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British Caledonian came into being in November 1970 when the Scottishmarker charter airline Caledonian Airways, at the time Britain'smarker second-largest, wholly privately owned, independent airline, took over British United Airways (BUA), then the largest independent Britishmarker airline as well as the UKmarker's leading independent scheduled carrier. The BUA takeover enabled Caledonian to realise its long-held ambition to transform itself into a scheduled airline. The merged entity eventually became Britain's foremost independent, international scheduled airline.

A series of major setbacks during the 1980s as well as the airline's inability to grow to the minimum size to become a viable "Second Force" as envisaged in the 1969 Edwards report led to increasing financial difficulties during the second half of that decade. This was the time the airline began looking for a merger partner to improve its competitive position.

British Airways emerged victorious in the ensuing bidding war and gained control of its erstwhile competitor in December 1987.

The 1970s

During the 1970s British Caledonian assumed the role of the UK's "Second Force" to counterbalance the near-monopoly of the corporation, which provided 90% of all UK scheduled air transport capacity at the beginning of the decade. This entailed expanding the inherited scheduled network to provide effective competition to established rivals on a number of key routes, as well as augmenting the acquired fleet with the latest generation narrow-, widebody and SST airliners to maintain a competitive edge.

The rapid expansion of the "Second Force" suffered a temporary setback during the recession following in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis. This undermined the financial stability of the "Second Force" during its formative years. It also threatened its survival at that stage.

Following economic revival during that decade's second half, the "Second Force" regained its financial stability, enabling it to expand again and to become profitable.

Inception

On St. Andrew's Day (30 November) in 1970 Caledonian Airways acquired British United Airways (BUA) from British and Commonwealth (B&C) for £6.9 million. Caledonian Airways also purchased three new BAC One-Eleven 500 aircraft, which B&C had lease to BUA, for a further £5m.

Caledonian's acquisition of BUA from B&C did not include the assets of British United Island Airways, BUA's regional affiliate.

BCal was a wholly owned subsidiary of Caledonian Airways Ltd. BCal itself had a number of subsidiaries as well. Amongst these were Caledonian Airways Equipment Holding and Caledonian Airways (Leasing), which were set up to acquire and dispose of aircraft on behalf of the airline as well as to sell maintenance, training and management expertise to third parties. BCal also owned two package tour companies - Blue Sky Holidays and Golden Lion Tours - as well as several hotels in Spainmarker and Sierra Leonemarker. BCal furthermore inherited BUA's minority stakes in Gambia Airways, Sierra Leone Airways and Uganda Air Services.

The airline's formation followed the publication of the Edwards report entitled British Air Transport in the Seventies in 1969.High Risk: The Politics of the Air, pp. 174/5, 195, 200-204 It recommended the creation of a "Second Force", private sector carrier to take on the state-owned corporations - British European Airways (BEA) and British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) - by providing competing domestic and international scheduled services on trunk routes.Fly me, I'm Freddie!, pp. 125-130

The new airline established its headquarters and operational base at Gatwick Airportmarker and Sir Adam Thomson, one of the five co-founders as well as one of the main shareholders of Caledonian Airways, became its chairman.High Risk: The Politics of the Air, pp. 195-198

BCal was a full member of the International Air Transport Association (IATA) - both IATA's trade association as well as its tariff co-ordination committee - at its inception itself as a result of inheriting BUA's IATA membership. BCal moreover had its own air freight terminal at Heathrowmarker. (It used to operate two weekly all-cargo flights from there until the early 1980s.)

