The Boxer Rebellion
, more properly called the
, or the Righteous Harmony
( ) in Chinese, was a violent
movement by the
" (Yihe tuan
), or "Righteous Fists of Harmony"
or "Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists" (known as "Boxers"
in English), between 1898 and 1901. In response to imperialist expansion, growth of cosmopolitan influences, and missionary evangelism,
and against the backdrop of state fiscal crisis and natural
disasters, local organizations began to emerge in Shandong in 1898. At first, they were relentlessly suppressed
by the Manchu-led Qing Dynasty of China.
Later, the Qing Dynasty tried to
expel western influence from China. Under the slogan "Support the
Qing, destroy the foreign" (扶清灭洋), Boxers across North China
attacked mission compounds.
In June 1900, Boxer fighters, lightly armed or unarmed, gathered in
to besiege the foreign embassies. On
June 21, the conservative faction of the Imperial Court induced the
Empress Dowager, who ruled in the emperor’s name, to declare war on
the foreign powers that had diplomatic representation in Beijing.
Diplomats, foreign civilians, soldiers and some Chinese Christians
retreated to the Legation
where they held out for fifty-five days until the
20,000 troops to their rescue.
The Boxer Protocol
of September 7,
1901 ended the uprising and provided for severe punishments,
including an indemnity of 67 million pounds.
Dynasty was greatly weakened, and was eventually overthrown
by the 1911 revolution, which led to
the establishment of the Chinese
Origins of the Boxers
Society of Righteous and
Harmonious Fists( ), known by foreigners as the
Boxers, was a secret society founded in Shandong, located in
the North province of China.
Westerners came to call
well-trained, athletic young men "Boxers" due to the martial arts
they practiced. Despite the
obvious differences between Wushu
Western pugilistic boxing
, the training for
unarmed combat took on the same name to the Europeans. The Boxers
believed that they could, through training, diet, martial arts, and
prayer, perform extraordinary feats, such as flight, and could
become immune to swords and bullets. Further, they popularly
claimed that millions of "spirit soldiers" would descend from the
heavens and assist them in purifying China from foreign influences.
Boxers recruited local farmers and other workers made desperate by
disastrous floods and focused blame on both Christian missionaries
and Chinese Christians. Some Chinese Christians were recent
converts and some had been born into the faith, but missionaries
secured special protection for them using the shelter of Extraterritoriality
. Aggression toward
missionaries and Christians gained the attention of foreign (mainly
After the Hundred Days Reform failed, the conservative Empress Dowager Cixi
seized power and
put the reformist Guangxu Emperor
into house arrest. Western countries were sympathetic to the
imprisoned emperor, and opposed Cixi's plan to replace the Guangxu
emperor. Empress Dowager Cixi decided to use Boxers to expel
Western influences from China; meanwhile, the Boxers would be
weakened by Western forces. Then the Boxer slogan became “support
the Qing, destroy the Foreign." (扶清灭洋) 
Beginnings of conflict
Anger over extraterritoriality
One of the first signs of unrest appeared in a small village in
Shandong province, where there had been a long dispute over the
property rights of a temple between locals and the Roman Catholic
authorities. The Catholics
claimed that the temple was originally a church abandoned after the
banned Christianity in
China in 1715. The local court ruled in favor of the church, and
angered villagers who claimed the temple for rituals. After the
local authorities turned over the temple to the Catholics, the
villagers (led by the Boxers short) attacked the church
The exemption of missionaries
from many laws further alienated local Chinese. In 1899, with the
help of the French Minister in Peking, the missionaries obtained an
edict granting official rank to each order in the Roman Catholic
hierarchy. Local priests, by means of this official status, were
able to support their people in legal disputes or family feuds and
go over the heads of local officials. After the German
government took over territory in Shandong, many
Chinese feared that the missionaries, and by extension all
Christians, were part of an imperialist attempt to "carve the
melon," that is, to divide China and colonize the pieces
The early years of the movement's growth coincided with the
Hundred Days Reform
September 1898). They persuaded the Guangxu Emperor
to institute reforms which
alienated many officials by their sweeping nature and led the
to step in
and reverse the reforms. Making matters worse, massive floods in
some areas and drought in others created poverty and
Commitment of Imperial Army
Now with a majority of conservatives in the Imperial Court, the
Empress Dowager changed her long policy of suppressing Boxers,
issuing edicts in defense of the Boxers, which drew heated
complaints from foreign diplomats in January 1900. In June 1900,
the Boxers, now joined by elements of the Imperial army, attacked
foreign compounds in the cities of Tianjin and Beijing.
