing [[ media guide] (PDF)]. The race culminates at the University of Coloradomarker's Folsom Fieldmarker with a Memorial Day Tribute, “one of the largest Memorial Day gatherings in the United States” [14109]. Organizers have dedicated three starting waves to current and former members of the U.S. armed forces.
The Flatirons as seen from Fairview High School

Boulder Kinetics

From 1980 until 2007 local radio station KBCO and other corporations sponsored Kinetics, a race from the banks of Boulder Reservoir and back by human-powered vehicles timed on speed and judged for style. The idea for a kinetic sculpture race was imported from Ferndale, Californiamarker. Many nationally known live bands have played at Kinetics and the event has become a local tradition signalling the beginning of summer. [14110]

KBCO 97.3 Radio suspended Kinetics for 2008, citing decreasing attendance and increasing costs for the last several years. [14111]

In 2008 and 2009 the Kineticists Trials and Exhibition were organized by the participants. The 2008 event was held at the Twenty Ninth Streetmarker mall and the 2009 event was held on the [Harvest House Hotel] grounds. Preparations are being made for a water and land event beginning in 2010.

University of Colorado Events

The Colorado Shakespeare Festival is a summer festival of Shakespeare held at the outdoor Mary Rippon Theater on the University of Coloradomarker campus.

The Conference on World Affairs is an annual one-week conference featuring dozens of discussion panels on a variety of contemporary issues. Roger Ebert attends the conference every year and conducts his "Cinema Interruptus" lecture, spending many hours over a number of days closely analyzing one film. It was at the conference in 1996 that Ebert created the Boulder Pledge not to purchase anything offered through email spam. [14112]

Considered one of the top comprehensive university museums of natural history in the U.S., the University of Colorado Museum of Natural Historymarker, located on the University's Boulder campus, contains over four million biology, anthropology, and geology/paleontology research specimens. The Museum also sponsors lectures, classes, tours, and workshops for all ages and interests. Exhibits include fossils, animals of Colorado and the Rocky Mountain region, and ancient Southwestern cultures.

The Hiking Club at the University of Colorado at Bouldermarker is the longest-running student organization on campus, organizes member-run trips throughout Colorado and the Rocky Mountain Region for university students and affiliates.

The University also plays host to one of the largest 420 (April 20) events in the nation. Traditional held on CU's Farrand Field until the University refurbished the field to allow for greater usage for the University, as well as to discourage the annual gathering. The gathering was moved to the Norlin Quadrangle in 2007. Since the venue change the gathering has only grown in participants and acceptance in the city and on campus.

Happy Thursday Cruiser Ride

Every Thursday, a group of cruiser bike riders meet to ride their cycles on various streets, alleys and bike paths in an outpouring of creativity and love for bicycles, shouting "Happy Thursday!" to onlookers. Many dress up in costume for the occasion, and some also decorate and accessorize their cycles for the event. The number of participants varies greatly from week to week, peaking in the summer months of well over 500 riders; only a small group of 'Cold Weather Cruisers' ride during the colder months.

Nude Pumpkin Run

Starting in 1998, dozens of people have taken part in a Halloween run down the city's streets wearing only shoes and a hollowed-out pumpkin on their heads. In 2009, local police threatened participants with charges of indecent exposure and no naked runners were reported in official newscasts, although a few naked runners were observed by locals.


Buildings on the campus of the University of Colorado at Boulder

Public schools

The Boulder Valley School Districtmarker (BVSD) administers the public school system in Boulder, and also in the neighboring cities and towns of Lafayettemarker, Louisvillemarker, and Nederlandmarker. The two largest high schools (grades 9–12) in Boulder are Boulder High School and Fairview High Schoolmarker, both part of BVSD. The District also operates the smaller New Vista High School in the building formerly occupied by Baseline Middle School.

Boulder Valley administers several middle schools (grades 6–8) in Boulder. BVSD elementary schools (grades K–5) in Boulder include University Hill Elementary School and a number of others.