The fleet inherited from its predecessors comprised 31 jet aircraft: eleven long-haul aircraft (seven ex-Caledonian Boeing 707-320Cs and four ex-BUA Vickers VC-10-1103/1109s) and 20 short-haul planes (eight ex-BUA and four ex-Caledonian BAC One-Eleven 500s as well as eight ex-BUA BAC One-Eleven 200s). The merged entity's issued share capital was £12m - more than that of any other wholly private, independent British airline at the time - and its workforce numbered 4,400. This made BCal the UK's foremost independent airline of the time. (Although Dan-Air and Britannia Airways exceeded BCal's total annual passenger numbers from 1975, BCal maintained its position as Britain's leading independent international scheduled airline, in terms of both the number of scheduled passengers carried each year and the total yearly scheduled capacity measured in passenger kilometres - the distance covered by its scheduled operation multiplied by the number of scheduled passengers carried within a twelve-month period, throughout its 17-year existence.) The newly created company's output measured in available capacity tonne kilometres - a figure arrived at by multiplying the number of [metric] tonnes available for the carriage of revenue load (passengers, cargo and mail) on each flight sector by the sector's distance in kilometres - was greater than that of some of the smaller, contemporary European flag carriers, such as Aer Lingus, Sabena or Swissair. By that measure, BCal was about the same size as Australia's flag carrier Qantas.

The institutional investors that had helped Sir Adam Thomson and John de la Haye launch Caledonian Airways back in 1961 were also among the shareholders of the newly constituted airline. They included the Automobile Association (AA), Great Universal Stores (GUS), Hogarth Shipping, Lyle Shipping, Industrial and Commercial Finance Corporation (ICFC) - one of the two predecessors of Investors in Industry (as 3i was formerly known), Kleinwort Bensonmarker, the Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS) and Schroders. Airways Interests (Thomson), which had been set up at Caledonian's inception a decade earlier as an investment vehicle for that airline's founders to enable them to maintain control, continued as a consortium for Sir Adam's and his fellow directors' financial interests in the new airline combine.

Before adopting the British Caledonian name, the new airline legally constituted two separate entities - Caledonian Airways (Prestwick) Ltd and British United Airways Ltd. These traded together under the interim name Caledonian//BUA until September 1971. The combined airline carried a total of 2.6m passengers during its first year of operation.

For accounting purposes, BCal's aircraft were respectively allocated to a "BUA Division" and "Caledonian Division" during the interim period. The former was responsible for all IATA activities. This encompassed all scheduled services. The latter was responsible for all non-IATA work. This included all non-scheduled operations. At that time, two-thirds of all passengers were carried on charter flights.

During that period, former BUA air hostesses still wearing that airline's blue uniforms were working alongside their tartan-clad, former Caledonian counterparts in the cabins of all passenger flights. Eventually, the attractive Caledonian tartan uniforms became BCal's standard for female staff.

Following the interim period, Caledonian Airways (Prestwick) Ltd and British United Airways Ltd were merged into British Caledonian Airways Ltd (BCal). All former BUA aircraft were repainted adopting Caledonian's livery featuring a prominent Scottish Lion Rampant on its aircraft's fins. At that time all aircraft were named after famous Scots and well-known Scottish places. This tradition was continued throughout the airline's 17-year existence. Some BCal aircraft were also allocated out of sequence registrations. (For instance, G-BCAL was allocated to one of the Boeing 707s, G-CLAN[50024] and G-SCOT were the registrations of the Piper Navajo Chieftain, G-DCIO was the registration of the eighth DC-10 and G-HUGE was the Boeing 747 Combi registration.)

The "Second Force" inherited BUA's extensive network of scheduled routes serving the British Islesmarker, Continental Europe, Africa and South America. Its scheduled ambitions received a major boost when the UK Government agreed to transfer to it BOAC's West African trunk routes to Nigeriamarker and Ghanamarker as well as its North African route to Libyamarker.High Risk: The Politics of the Air, pp. 262/3 These routes represented 3% of BOAC's annual, worldwide turnover (about £6m of its total annual revenues). The Government also agreed to let it serve Casablancamarker in Moroccomarker from Gatwickmarker in competition with BEA's service from Heathrow. Furthermore, the Government agreed to license BCal to operate non-stop scheduled services between Londonmarker and Parismarker and to begin negotiations with the Frenchmarker authorities to secure reciprocal approval for BCal to be able to commence scheduled operations on what was then the busiest international air route in Europe. BCal moreover received Government assurances that it would be designated as the UK's sole flag carrier on all routes transferred to it and that it would be assisted in obtaining traffic rights for additional, selected scheduled routes where it wished to compete with the corporations, including the lucrative London-New Yorkmarker and London-Los Angelesmarker routes.