legations of the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy,
Austria-Hungary, Spain, Belgium, the Netherlands, the United
States, Russia, and Japan were all located on the Beijing Legation Quarter close to
City in Beijing.
The legations were hurriedly
linked into a fortified compound that became a refuge for foreign
citizens in Beijing. The Spanish and Belgian legations were a few
streets away, and their staff were able to arrive safely at the
compound. The German legation on the other side of the city was
stormed before the staff could escape. When the Envoy for the
German Empire, Klemens Freiherr von
, was murdered on June 20, by a Manchurian man, the
foreign powers demanded redress. On June 21, Empress Dowager Cixi
declared war against all Western powers, but regional governors,
including Li Hongzhang
and Zhang Zhidong
, quietly refused to cooperate.
Shanghai's Chinese elite supported the provincial governors of
southeastern China in resisting the Imperial declaration of war.
Later many peasants took up arms and joined the Boxers' cause, but
were also defeated.
Massacre of missionaries
The Taiyuan Massacre
was the mass
killing of foreign Christian missionaries and of local church
members, including children, from July 1900, and was one of the
bloodier and more infamous parts of the Boxer Rebellion. 222
Chinese Eastern Orthodox Christians were also murdered, along with
182 Protestant missionaries and 500 Chinese Protestants known as
the China Martyrs of 1900
Catholic missionaries and 18,000 Chinese Catholics were
The Missionary Herald
normally published letters and
telegrams sent by priests and their families in Manchu Qing
dynasty, in Shanxi province, Taiyuan city. In December 1900, after
incrementally more ominous monthly reports, the Missionary
broke five-month-old news to its readers: "the entire
mission staff in the Province of Shanxi has perished". At the end
of June 1900, priests and their families had been lured out of
hiding and cast into prison, then executed by the Manchu officials.
The Taiyuan missionaries fled into a co-worker's house because
Boxers were burning churches and houses, killing Christians and
foreigners. Three days later, the Governor sent four deputies with
soldiers, "promising to escort them in safety to the coast".
Brought instead to a house near the Governor’s residence, they were
then "taken to the open space in front of the Governor’s residence,
and stripped to the waist, as usual with those beheaded".
In 2005, British Professor Henry Hart released a book, Lost in
the Gobi Desert
, to commemorate his great-grandfather's
efforts to save the life of western missionaries and their Chinese
followers from the hands of the Boxer rebels.
Boxer siege of Beijing
Italian mounted infantry in
The compound in Beijing remained under siege from Boxer forces from
20 June to 14 August. Under the command of the British minister to
China, Claude Maxwell
, the legation staff and security personnel defended
the compound with one old muzzle-loaded cannon; it was nicknamed
the "International Gun" because the barrel was British, the
carriage was Italian, the shells were Russian, and the crew was
During the defence of the Legations, a small Japanese force of 1
officer and 24 sailors commanded by Colonel Shiba
, distinguished itself in
several ways. Of particular note was that it had the almost unique
distinction of suffering greater than 100% casualties. This was
possible because a great many of the Japanese troops were wounded,
entered into the casualty lists, then returned to the line of
battle only to be wounded once more and again entered in the
Foreign media described the fighting going on in Beijing, as well
as the alleged torture and murder of captured foreigners. While it
is true that thousands of Chinese Christians were massacred in
north China, many horrible stories that appeared in world
newspapers were based on the actual murder of men, women, and
children within the foreign legation. Nonetheless a wave of
anti-Chinese sentiment arose in Europe, the United States and
Japan. The poorly-armed Boxer rebels were unable to break into the
compound, which was relieved by an international army of the
Torching of Chinese dwellings
On 23 June 1900, the Boxer rebels started setting fire to an area
south of the British Legation, using it as a "frightening tactic"
to attack the defenders. And Hanlin
, a complex of courtyards and buildings that housed "the
quintessence of Chinese scholarship ... the oldest and richest
library in the world" (Yongle Dadian
was just nearby.Sir Claude MacDonald, the commander-in-chief, had
become worried that the Boxer rebels might try to burn the Hanlin Yuan
, the "buildings at some point being
only an arm's length from the British building walls."
