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In many of the world's military establishments, brevet referred to a warrant authorizing a commissioned officer to hold a higher rank temporarily, but usually without receiving the pay of that higher rank. An officer so promoted may be referred to as being brevetted. For example, "He was brevetted major general." The promotion would be noted in the officer's title, for example, "Bvt. Maj. Gen. Joshua L. Chamberlain".

United States

The Articles of War adopted in 1776 established the legal validity of brevets in the U.S. forces, and in 1806 these were slightly revised. When first used, a brevet commission in the United States Army entitled the officer to hold a higher rank. This promotion held no effect within the officer's current unit, but when assigned duty at the brevet rank by the U.S. President such an officer would command with the brevet rank, and be paid at the higher rank, only while at that assignment. The brevet promotion would not affect their seniority in the army at the time. Beginning on April 16, 1818, brevet commissions also required confirmation by the United States Congress, just as all other varieties of officer commissions did.

Early use

Brevets were first used in the U.S. Army during the American Revolutionary War. Often the nation's Continental Congress could not find suitable positions for foreign officers—mostly from Francemarker—who sought commissions. The first U.S. brevet was given to Jacques Antoine de Franchessin on July 20, 1776, allowing him to hold the rank of lieutenant colonel within the Continental Army. Franchessin and another 35 men of foreign birth would hold brevet commissions in the army by the end of the war. By 1784 an additional 50 officers would receive brevets for "meritorious services" during the conflict.

In the 19th century U.S. Army, brevet promotions were extremely common. Often newly commissioned officers received brevet rank until authorized positions became available. For example an officer might graduate from West Pointmarker and be appointed a brevet second lieutenant until a posting opened up. Additionally, officers could be brevetted to fill higher positions or for gallantry.

American Civil War

During the American Civil War almost all senior officers received one form of brevet or another, particularly during the final months of the war. It was not unheard of for an officer to have several different ranks simultaneously, such as being a brevet major general of volunteers, an actual brigadier general of volunteers, a brevet lieutenant colonel in the regular army, and an actual regular army captain (e.g., Ranald S. Mackenzie).

The Confederate States of America had legislation for the use of brevets in their armed forces, provided by Article 61 of the the nation's Articles of War, and by their 1861 Army Regulations, based on the U.S. Army's 1857 version. Although Article 61 was revised in 1862, its effect was dubious since the Confederate States Army did not use any brevet commissions during its existence.

The United States Marine Corps also issued brevets. After officers became eligible for the Medal of Honor, a rare Marine Corps Brevet Medal was issued to living officers who had been brevetted between 1861 and 1915.

Modern usage

The practice of brevetting disappeared from the (regular) U.S. military at the end of the 19th century; honors were bestowed instead with a series of medals. However, the similar practice of frocking continues in four of the five branches of the U.S. armed forces. The US Air Force does not allow the regular practice of frocking before a promotion date.

Although brevetting as such was no longer in effect in the 20th century U.S. military, it was common during the First and Second World Wars for officers in the Regular Army (the peacetime, permanent standing army composed of career soldiers) to be given temporary promotion to higher ranks in the wartime National Army or Army of the United States composed primarily of volunteers and draftees. For instance, Dwight D. Eisenhower had the permanent rank of Captain but the effective rank of Lieutenant Colonel during the First World War. At war's end, the National Army was disbanded and he reverted to his permanent rank of Captain. Such quasi-brevet promotions may become permanent; during the Second World War, Eisenhower had the permanent rank of Brigadier General but served as General of the Army; at war's end, this promotion was confirmed in the Regular Army.

Today, brevetting still occurs on rare occasions when officers are selected for promotion to a higher rank, but have yet to reach the effective date of promotion. For brevetting to occur today, an unusual set of circumstances must be present to justify wearing the higher rank before the promotion becomes effective. For example, in 2005, two U.S. Air Force lieutenant colonels selected to promotion to Colonel were brevetted (frocked) Colonel about six months ahead of their effective dates of promotion due to the high-profile nature of the duties that they were performing.

The U.S. National Guard, which depends on the governor of a state to concede its commissions, may still confer brevets. Many states maintain a clause permitting the governor to confer any rank in its defense forces, including the militia and National Guards. Some states provision that the sitting governor may confer any rank, but this appointment is considered valid only for the duration of the governor’s own term in office.