Another important concession by the Government designed to improve the competitiveness of the "Second Force" was to permit it to provide a first class cabin on its East African routes. (BUA, from whom BCal inherited these routes, had been prevented from offering a first class on its East African routes. To compensate for this loss of competitiveness, Sir Freddie Laker, BUA's managing director from 1960 to 1965, had come up with the idea of designing a cargo door to be installed on the right-hand side of the forward fuselage of that airline's long-haul VC-10s, where the first class cabin was normally located. This modification permitted the carriage of additional freight instead of first class passengers on the East African routes.)

In addition, BCal became the Government's "chosen instrument of the private sector". This meant that the Government agreed to accord preferential status to BCal's worldwide scheduled ambitions, especially in the award of additional licences to operate scheduled services on major domestic and international trunk routes. The Government hoped that putting BCal's requirements ahead of other UK-based independent airlines' rival scheduled ambitions would help the new "Second Force" develop into a fully fledged, major international scheduled airline, thereby enabling it to achieve the critical mass to challenge the corporations' near-monopoly among UK-based scheduled airlines.

The Central London air terminal at Victoria Station in London's West Endmarker, which the "Second Force" inherited from BUA as well, allowed passengers to complete all check-in formalities, including dropping off their hold luggage, before boarding their train to the airport.

BCal also had a Gatwick airside lounge for its premium passengers, which it named Clansmen Lounge.

Formative years

BCal commenced scheduled operations from Gatwick to Lagosmarker, Kanomarker and Accramarker in April 1971. Scheduled services from Gatwick to Tripolimarker began in July 1971. On each of these routes BCal replaced BOAC as the designated UK flag carrier. On 1 November 1971 BCal inaugurated scheduled flights between London Gatwick and Paris Le Bourget Airportmarker, where it replaced BEA's London Heathrowmarker-Paris Le Bourget service and competed with that airline's Heathrow-Paris Orly Airportmarker service.High Risk: The Politics of the Air, pp. 272, 508 This was the first time since the 1930s that a wholly private, independent UK airline commenced a fully fledged scheduled service on Europe's busiest international trunk route.

BCal ended its 1970/71 financial year to 30 September 1971 with a profit of £1.7m.

In 1972 BCal extended its East African network to the Seychellesmarker. The same year it also introduced a new Edinburghmarker-Newcastlemarker-Copenhagenmarker regional scheduled service to live up to its claim of being "Scotland's international airline". This complemented the Glasgowmarker-Newcastle-Amsterdammarker regional route BCal had inherited from BUA.

1972 was also the year BCal introduced the UK's first-ever "no frills" type service on the two main domestic trunk routes linking London and Scotland. The airline introduced simultaneous night-time departures from Gatwick, Glasgow and Edinburgh, resulting in an overall frequency increase to six daily round-trips on each route. The company charged a very low £5 one-way fare on these night-time services, which were marketed under the Moonjet trademark.High Risk: The Politics of the Air, pp. 273/4, 508 This move, which was modelled on the high-frequency-low-fares operation run by Pacific Southwest Airlines (PSA), the original "no frills" airline, along the busy San Diegomarker-Los Angeles-San Franciscomarker air corridor in Californiamarker, boosted passenger numbers and profitability on both routes.No Frills - The Truth behind the Low-cost Revolution in the Skies, pp. 26/7

During that year larger capacity, longer range and more fuel-efficient Boeing 707s replaced VC-10s on BCal's South American routes, where the 707's greater range enabled the airline to run non-stop flights between London Gatwick and Rio de Janeiromarker, as well as on the West African trunk routes to Nigeria and Ghana.