Charter schools

Charter schools (receiving public funding but under private management) within the city of Boulder include Preparatory High School (9–12), Summit Middle Schoolmarker (6–8), Horizons Alternative School (K–8), and Justice High School (9–12). The last is unusual in that it is operated in rented space in the Boulder County Justice Center, which also houses courtrooms, the sheriff's office, and the coroner's office.

Private schools

A variety of private high schools, middle schools and elementary schools operate in and near Boulder. Well-known private schools in the Boulder area include The Acorn School for Early Childhood Development(infant-age 6), Mountain Shadows Montessori School (preschool-6), Bixby School (K–5), September School (9-12), Jarrow Montessori School (K-6, the oldest Montessori school in Colorado), Bridge School (6–12), Broomfield Academy (3-12), Shining Mountain Waldorf School (K–12) in Boulder, Sacred Heart of Jesus, a K-8 Catholic school in Boulder, Alexander Dawson School (K–12) in Lafayette, The Patchwork School in Louisville (Pre-3), Catalyst and Rocky Mountain School for the Gifted and Creative (K–8) in Gunbarrelmarker, Boulder Country Day School also in Gunbarrel, and Hillside School, an alternative for children with learning disabilities.

Looking down on the campus of the University of Colorado at Boulder

Colleges, universities, science institutes

  • University of Colorado at Bouldermarker, public university which contributes roughly 46,000 residents (30,000 undergraduate students, 6,000 graduate students and 10,000 staff/faculty) to the population.

Private schools

  • Rivendell College private Christian Liberal Arts College
  • Boulder College of Massage Therapy
  • Ruseto College private two-year college for Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine
  • Southwest Acupuncture College private 2-3 year college
  • Culinary School of the Rockies
  • Homeopathy School of Colorado

Science institutes

Economy and industry

Major employers in and near Boulder include:[14113] [14114]


Mass Transit

Boulder has an extensive bus system operated by the Regional Transportation District (RTD). The HOP, SKIP, JUMP, BOUND, DASH and STAMPEDE routes run throughout the city and connect to nearby communities on a frequent basis, with departures every ten minutes during peak hours, Monday-Friday. Other routes, such as the 201, 203, 204, 205, 206, 208 and 209 depart every 15 to 30 minutes. Regional routes, traveling between nearby cities such as Longmont (BOLT, J), Golden (GS), and Denver (B/BX/DM/HX/S/T), as well as Denver International Airport (AB), are also available. There are over 100 scheduled buses that run between Boulder and Denver on weekdays. Boulder will be connected to downtown Denver with a BRT or Bus Rapid Transit route along US-36. This is being funded by FasTracks and construction is expected to begin in 2009 and to be completed in 2016. A commuter rail route is set to run through Boulder to Longmontmarker, with the station being on the intersection of 30th and Pearl Streets. Route, schedule and fare information is available on the RTD Web site at, or by calling their Telephone Information Center at 303-299-6000. Real time arrival information for the HOP route is available at Google also offers a transit trip planner for the Boulder-Denver region at

Beginning in 2014, commuter rail will travel between Longmont, Boulder and Denver, with stops in major communities along the way. This commuter rail line is funded by FasTracks, a transit improvement plan funded by a 0.4% increase in the sales tax throughout the Denver metro area. RTD, the developer of FasTracks, and the City of Boulder are planning a transit-oriented development near Pearl and 33rd Streets to accommodate a Boulder Fastracks station. The development will feature the relocated Boulder Railroad Depot, which may be returned to a transit-related use.


Boulder, well-known for its bicycle culture, boasts hundreds of miles of bike paths, lanes, and routes that interconnect to create a renowned network of bikeways usable year-round. Boulder has 74 bike and pedestrian underpasses that facilitate safer and uninterrupted travel throughout much of the city. The city offers a route-finding website that allows users to map personalized bike routes around the city[14120]. In 2008 the city was recognized by the League of American Bicyclists as a Platinum-level bicycle friendly community.

Walk and Bike Month is celebrated throughout June, with Bike to Work Day held on the last Wednesday in June. The event is presented by GO Boulder and is produced by Community Cycles. Begun in 1977 as Bike to Work Day, Boulder's annual celebration of biking is believed to be one of the oldest in the United States.