Some states also confer brevets as part of their regular honors system. Georgia confers honorary ranks into its state police force. Kentucky is famous for its colonels, and so too is Tennessee, both of which make the appointment as an honorary member of the governor's staff. Alabama, Texas and Nebraska also confer an admiralty within a symbolic navy. Similar honors have been issued for Georgiamarker's militia navy, which has only existed on paper since 1908. In all cases these honorary titles may be considered effective brevets, equal to that of the National Guard, by being conferred by a sitting governor.

United Kingdom

In the United Kingdommarker the brevet commission was only by courtesy. Officially both titles were used, as: "Major and Brevet Lieutenant Colonel Cornwallis." Originally the term designated a promotion given on such occasions as a coronation, or the termination of a great war, and had its origin during the reign of James II (1685-88); but it was abused so frequently and used to such an extent by the general award of brevet commissions, that in 1854, during and after the Crimean War, its bestowal was limited strictly to cases of very distinguished service in the field and on the principle of seniority. In the United Kingdom, brevet commissions were confined to grades from captain to lieutenant-colonel.

The Brevet conferred rank in the army, but importantly, not in the regiment. Advancement in the regiment could take place generally only by purchase or by seniority, and when there was a suitable vacancy (caused by the death, retirement or promotion of a more senior officer). When on duty with his regiment, only regimental rank counted; if the regiment was with a larger formation then brevet rank could be used to determine command of temporary units formed for special purposes. In particular Brigadier was not then a permanent rank so command of brigades was determined by seniority, including date of promotion to any brevet rank. Thus it was possible for a regimental Major to hold a brevet Lieutenant-colonelcy with seniority over the commission of his own commanding officer as Lieutenant-Colonel and be given command of a brigade (potentially including his own regiment). Similarly, if the officer was serving in a staff position or as an Aide-de-camp then they could use their brevet rank. Appointment to a brevet also counted towards the requirement to have served for a sufficient time in a lower rank to be eligible for promotion (by purchase) to a more senior one.

France

In French usage it applies to commissions in general. The French military used provisional commissions much similar to current US brevet ranks, that is, promotions given to officers performing high-profile duties before the effective date of promotion. As an example, Charles de Gaulle was promoted "provisional brigadier general" (général de brigade à titre provisoire) in 1940 when he was commander of an armoured division.

In French, an "officier breveté" is known between 1870 to 1940 as officier who studied in Ecole supérieure de guerre, where lieutenants and capitaines could enforce their knowledge.

Germany

In the Prussian and German army and navy, it was possible to bestow a Charakter rank on officers that was in many respects similar to a brevet rank. For example, an Oberst could receive the Charakter als Generalmajor. Very often, German officers would be promoted to the next higher Charakter rank on the day of their retirement.

Spain

It was not uncommon during the 19th century to distinguish between empleo ("employed") rank and graduación ("grade") being the effective command position. In the 1884 rank regulations (which with minor modifications were in force during the Spanish–American War) stars marked the rank whilst the actual post was reflected in gold lace on the cuffs.

As in practice both situations coincided the system was dropped in 1908 leaving only the starred system of denoting rank. Nevertheless during the Spanish Civil War the system was revived in the Nationalist side due to the lack of trained officers because of the enlargement of the army. The breveted officers (known as habilitados or estampillados) wore their actual rank on the cuffs but their brevetted one in a rectangular black patch on the left breast of their coats or shirts.

External links



References

  • Eicher, John H., and Eicher, David J., Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
  • Fry, James Barnet, The History and Legal Effect of brevets in the armies of Great Britain and the United States, D. Van Nostrand, 1877, Google Books link.
  • Hunt, Roger D. and Brown, Jack R., Brevet Brigadier Generals in Blue, Olde Soldier Books, 1997, ISBN 1-56013-002-4.
  • Weinert, Richard P., Jr., The Confederate Regular Army, White Mane Publishing, 1991, ISBN 0-942597-27-3.
  • National Park Service glossary of military terms


Notes

  1. Hunt, "Introduction", p. v.
  2. Eicher, p. 34.
  3. Weinert, pp. 5-6.



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