As a result of the then prevailing, ruinous rates in the charter market, which still accounted for half of BCal's business, the airline incurred a loss of £194,000 during the financial year to 30 September 1972.

To support its ambitious expansion plans, BCal acquired a number of additional, second-hand Boeing 707s from various sources through its aircraft trading and leasing subsidiaries during the early 1970s. These included a pair of 320C series aircraft procured on a long-term lease from Britannia Airways featuring a two-class, "widebody look" interior. Another three 707s received re-modelled "widebody" cabins. All five were used to inaugurate the airline's transatlantic scheduled routes to New York and Los Angeles where the established competition was operating widebodied aircraft, such as the Boeing 747 "jumbo jet". It was thought that the aircraft's widebody style interiors would leave passengers with the impression that BCal was operating widebodied aircraft when in fact it was not. During that time BCal acquired additional second-hand BAC One-Eleven 500s. At the same time, the airline disposed of some of its 707s, VC-10s and One-Eleven 200s. These included the original pair of 399C series 707 aircraft that had been delivered to Caledonian Airways direct from the manufacturer's plant in 1967/68.

BCal inaugurated its two transatlantic flagship services from London Gatwick to John F. Kennedy Airportmarker (JFK) and from Gatwick to Los Angeles International Airportmarker on 1 April 1973. Earl Mountbatten of Burma was BCal's chief guest on board its inaugural Gatwick-JFK flight. (The flight diverted to Bostonmarker due to inclement weather in the New York area.High Risk: The Politics of the Air, pp. 280-283) This occasion marked the first time that an independent British airline commenced non-stop transatlantic scheduled services on routes linking the UK and the USmarker.

In 1973 BCal also inaugurated its fourth scheduled domestic trunk route between London Gatwick and Manchestermarker. The new service was subcontracted to British Island Airways (BIA), BUIA's successor, which operated two daily return trips using its Handley Page Dart Herald turboprops.

On 20 March 1974 BCal switched its Gatwick-Paris services to the then brand-new Charles de Gaulle Airportmarker near the northern Paris suburb of Roissy-en-France, thus becoming the first scheduled carrier to operate between London and the new Paris airport.

To further extend the network's reach and improve its connectivity, BCal agreed to host Dan-Air's new, twice daily Gatwick-Newcastle flights, which began on 20 April 1974, in its computer reservation system (CRS) as part of a combined marketing effort.

June 1974 saw the launch of BCal's non-stop Gatwick-Brusselsmarker scheduled route, the third European trunk route on which the airline operated scheduled services in competition with the incumbent flag carriers' established services from Heathrow.

1974 crisis year

The creation of British Airways (BA) as a result of the 1974 BEA-BOAC merger came against the background of the first global oil crisis in the wake of the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, which led to the quadrupling of the price of a barrel of oil as a consequence of the decision by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries to boycott the West in retaliation for its support of Israelmarker during that war. This meant that the newly merged corporation's original revenue and profit projections were far too optimistic. During that time BA began exerting pressure on the Government, at the time its sole owner as well as the regulator for all UK airlines, to curtail the activities of its independent competitors generally and of the "Second Force" in particular.

The difficult operating environment at the time did not affect BA alone. In fact, the major scheduled airlines were all losing enormous amounts of money at the time. The sudden spike in the oil price caused a major recession during the second half of 1974 as well as the first half of 1975, with much reduced demand for air travel. This in turn led to the collapse of a number of prominent travel companies and their associated airlines - most notably the Court Line group and Horizon Holidays, the latter having provided work for three BCal short-haul aircraft prior to its collapse. There was also massive overcapacity on the North Atlanticmarker routes.

These circumstances forced BCal to put in place a major programme of retrenchment, known internally as Plan "S" ("S" for "survival").