On 24 June 1900, when the winds shifted, the unanticipated
happened: Hanlin Yuan's group of building had caught fire, and the
fire was beginning to spread further.Eyewitness' accounts:
- "The old buildings burned like tinder with a roar which
drowned the steady rattle of musketry as Tung Fu-shiang's Moslems
fired wildly through the smoke from upper windows."
- "Some of the incendiaries were shot down, but the buildings
were an inferno and the old trees standing round them blazed like
- "An attempt was made to save the famous Yang Lo Ta
Tien [now spelled Yongle Dadian],
but heaps of volumes had been destroyed, so the attempt was
given up." -eyewitness, Lancelot Giles, son of Herbert A.
The Manchu authority blamed the British for setting the fire as a
defensive measure, whereas the British pointed to the direction of
the wind, and claimed that it was either the Boxer rebels or the
ordinary Manchu soldiers who "set fire to the Hanlin, working
systematically from one courtyard to the next." Rescued from among
the burning buildings were portions of the Yongle Encyclopedia
, and other
Arrival of reinforcements
The Eight-Nation Alliance with their
Foreign navies started building up their presence along the
northern China coast from the end of April 1900. On 31 May, before the
sieges had started and upon the request of foreign embassies in
Beijing, an International force of 435 navy troops from eight
countries were dispatched by train from Takou to the
capital (75 French, 75 Russian, 75 British, 60 U.S., 50 German, 40
Italian, 30 Japanese, 30 Austrian); these troops joined the
legations and were able to contribute to their defense.
rebellion was ultimately quashed by the
Eight-Nation Alliance of
Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the
United Kingdom and the United States.
situation worsened, a second International force of 2,000 marines
under the command of the British Vice-Admiral Edward Seymour, the largest contingent
being British, was dispatched from Takou to Beijing
on 10 June.
The troops were transported by train from Takou
to Tianjin with the agreement of the Chinese government, but the
railway between Tianjin and Beijing had been severed. Seymour
however resolved to move forward and repair the rail or such as the
train, or progress on foot as necessary, keeping in mind that the
distance between Tianjin and Beijing was only 120 kilometers.
After Tianjin however, the convoy was surrounded, the railway
behind and in front of them was destroyed, and they were attacked
from all parts by Chinese irregulars and even Chinese governmental
troops. News arrived on 18 June regarding attacks on foreign
legations. Seymour decided to continue advancing, this time along
the Pei-Ho river, towards Tong-Tcheou
25 kilometers from Beijing. By the 19th, they had to abandon their
efforts due to progressively stiffening resistance, and started to
retreat southward along the river with over two hundred wounded.
Commandeering four civilian Chinese junk
along the river, they loaded all their wounded and remaining
supplies onto them and pulled them along with ropes from the
riverbanks. By this point, they were very low on food, ammunition
and medical supplies. Luckily, they then happened upon The Great Hsi-Ku Arsenal
, a hidden
Qing munitions cache that the Western Powers had no knowledge of
until then. They immediately captured and occupied it, discovering
not only German Krupp-made field guns, but rifles with millions of
rounds in ammunition, along with millions of pounds of rice and
ample medical supplies.
Admiral Seymour returning to Tianjin
with his wounded men, on 26 June.