Growth management

Government preservation of open space around Boulder began with the Congress of the United States approving the allocation of 1,800 acres (7.3 km²) of mountain backdrop/watershed extending from South Boulder Creek to Sunshine Canyon in 1899.

Since then, Boulder has adopted a policy of controlled urban expansion. In 1959, city voters approved the "Blue Line" city-charter amendment which restricted city water service to altitudes below 5750 feet, in an effort to protect the mountain backdrop from development. In 1967, city voters approved a dedicated sales tax for the acquisition of open space in an effort to contain urban sprawl. In 1970, Boulder created a "comprehensive plan" that would dictate future zoning, transportation, and urban-planning decisions. Hoping to preserve residents' views of the mountains, in 1972, the city enacted an ordinance limiting the height of newly constructed buildings. A Historic-Preservation Code was passed in 1974, and a residential-growth management ordinance (the Danish Plan) in 1976. [14121] [14122]

Wildlife protection

Prairie Dogs enjoy special protection in Boulder.
The City of Boulder has created an Urban Wildlife Management Plan which sets policies for managing and protecting urban wildlife.[14123] Also, the city's parks department has a Conservation Team which monitors parks (including wetlands, lakes, etc) to protect ecosystems.[14124] From time to time, parks and hiking trails are closed to conserve or restore ecosystems.[14125]

Traditionally, Boulder has avoided the use of chemical pesticides for controlling the insect population. However, with the threat of West Nile Virus, the city began an integrative plan to control the mosquito population in 2003 that includes chemical pesticides. Residents can opt-out of the program by contacting the city and asking that their areas not be sprayed.[14126]

Under Boulder law, extermination of prairie dogs requires a permit. [14127]

Also in 2005, the city experimented with using goats for weed control in environmentally sensitive areas. Goats naturally consume diffuse knapweed and Canada thistle, and although the program was not as effective as it was hoped, goats will still be considered in the future weed control projects.[14128]


Boulder's main daily newspaper as of 2006, the Daily Camera, was founded in 1890 as the Boulder Camera, and became a daily newspaper the following year. Colorado Daily was started in 1892 as a university newspaper for CU-Boulder. Following many heated controversies over Colorado Daily's political coverage, it severed its ties to the university in 1971. Newspaper conglomerate Scripps acquired the Colorado Daily in 2005 after its acquisition of the Camera in 1997, leaving the Boulder Weekly as the only locally owned newspaper in Boulder.

Non-profit radio station KGNUmarker was founded in 1978 and commercial music station KBCO in 1977. KVCU, better known as Radio 1190, is another non-profit radio station run with the help of university-student volunteers. KVCU started broadcasting in 1998. Boulder hosted Boulder Free Radio (KBFR) from 2000 to 2005; one of the longest running pirate radio operations in the country.

Boulder is part of the Denvermarker market for television stations, and it also receives many radio stations based in Denver or Ft.marker Collinsmarker.

Paladin Press book/video publishers and Soldier of Fortune magazine both have their headquarters in Boulder.[14129][14130] Paladin Press was founded in September 1970 by Peder Lund and Robert K. Brown. In 1974, Lund bought out Brown's share of the press, and Brown moved on to found Soldier of Fortune magazine the following year.[14131]

Instituted in 1978, Boulder Magazine is a full-color, seasonal magazine that covers local events, outdoor activities and Boulder culture.

Boulder was one of the few cities in the U.S. to have a sustained underground (pirate) FM radio station. Called KBFR (Boulder Free Radio) it operated at 95.3FM and streamed live on the internet at It was operated from April 2000 to Jan of 2005 when its founders, under pressure from the FCC, took it off the air. At its peak it had over 50 DJ's, and had an international following via the Internet.


Notable births in Boulder include: John Fante (writer), Scott Carpenter (Project Mercury astronaut), Arleigh Burke (United States Navy Admiral, Chief of Naval Operations), Kristin Davis (Sex and the City actress), Tony Boselli (five-time Pro Bowl offensive tackle), and Dead Kennedys frontman Jello Biafra.