Plan "S" began to be implemented from 1 November 1974. It resulted in route cut-backs - including the suspension of the transatlantic "flagship" services, the immediate withdrawal and subsequent disposal of the remaining VC-10 long-haul aircraft, the grounding of a number of short-haul aircraft as well as several hundred redundancies among the company's staff (827 out of a total workforce of 5,673).High Risk: The Politics of the Air, pp. 304-307 It also resulted in organisational changes that saw Sir Adam become the airline's chief executive in addition to continuing in his role as chairman of a reconstituted board, and the transfer of all aircraft leasing, purchase and sale activities to a new subsidiary. British Caledonian Aircraft Trading was the name of the company that succeeded Caledonian Airways Equipment Holdings, Caledonian Airways (Leasing) and other related interests. It became one of the most profitable parts of the business.

In addition to withdrawing from the prestigious long-haul routes to New York and Los Angeles after only 18 months, other specific measures the airline took at the time to ensure its survival included dropping all scheduled flights to Belfastmarker, Copenhagen, Gibraltarmarker, Ibizamarker, Málagamarker, Palma de Mallorcamarker and Tunismarker, indefinitely suspending scheduled services on the Glasgow-Southamptonmarker route as well as cutting the number of frequencies on the Gatwick-Glasgow and Gatwick-Edinburgh routes from six to four daily round trips. Two surplus aircraft were leased out to Air Malta and Austrian Airlines respectively for the duration of the 1975 summer timetable period. Another aircraft was stationed at West Berlin's Tegel Airportmarker during the month of July of that year to fulfill a short-term charter contract to carry Turkish migrant workers to and from Istanbulmarker on behalf of a local tour operator. BCal also decided to increase its 707 freighter fleet from one to four aircraft and to acquire a five-seater Piper Aztec[50025] to serve the rapidly growing executive charter market. These changes left BCal with 25 operational aircraft for the 1975 summer season. To reduce operating costs further, the airline decided to contract out its scheduled operations between Gatwick and Le Touquetmarker as well as between Gatwick and Rotterdammarker to BIA. The reason for replacing BCal's One-Eleven 200 jet aircraft with that airline's Herald turboprops on these routes with the beginning of the 1975 summer timetable period was the high price of jet fuel, which had made BCal's own jet operation on these routes uneconomic.

Even during this period of severe retrenchment, BCal continued launching scheduled services to new destinations. Dakarmarker joined the airline's network on 1 November 1974, followed by Kinshasamarker on 1 April 1975.

As a result of the "success" of Plan "S", BCal's fortunes quickly recovered. The airline operation itself managed to return to the black during the financial year ended 30 September 1975 with a small profit of £250,000 after having lost £4.3m the year before. (BCal's operating profit for the 1974/75 financial reporting period translated into an overall loss of £366,000, after taking into account the heavy costs relating to the early disposal of the remaining VC-10s and the grounding of several other aircraft as well as the voluntary redundancy programme to achieve the required reduction in headcount.High Risk: The Politics of the Air, pp. 340/1)

Spheres of influence

The then Secretary of State for Trade Peter Shore conducted a review of the Government's aviation policy and in 1976 announced a new "spheres of influence" policy that ended dual designation for British airlines on all long-haul routes. As a result, BA and BCal were no longer permitted to run competing scheduled services on long-haul routes, and BCal had to withdraw from the East African routes inherited from BUA as well as from the London-New York and London-Los Angeles routes, leading to the suspension of BCal's Gatwick-JFK and Gatwick-Los Angeles licences. In return, BCal became the sole British flag carrier to the entire South American mainland by taking over the former BA routes to Colombiamarker, Perumarker and Venezuelamarker. The Government's new "spheres of influence" aviation policy confined BCal's long-haul scheduled operations to two continents - Africa and South America. The loss of BCal's East African routes enabled the airline to replace the one-stop scheduled service via Nairobi to Lusakamarker with non-stop flights.