There they dug in and awaited rescue. A Chinese servant was able to
infiltrate through the Boxer and Qing lines, informing the Western
Powers of their predicament. Surrounded and attacked nearly around
the clock by Qing troops and Boxers, they were at the point of
being overrun. On 25 June, however, a regiment composed of
1800 men, (900 Russian troops from Port-Arthur, 500 British seamen, with an ad hoc mix of other
assorted western troops) finally arrived.
mounted field guns and setting fire to any munitions that they
could not take (an estimate £3 million worth), they departed the
Hsi-Ku Arsenal in the early morning of 26 June, with the loss of 62
killed and 228 wounded.
With a difficult military situation in Tianjin, and a total
breakdown of communications between Tianjin and Beijing, the allied
nations took steps to reinforce their military presence
significantly. On 17 June, they took the Taku Forts commanding the
approaches to Tianjin, and from there brought increasing numbers of
troops on shore.
The international force, with British Lieutenant-General Alfred Gaselee
acting as the commanding
officer, called the Eight-Nation
, eventually numbered 55,000, with the main contingent
being composed of Japanese soldiers: Japanese (20,840), Russian
(13,150), British (12,020), French (3,520), U.S.(3,420), German
(900), Italian (80), Austro-Hungarian
(75), and anti-Boxer
Chinese troops. The international force finally captured Tianjin on
14 July under the command of the Japanese colonel Kuriya
, after one day of fighting.
exploits during the campaign were the seizure of the Taku Forts commanding the approaches to Tianjin, and the
boarding and capture of four Chinese destroyers by Roger
Marines at the Siege of Beijing
The march from Tianjin to Beijing of about 120 km consisted of
about 20,000 allied troops. On 4 August there were approximately
70,000 Imperial troops with anywhere from 50,000 to 100,000 Boxers
along the way. They only encountered minor resistance and the
battle was engaged in Yangcun
30 km outside Tianjin, where the 14th Infantry Regiment
of the U.S.
and British troops led the assault. However, the weather was a
major obstacle, extremely humid with temperatures sometimes
The International force reached and occupied Beijing on 14 August.
was able to play a secondary, but significant role in suppressing
the Boxer Rebellion largely due to the presence of U.S. ships and
troops deployed in the Philippines since the U.S. conquest of the Spanish American and Philippine-American War.
the U.S. military, the suppression of the Boxer Rebellion was known
as the China Relief
End of the siege
"The Fall of the Peking Castle" from
English and Japanese soldiers assaulting Chinese troops.
The siege was finally ended when Indian troops of the international
expeditionary force arrived under the command of German general
Alfred Graf von Waldersee
The main German force arrived too late to take part in the
fighting, but undertook several punitive expeditions against the
Boxers. Troops from most nations engaged in plunder, looting and
rape. German troops in particular were criticized for their
enthusiasm in carrying out Kaiser Wilhelm II’s words. On 27 July
1900, when Wilhelm II spoke
departure ceremonies for the German contingent to the relief force
in China, an impromptu, but intemperate reference to the Hun
invaders of continental Europe would later be
resurrected by British propaganda to mock Germany during World War I
- "Just as the Huns a thousand years ago, under the
leadership of Attila, gained a reputation by virtue of which they
still live in historical tradition, so may the name Germany become
known in such a manner in China, that no Chinese will ever again
dare to look askance at a German."
In order to provide restitution to missionaries and Christian
families whose property had been destroyed, American troops were
guided through villages by the missionary William Ament
. Boxers, or at least those
identified as Boxers, were punished, even executed, and their
property confiscated. When Mark Twain
read of this expedition, he wrote a series of scathing attacks on
bandits of the American Board
Russian troops in Beijing
On 7 September 1901, the Qing court was compelled to sign the
" also known as Peace
Agreement between the Eight-Nation
and China. The protocol ordered the execution of ten
high-ranking officials linked to the outbreak, and other officials
who were found guilty for the slaughter of Westerners in
China was fined war reparations
of fine silver (1 tael = 1.2
troy ounces) for the loss that it caused. The reparation would be
paid within 39 years, and would be 982,238,150 taels with interests
(4% per year) included. To help meet the payment, it was agreed to
increase the existing tariff from an actual 3.18% to 5%, and to tax
hitherto duty-free merchandise. The sum of reparation was estimated
by the Chinese population (roughly 450 million in 1900), to let
each Chinese pay one tael. Chinese custom income and salt tax were
enlisted as guarantee of the reparation. Russia got 30% of the
reparation, Germany 20%, France 15.75%, Britain 11.25%, Japan 7.7%
and the US share was 7%.
