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Map of the Brahmaputra
The Brahmaputra, also called Tsangpo-Brahmaputra, is a trans-boundary river and one of the major rivers of Asia.

From its origin in southwestern Tibet as the Yarlung Zangbo River, it flows across southern Tibet to break through the Himalayasmarker in great gorges and into Arunachal Pradeshmarker where it is known as Dihangmarker. It flows southwest through the Assam Valley as Brahmaputra and south through Bangladeshmarker as the Jamuna (not to be mistaken with Yamunamarker of Indiamarker). There it merges with the Gangesmarker to form a vast delta. About 1,800 miles (2,900 km) long, the river is an important source for irrigation and transportation. Its upper course was long unknown, and its identity with the Yarlung Tsangpo was only established by exploration in 1884-86. This river is often called Tsangpo-Brahmaputra river. The average depth of river is and maximum depth is .In Bangladesh the river merges with the Ganges and splits into two: the Padma and Meghna River. When it merges with the Ganges it forms the world's largest delta, the Sunderbansmarker. The Sunderbans is known for tigers, crocodiles and mangroves.While most Indian and Bangladeshi rivers bear female names, this river has a rare male name, as it means "son of Brahma" in Sanskrit (putra means "son").

The Brahmaputra is navigable for most of its length. The lower part reaches are sacred to Hindus. The river is prone to catastrophic flooding in spring when the Himalayan snows melt. It is also one of the few rivers in the world that exhibit a tidal bore.

River course


The Yarlung Tsangpo originates in the Jima Yangzong glacier near Mount Kailashmarker in the northern Himalayas. It then flows east for about , at an average height of , and is thus the highest of the major rivers in the world. At its easternmost point, it bends around Mt.marker Namcha Barwamarker, and forms the Yarlung Tsangpo Canyon which is considered the deepest in the world.

Assam and adjoining region

As the river enters Arunachal Pradeshmarker, it is called Siang and makes a very rapid descent from its original height in Tibet, and finally appears in the plains, where it is called Dihang. It flows for about and is joined by two other major rivers: Dibangmarker and Lohitmarker. From this point of confluence, the river becomes very wide and is called Brahmaputra. It is joined in Sonitpur District by the Jia Bhoreli (named the Kameng River where it flows from Arunachal Pradeshmarker) and flows through the entire state of Assammarker. In Assam the river is sometimes as wide as . Between Dibrugarh and Lakhimpur districts the river divides into two channels---the northern Kherkutia channel and the southern Brahmaputra channel. The two channels join again about downstream forming the Majuli island. At Guwahatimarker near the ancient pilgrimage center of Hajo, the Brahmaputra cuts through the rocks of the Shillong Plateau, and is at its narrowest at bank-to-bank. Because the Brahmaputra is the narrowest at this point the Battle of Saraighat was fought here. The first rail-cum-road bridge across the Brahmaputra was opened to traffic in April 1962 at Saraighat.

The old [Sanskrit] name for the river is , which was a Sanskritised version of the local Assamese name (original 'Lao-ti' or 'Dilao'). The native inhabitants, i.e., the Bodos also called the river , which means 'making a gurgling sound, was' later Sanskritized into .

When compared to the other major rivers in India, the Brahmaputra is less polluted but it has its own problems: petroleum refining units contribute most of the industrial pollution load into the basin along with other medium and small industries. The main problem facing the river basin is that of constant flooding. Floods have been occurring more often in recent years with deforestation, and other human activities being the major causes.


In Bangladeshmarker, the Brahmaputra splits into two branches: the much larger branch continues due south as the Jamuna ( ) and flows into the Lower Gangesmarker, locally called Padma ( ), while the older branch curves southeast as the lower Brahmaputra ( ) and flows into the Meghnamarker. Both paths eventually reconverge near Chandpurmarker in Bangladesh and flow out into the Bay of Bengal. However, Before 250 years ago it was the actual Brahmaputramarker river in Bangladesh passes through the Jamalpur and Mymensinghmarker district,a serious earthquake led its in present flow. Fed by the waters of the Gangesmarker and Brahmaputra, this river system forms the Ganges Delta, the largest river delta in the world .


During the monsoon season (June-October), floods are a common occurrence. Deforestation in the Brahmaputra watershed has resulted in increased siltation levels, flash floods, and soil erosion in critical downstream habitat, such as the Kaziranga National Parkmarker in middle Assam. Occasionally, massive flooding causes huge losses to crops, life and property. Periodic flooding is a natural phenomenon which is ecologically important because it helps maintain the lowland grasslands and associated wildlife. Periodic floods also deposit fresh alluvium replenishing the fertile soil of the Brahmaputra River Valley. Thus flooding, agriculture, and agricultural practices are closely connected.

Transportation and navigation

Until Indian independence in 1947, the Brahmaputra was used as a major waterway. In the 1990s, the stretch between Sadiyamarker and Dhubrimarker in India was declared as National Waterway No.2., and it provides facilities for goods transportation. Recent years have seen a modest spurt in the growth of river cruises with the introduction of the cruise ship, "Charaidew," by Assam Bengal Navigation.

See also


  1. The Brahmaputra as it is called in various languages: ; ; , ; Yarlung Tsangpo
  2. The New Largest Canyon in the World from
  3. Canyonlands of Tibet and Central Asia, from
  4. Das, D.C. 2000. Agricultural Landuse and Productivity Pattern in Lower Brahmaputra valley (1970-71 and 1994-95). Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Geography, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong.
  5. Mipun, B.S. 1989. Impact of Migrants and Agricultural Changes in the Lower Brahmaputra Valley : A Case Study of Darrang District. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Geography, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong.
  6. Shrivastava, R.J. and Heinen, J.T. 2005. Migration and Home Gardens in the Brahmaputra Valley, Assam, India. Journal of Ecological Anthropology 9: 20-34.


Further reading

is the only river with MASCULINE endings(akaarantha pullinga)

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