During 1976 BCal's recovery continued, leading to the introduction of a new scheduled route to Algiersmarker and the reinstatement of scheduled services to Tunis. It also led to BCal's decision to bring the operation of its Gatwick-Manchester service back in-house by replacing the two daily round-trips BIA had operated with its Herald turboprops since the route's launch in 1973 with a three-times-daily BCal One-Eleven schedule starting 1 January 1977.

BCal ended its 1975/76 financial year with a healthy profit of £5.6m.

Bermuda II

In July 1976 Edmund Dell, the then new Secretary of State for Trade, renounced the original Bermuda air services agreement of 1946 and initiated bilateral negotiations with his US counterparts on a new air services agreement, which resulted in the Bermuda II treaty of 1977.

This presented BCal with new transatlantic opportunities to begin scheduled services to additional gateway cities in the US.

Under the new agreement, BCal had its licences to commence scheduled services from its Gatwick base to both Houston and Atlantamarker confirmed and was designated as the UK's exclusive flag carrier on both routes. It also obtained a licence and sole UK flag carrier status to commence scheduled services from Gatwick to Dallasmarker/Fort Worthmarker. In addition, BCal obtained a licence and sole UK flag carrier status to commence scheduled all cargo flights between Gatwick and Houston - including an optional stop at Manchester or Prestwickmarker in either direction.

During the Bermuda II negotiations the UK side succeeded in having a clause stating that Gatwick - rather than Heathrow - was to be nominated as the designated US flag carrier's London gateway airport whenever BCal was going to be the sole designated UK flag carrier on the same route inserted into the new air services agreement. This clause was meant to support the growth of BCal's scheduled operation at Gatwick as well as to redress the competitive imbalance between it and its much bigger, more powerful rivals.

The UK side furthermore succeeded in negotiating a three-year exclusivity period for the incumbent operator on any new route with their US counterparts.

For Gatwick-based BCal this meant that it did not have to face any competitor that was using Heathrow, a more accessible airport with a bigger catchment area and a far greater number of passengers connecting between flights, on any of the new routes it was planning to launch to the US. It also meant that it had any new route to the US completely to itself for the first three years of operation, which most airline industry analysts reckon is sufficiently long for a brand-new scheduled air service to become profitable.

At British insistence Bermuda II furthermore contained clauses that made it illegal for any airline operating scheduled flights between the UK and the US to resort to predatory pricing or capacity dumping. Air fares were only approved if they reflected the actual cost of providing these services. Similarly, capacity increases were sanctioned on a reciprocal basis only. The reason for insisting on the inclusion of these provisions in the Bermuda II agreement was to prevent the much bigger, better financed and commercially far more aggressive US carriers from undercutting BCal with loss-leading fares cross-subsidised with profits those carriers' vast domestic networks generated, as well as to stop them from marginalising the UK carrier by adding capacity far in excess of what the market could sustain.

Both sides also agreed to continue dual designation, ie designating two UK flag carriers as well as two US flag carriers, on the London-New York and London-Los Angeles routes. The principle of dual designation was to be extended to another two high-volume routes.

BCal resumed scheduled transatlantic services on 24 October 1977. The airline became the first UK carrier to launch a daily, non-stop London (Gatwick)-Houston scheduled service as well as a weekly, direct all-cargo service on the same route, which operated via Prestwick on the outbound leg and via Manchester on the return leg. BCal inaugurated the daily scheduled passenger flights with a Boeing 707-320C narrowbodied aircraft. In April 1978 BCal re-configured the 707s plying this route in a three-class layout, which featured a dedicated Executive cabin, in addition to a first and economy class section. This was the first time since the beginning of the jet age that a scheduled airline had offered a "third" class specifically aimed at the business traveller. It was intended to replace the 707s operating the all-passenger services with a brand-new, larger capacity as well as more fuel-efficient DC-10 widebodied aircraft at the start of the 1978/79 winter timetable period.