Foreign armies in Beijing
China paid 668,661,220 taels of silver from 1901 to 1939. The
British signatory of the Protocol was Sir Ernest Satow
A large portion of the reparations paid to the United States was
diverted to pay for the education of Chinese students in U.S.
universities under the Boxer Rebellion
Indemnity Scholarship Program
. To prepare the students chosen
for this program an institute was established to teach the English language
and to serve as a
preparatory school for the course of study chosen. When the first of
these students returned to China they undertook the teaching of
subsequent students, from this institute was born Tsinghua
Some of the reparation due to Britain was
later earmarked for a similar program.
The China or Inland Mission lost more members than any other
missionary agency:58 adults and 21 children were killed. However,
in 1901, when the allied nations were demanding compensation from
the Chinese government, Hudson Taylor
refused to accept payment for loss of property or life in order to
demonstrate the meekness of Christ to the Chinese.
Long term results
The western countries stopped short of finally colonizing China.
From the Boxer rebellions, the westerners learned that the best way
to govern China was through the Chinese dynasty, instead of direct
dealing with the Chinese people (as a saying “The people are afraid
of officials, the officials are afraid of foreigners, and the
foreigners are afraid of the people" (老百姓怕官，官怕洋鬼子，洋鬼子怕老百姓)).
Dowager Cixi used Boxers to fight westerners largely because
western countries sympathized with the Guangxu Emperor
, who had been house-arrested
after an aborted reformation. However, eventually, as an unwritten
agreement, Dowager Cixi was allowed to stay in power, since
comparatively, Cixi could use her influence to suppress the Chinese
anti-western sentiment better than the weak and ineffectual Guangxu
Emperor. The Guangxu Emperor spent the rest of his life in
In October 1900, Russia was busy occupying much of the northeastern
province of Manchuria, a move which threatened Anglo-American
hopes of maintaining
what remained of China's territorial integrity and an openness to
commerce under the Open Door
. This behavior led ultimately to the Russo-Japanese War
, where Russia was
defeated at the hands of an increasingly confident Japan.
Among the Imperial powers, Japan gained prestige due to its
military aid in suppressing the Boxer Rebellion and was now seen as
. Its clash with Russia
over Liaodong and other provinces in eastern Manchuria, long
considered by the Japanese as part of their sphere of influence
, led to the
Russo-Japanese War when two years of negotiations broke down in
February 1904. Germany earned itself the derogatory moniker "Hun"
at the beginning of World War I when intrepid propagandists
resurrected Wilhelm II’s 1900 speech. The Russian Lease of the
Liaodong (1898) was confirmed.
American troops during the Boxer
The effect on China was a weakening of the dynasty as well as a
weakened national defense. The structure was temporarily sustained
by the Europeans.
Besides the compensation, Empress
reluctantly started some reformations despite her
previous view. The Imperial
system for government service was eliminated; as a
result, the classical system of
was replaced with a Westernized system
that led to a university
degree. After the death of Empress Dowager Cixi and the Guangxu Emperor
(on the same day,
mysteriously) in 1908, the Regent (the Guangxu Emperor's brother)
launched reformation. However, these efforts seemed to be too late.