Chief Niwot or Left Hand, a tribal leader of the Arapaho, lived at the site of Boulder. In 1858 Captain Thomas Aikins and some would-be goldminers camped at present-day Setter's Park—in the midst of Arapaho territory. The chief and his people were camped at Valmont Butte: then and now a sacred site to the tribe. Niwot and his war party rode to the settler's camp whereupon he pronounced his legendary curse:

However, the captain and the chief later came to peaceful terms and avoided bloodshed. In 1864 Chief Niwot and many of his people died in the Sand Creek Massacremarker.

Experimental filmmaker Stan Brakhage (d. 2003) lived near Boulder from the mid-1960s until 2002, and taught several film courses at CU-Boulder. Allen Ginsberg (d.1997) and Anne Waldman helped to found the Jack Kerouac School of Disembodied Poetics at Naropa Universitymarker in Boulder.

George Gamow, theoretical physicist and cosmologist, discoverer of quantum tunnelling, worked at the University of Colorado at Bouldermarker from 1956 until his death in 1968. and was buried in Green Mountain Cemetery. The tallest building on the main campus of the University is named the Gamow Tower in his honor. In 1956, he was awarded the Kalinga Prize by UNESCOmarker for his work in popularizing science with his Mr. Tompkins... series of books (1939–1967), One Two Three ... Infinity, and other works.

Notable Boulder residents include Albert Bartlett, emeritus professor of physics and frequent lecturer on the dangers of compound growth, and also one of the principal backers of the Blue Line [14132] in the late 1950s. Boulder is also home to Paul Danish, author of the Danish Plan [14133] of residential growth control and editor and publisher of the former weekly Boulder County newspaper Town and Country Review. Jon Krakauer, bestselling author, known for his Mount Everest exposé Into Thin Air, lives in Boulder. Climber and founder of Neptune Mountaineering, Gary Neptune, was a Boulder resident during his successful summit of Mount Everest in 1983.

Nobel prize winners and University professors Eric Cornell, and Thomas Cech live in Boulder. John L. Hall, Nobel prize winner, NIST senior fellow and Lecturer at the University of Colorado lives in Boulder.

Jello Biafra, vocalist for 1980s punk band Dead Kennedys, grew up in Boulder, and his parents still live in the city.

Jazz musician Chris Wood of Blue Note Records' Medeski, Martin and Wood grew up in Boulder. Musician Stuart Davis, originally from Minnesotamarker, lives in Boulder. Otis Taylor is a Boulder blues musician who plays electric banjo, a Grammy award winner.

Actress Jessica Biel from the TV show 7th Heaven was reared in Boulder. Actress Sheryl Lee who is best known for playing the role of Laura Palmer in David Lynch's Twin Peaks was born in Boulder and began acting with a role in a Fairview High Schoolmarker play. Actresses Sheree J. Wilson of Walker, Texas Ranger and Joan Van Ark of Knot's Landing grew up in Boulder.

Boulder was also the home of JonBenét Ramsey when she was murdered, late on December 25 or early on December 26, in 1996. The body of the six-year-old was found on December 26 in the basement of her home on 15th Street.

The professional wrestler Big Van Vader (Leon White) was born in Boulder, was an offensive lineman for the Colorado Buffaloes football team in the 1970s, [14134] and sometimes wore a CU T-shirt when he came to the ring in street clothes.

Screenwriter and filmmaker John August (Go, Charlie's Angels) is also originally from Boulder, and often talks of it fondly on his blog.

Erin Viner (née Luckow), Anchor / Correspondent for the IBA News English Television News from Israel, was raised in Boulder, and the Female President at Boulder High School. Erindelivered the keynote speech at the 2007 Boulder High Commencement Address (her 30th graduation anniversary), whereupon she delivered scathing commentary regarding the current controversy over the Bill O'Reilly / Dan Caplis condemnation of the World Conference of World Affairs.

Joe Rollins (1918-2008), a prominent lawyer in Houstonmarker and Austinmarker, Texasmarker, retired to Boulder in 2004.

Cyclist Davis Phinney was born and raised in Boulder.

Frank Shorter, 1972 Munich Olympics marathon gold medalist, lives in Boulder.

Dave Scott, six-time winner of the Ironman Triathlon, lives in Boulder.