Beginning of the widebody era

Following an exhaustive, three-week evaluation of the Boeing 747, the McDonnell Douglas DC-10 and the Lockheed L-1011 Tristar during the summer of 1976, BCal chose the DC-10 as the widebodied aircraft best suited to serve its expanding long-haul route network. The airline placed an order for two long range series 30 aircraft with an option on another two. To ensure an early delivery, the company took over a delivery slot for two aircraft that had originally been booked by China Airlines.

BCal made its widebody debut on 13 March 1977, when the first of the two DC-10s on firm order arrived at the airline's Gatwick base from Prestwick at the end of a delivery flight from the manufacturer's plant in Long Beach, Californiamarker. This occasion marked the first time a widebodied aircraft wore the company's livery.

The aircraft, which was configured in a 265-seat, two-class layout, entered commercial service on BCal's busy West African trunk routes to Nigeria and Ghana later the same month, replacing the airline's Boeing 707 narrowbodies on six of the seven weekly services on these routes.

The second aircraft, which arrived at Gatwick in early May of that year, was initially configured in a 295-seat, single-class configuration. It entered service later that month on BCal's Advanced Booking Charter (ABC) routes to the US and Canadamarker. The aircraft was re-configured in the airline's contemporary, 265-seat, two-class scheduled configuration at the end of the summer period. It replaced Boeing 707s on two of BCal's three weekly South Atlanticmarker schedules to Brazilmarker, Argentinamarker and Chilemarker, as well as on one of the company's two weekly mid-Atlanticmarker schedules to Venezuela, Colombia and Peru from the beginning of the 1977/78 winter timetable period.

The DC-10's superior operating economics (compared with the 707) enabled BCal to operate the aircraft non-stop from Buenos Airesmarker to Gatwick with a viable payload.

Although the introduction of the DC-10 resulted in a huge increase in BCal's long-haul passenger and cargo capacity, the actual loads exceeded the airline's forecasts and helped it grow its traffic volumes on its scheduled services to West Africa and South America.

BCal was so pleased with the DC-10's performance that it decided to convert both of the options it had taken when placing the original order for two aircraft during 1976 into firm orders for delivery in autumn 1978 and spring 1979 respectively. However, a subsequent strike at the manufacturer's Long Beach plant meant that McDonnell Douglas could not honour the delivery schedule on which it had agreed with BCal. This necessitated the temporary lease of a Boeing 747-100 from Aer Lingus. (BCal was using BA flight deck crews to operate the aircraft as it did not have any 747-qualified pilot at the time.) The aircraft, which wore a slightly modified BCal livery, was operating the Gatwick-Houstonmarker schedule during the 1978/79 winter timetable period to cover for the late delivery of the airline's third DC-10.[50026]

Attaining success

By 1978 BCal had fully recovered from the 1974 crisis year, which had threatened its very existence at that time. After the severe contraction forced upon it by the early 1970s' oil crisis, the company's core scheduled operation was growing again with new widebodied aircraft and routes being added and schedules being expanded. Business was booming with planes being fuller than at any time in the firm's history. The airline recorded a pre-tax profit of £12.2m during its 1977/78 financial year to 31 October 1978. This translated into a £10m retained profit. It was the company's best financial result since its formation back in November 1970. BCal's senior management decided to allocate £644,000 of the retained profit to a new profit-share scheme to reward its staff for their hard work, which had succeeded in bringing about a dramatic turnaround in the airline's fortunes. BCal's profit-share scheme, which began the following year, was the first of its kind in the UK airline industry.

BCal also became a "scheduled service only" airline during 1978, implementing a decision taken the year before when the share of passengers travelling on charter flights had declined to just 15% of all passengers carried. There were two reasons for BCal's withdrawal from the charter market:
  • A 25% contraction of the transatlantic ABC flights market as a result of the initial success of the daily Laker Airways Skytrain low-fares, "no frills" scheduled operation between London Gatwick and New York JFK, which began during the previous year's autumn season.