The revolutionaries within Han Chinese could not wait. The imperial
government's humiliating failure to defend China against the
foreign powers contributed to the growth of nationalist resentment
against the "foreigner" Qing dynasty (who were descendants of the
Manchu conquerors of China). By the chance that the Qing Dynasty became weakened by the war, the 1911 revolution led by Sun Yat-sen, ended the last dynasty in Chinese
Conflicting depictions of Boxers
Views differ as to whether the Boxers are better seen as
anti-imperialist or as futile opponents of inevitable change. In
the People's Republic of China, orthodox textbooks analyze the
Boxer movement as an anti-imperialist patriotic peasant movement
whose failure was due to the lack of leadership from the modern
working class. In recent decades, however, large scale projects of
village interviews and explorations of archival sources have led
historians to take a more nuanced view. Some Western scholars, such
as Joseph Esherick, have seen the movement as anti-imperialist,
while others view this interpretation as anachronistic in that the
Chinese nation had not been formed and the Boxers were more
concerned with regional issues. Esherick comments that "confusion
about the Boxer Uprising is not simply a matter of popular
misconceptions," for "there is no major incident in China's modern
history on which the range of professional interpretation is so
great.". Paul Cohen's recent history includes a survey of "the
Boxers as myth," showing how their memory was used in changing ways
in twentieth century China from the New Culture Movement
to the Cultural Revolution
Westerners shown as pig and goat and
being executed by Manchu officials.
In 2006 Yuan Weishi
, a professor of
philosophy at Zhongshan
in Guangzhou, China published an essay titled
Modernisation and History Textbooks
, criticizing the
official theme of government issued middle schools history
textbooks, claiming that they contain numbers of non-neutral
historical interpretations. Yuan wrote that these "criminal actions
brought unspeakable suffering to the nation and its people! These
are all facts that everybody knows, and it is a national shame that
the Chinese people cannot forget." For many years, history text
books had been lacking in neutrality in presenting the Boxer
Rebellion as a "magnificent feat of patriotism", and not presenting
the view that the majority of the Boxer rebels were both violent
and xenophobic. Professor Yuan stated that Manchu rulers did not
comply with signed international treaties, and that it is wrong to
blame "the Opium Wars of the mid-1800s entirely on foreign
nations". On the other hand, such views are criticized and
considered to be unfair, un-neutral and logically absurd by some
people and Yuan Weishi is even called Hanjian (漢奸, national
betrayer) by some Chinese people.
The philosopher Tang Junyi
Boxer Uprising as a religious war between the Chinese
. In fact, facing what they viewed
as an aggressive religious invasion by Christianity, Chinese
Righteous Harmony Society had the slogan "Defend Chinese Religion
(保華教, or 保漢教) and Get Rid of Foreign Religion (of Christianity)
(滅洋教)." Some scholars consider it to be a war against the invasion
of China by the foreign religion of Christianity.
- The 1963 film 55 Days at
Peking was a dramatization of the Boxer rebellion.
Spain, it needed thousands of extras, and the company
sent scouts throughout Spain to hire as many as they could
- In 1975, Hong Kong's Shaw Brothers
studio produced the film Boxer Rebellion(八國聯軍, Pa kuo
lien chun) under director Chang Cheh with
one of the highest budget to tell a sweeping story of
disillusionment and revenge. It depicted followers of the Boxer
clan being duped into believing they were impervious to attacks by
firearms. The film starred Alexander
Fu Sheng, Chi Kuan Chun, Wang
Lung-Wei and Richard
- The novel Moment In
Peking by Lin Yutang, opens
during the Boxer Rebellion, and provides a child's-eye view of the
turmoil through the eyes of the protagonist.
- The novel The
Palace of Heavenly Pleasure, by Adam Williams, describes
the experiences of a small group of western missionaries, traders
and railway engineers in a fictional town in Northern China shortly
before and during the Boxer Rebellion.
- Parts I and II of C. Y. Lee's China Saga (1987) involve
events leading up to and during the Boxer Rebellion, revolving
around a character named Fong Tai.
- The horror play La Dernière torture (The Ultimate
Torture), written by André de
Lorde and Eugène Morel in 1904
for the Grand Guignol theater (just
four years following the events depicted), is set during the Boxer
Rebellion, in the French area of the fortified legation compound,
specifically on 22 July 1900, the thirty-second day of the Boxers'
siege of the compound.
- The Last
Empress, by Anchee Min,
describes the long reign of the Empress Dowager Cixi in which the siege
of the legations is one of the climax in the novel.