Lead singer of The Fray, Isaac Slade was also born here.

The group members of 3OH!3 grew up here.

Andrew Ault now resides in Boulder.

Matt Hasselbeck, NFL player with the Green Bay Packers and Seattle Seahawks, was born in Boulder.

Georg Gärtner aka Dennis Whiles ('Hitler's last soldier') now lives in Denver.


One of the most popular sections of Boulder is the famous Pearl Street Mall, home to numerous shops and restaurants. This four-block pedestrian mall is a social hotspot in Boulder, with dozens of restaurants of all kinds and specialty stores that include artisan shops and unique gadget shops. In the summer and on weekends, many street shows and acts can be found throughout the mall, along with street vendors and henna tattoo artists.

Boulder's traditional Downtown area, including the Pearl Street Mall, is in the western part of present-day Boulder. During the 1950s and 1960s, the city grew to the east, since the west side is bounded by the foothills. Downtown is host to a variety of restaurants, bars, and boutique stores. However, it has few grocery, hardware, or department stores and is therefore more of a "shopping destination" than a neighborhood with stores supporting the local population.

The Twenty Ninth Streetmarker retail district opened in October 2006, located in central Boulder on the site of the former Crossroads Mall, east of Downtown.

Near the Pearl Street Mall the Farmers' Market opens every Saturday morning and Wednesday evening, April through October on 13th Street next to Central Park. The market was started in 1986 by regional farmers.[14135]

Sister cities

Boulder has six official sister cities:

Dushanbe presented its distinctive Dushanbe Tea House as a gift to Boulder in 1987. It was completed in Tajikistan in 1990, then shipped to Boulder where it was reassembled and opened to the public in 1998 [14136]. More information about Boulder's sister city relationships can be found at Boulder's official website.

In popular culture

[[Image:MorkMindyHouse.jpg|thumb|right|1619 Pine Street was used for the external shots of Mindy's house on the TV show Mork & Mindy The same house was later used for exterior shots on the series Perfect Strangers, where the cousins Larry and Balki lived with their wives..]]Boulder was a setting for Stephen King's book The Stand (1978), as the gathering point for the survivors of the superflu. King lived in Boulder for a little less than a year, beginning in the fall of 1974, and wrote The Shining (1977) during this period. Stephen Walsh White has written a series of mystery books using Boulder as the primary backdrop. Marianne Wesson, an author and professor at the University of Colorado Law School, has also set several of her mystery novels in Boulder.

The sitcom Mork & Mindy (1978–1982) was set in Boulder, with 1619 Pine St. serving as the exterior shot of Mindy's home, and the New York Deli, a restaurant on the Pearl Street Mall until its closure in 1999, was also featured prominently. The creators of the animated show South Park (Trey Parker & Matt Stone) attended the University of Colorado at Bouldermarker, which makes occasional appearances in South Park.

1619 Pine was later used for exterior shots on the series Perfect Strangers, where the cousins Larry and Balki lived with their wives.

Some houses and the National Center for Atmospheric Researchmarker building overlooking the town were used in the filming of Woody Allen's Sleeper. The First Christian Church of Boulder appeared in the exterior shot of the wedding scene in About Schmidt (2002), although the interior shots were filmed elsewhere. The Pearl Street Mall was a location for the filming of the movie Catch and Release, as were houses around Boulder and storefronts on "The Hill" (University Hill).

In 1968, Boulder became a hippie haven with the popular culture moving from Berkeley, Californiamarker to Boulder and back. Numerous '60s music personalities have lived in or near Boulder. Celestial Seasonings Tea was founded and created in Boulder. Boulder continues to be the home of innovative food companies. The made-for-TV movie "Perfect Murder, Perfect Town: JonBenét and the City of Boulder", based on the book of the same title, was released in 2000. It dramatized the investigation into the murder of JonBenét Ramsey. It was filmed on location in Boulder.

Boulder music group 3OH!3 is named after the 303 area code. Their music video "Holler Til You Pass Out" takes place at Mesa Elementary and Fairview High School in Boulder.

The American television drama Make It or Break It is set in Boulder.

See also


External links

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