- The Douglas Reeman novel The
First to Land, part of the Blackwood saga, depicts an officer
of Royal Marines during the siege of
- The novel Fenwick Travers and the Years of Empire by
Raymond M. Saunders depicts American antihero Fenwick Travers taking an active role in the
- Angel and Buffy the Vampire
Slayer features the Boxer Rebellion during connected
flashback scenes of Angel's and Spike's past respectively.
- China Under the Empress Dowager by Bland and Backhouse, 1911,
including The Diary of His Excellency Ching Shan: Being a Chinese
Account of the Boxer Rebellion.
- The Diamond Age or, A Young
Lady's Illustrated Primer, by Neal
Stephenson, includes a quasi-historical re-telling of the Boxer
Rebellion as an integral component of the novel.
- The 2007 Peter Watt Novel The Stone Dragon tells the
story of a Chinese-Australian importation magnate who travels to
Pekin to attempt to rescue his daughter, who has been taken captive
by the boxer rebels.
- Brandt, Nat (1994). Massacre in Shansi. Syracuse U.
Press. ISBN 0815602820, ISBN 1583483470 (Pbk).
- Chen, Shiwei. "Change and Mobility: the Political Mobilization
of the Shanghai Elites in 1900." Papers on Chinese History
1994 3(spr): 95-115.
- Cohen, Paul A. (1997). History in Three Keys: The Boxers as
Event, Experience, and Myth Columbia University Press.
- Cohen, Paul A. "The Contested Past: the Boxers as History and
Myth." Journal of Asian Studies 1992 51(1): 82-113. Issn:
- Elliott, Jane. "Who Seeks the Truth Should Be of No Country:
British and American Journalists Report the Boxer Rebellion, June
1900." American Journalism 1996 13(3): 255-285. Issn:
- Esherick, Joseph W. (1987). The Origins of the Boxer
Uprising University of California Press. ISBN
- Fleming, Peter. The Siege at Peking. New York: Dorset
Press. 1990 (originally published 1959). ISBN 0-88029-462-0
- Harrison, Henrietta. "Justice on Behalf of Heaven." History
Today (2000) 50(9): 44-51. Issn: 0018-2753.
George (1993). The Boxer Rebellion, The Fifth
Wellington Lecture, University of Southampton, University of
Southampton. ISBN 0854325166.
- Hsu, Immanuel C.Y. (1999). The rise of modern China, 6
ed. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195125045.
- Hunt, Michael H. "The Forgotten Occupation: Peking, 1900–1901."
Pacific Historical Review 48 (4) (November 1979):
- Preston, Diana (2000). The Boxer Rebellion. Berkley
Books, New York. ISBN 0-425-18084-0. online edition
- Preston, Diana. "The Boxer Rising." Asian Affairs
(2000) 31(1): 26-36. ISSN 0306-8374.
- Purcell, Victor (1963). The Boxer Uprising: A background
study. online edition
- Seagrave, Sterling (1992).
Dragon Lady: The Life and Legend of the Last Empress of
China Vintage Books, New York. ISBN 0-679-73369-8. Challenges
the notion that the Empress-Dowager used the Boxers. She is
- Spence, Johnathon D.. "The Search for Modern China" 2nd ed..
New York: Norton, 1999.
- Tiedemann, R. G. "Boxers, Christians and the Culture of
Violence in North China." Journal of Peasant Studies 1998
25(4): 150-160. ISSN 0306-6150.
- Warner, Marina (1993). The Dragon Empress The Life and
Times of Tz'u-hsi, 1835-1908, Empress Dowager of China.
Vintage. ISBN 0-09-916591-0
- Eva Jane Price. China journal, 1889-1900: an American
missionary family during the Boxer Rebellion, (1989). ISBN
0-684-19851-8; see Susanna Ashton, "Compound Walls: Eva Jane
Price's Letters from a Chinese Mission, 1890-1900."
Frontiers 1996 17(3): 80-94. ISSN: 0160-9009.