  • A steady decline in charter rates in the European package tour holiday market where BCal used to supply whole-plane charter seats to its Blue Sky Holidays tour operator affiliate as well as third party tour companies.


1978 was also the first year BCal operated the majority of its scheduled services plying the prime long-haul routes to West Africa and South America with widebody equipment.

At the start of that year's summer timetable period flight frequencies on BCal's Gatwick-Glasgow and Gatwick-Amsterdam routes increased to five round-trips per day on week days. During that period the airline also resumed its Edinburgh-Newcastle-Copenhagen service, which it had abandoned in 1974.

During 1978 Abidjanmarker and Birminghammarker joined BCal's scheduled route network. At the start of the 1978/79 winter timetable period Benghazimarker joined the network. At that time the airline also increased frequencies between London Gatwick and Paris Charles de Gaulle to seven daily round-trips on week days, with flights operating at two-hourly intervals. The addition of twice-weekly flights to the Libyanmarker port city of Benghazi to the existing five weekly services to Tripoli meant that for the first time BCal was able to offer its passengers daily flights to Libya, an important market for profitable, oil-related business travel. BCal's introduction of a 747 on the daily Gatwick-Houston schedule furthermore enabled it to replace its two-class configured One-Eleven 500s on the West African coastal schedule to Banjulmarker and Freetownmarker via Casablanca and Las Palmasmarker with 707s. The 707's greater range (compared with the One-Eleven) enabled it to cut out intermediate stops and offer its passengers a more convenient, direct routing that took less time. BCal moreover replaced two-class One-Elevens operating on the Tripoli route with 707s.

In early 1978 BCal introduced an updated livery.

1978 was furthermore the year Sir Adam assumed the chairmanship of the Association of European Airlines (AEA) (1977 to 1978).

In addition, the British Airports Authority had just completed the first phase of a major refurbishment and extension of BCal's Gatwick base. The centrepiece of this revamp was a completely refurbished centre pier featuring eleven telescopic, widebody-compatible loading bridges. These were the first loading bridges to be installed at Gatwick, which was a single-terminal airport at the time. For the first time in its history, BCal also gained a dedicated check-in area for all its flights.

Besides, the Government had announced its intention to take pro-active steps to help ensure Gatwick's development as a genuine alternative to Heathrow the year before. It was hoped that this in turn would assist BCal's development as a serious alternative to BA and the other major, established scheduled airlines.

These steps included inviting BCal and Britain's other independent airlines to apply to the CAA for route licences to operate scheduled services to destinations in the British Islesmarker and on the Continent that were not already served from Gatwick, thereby increasing the reach of the airport's scheduled route network as well as providing more connecting traffic for BCal.

BCal was keen to expand its limited short-haul European network beyond the existing four routes linking London Gatwick with Paris Charles de Gaulle, Amsterdam Schipholmarker, Brussels Nationalmarker and Genoamarker. The airline needed to develop its connecting traffic at Gatwick by growing the European network to include destinations in Germanymarker, Switzerlandmarker, Scandinavia and Southern Europe to help it increase load factors on its long-haul flights to Africa, South America and the US as well as to improve the profitability of these services. The airline had planned to commence new short-haul scheduled services from Gatwick to Copenhagen, Gothenburgmarker, Oslomarker and Stockholmmarker during summer 1978, using the licences the CAA had awarded it the year before. However, BCal was unable to use its newly awarded licences as there was no provision in the bilateral air services agreement the UK had concluded with Denmarkmarker, Norwaymarker and Swedenmarker for another carrier to operate scheduled services on the main trunk routes between London and these countries, in addition to the incumbent flag carriers' services. This meant that BA and Scandinavian Airlines (SAS) had an effective monopoly on most routes between the UK and Scandinavia. The UK Government agreed to assist BCal in securing reciprocal traffic rights for the London-Scandinavia licences during its negotiations on a new bilateral air services agreement with its three Scandinavian counterparts in December 1978. It was hoped that this would enable BCal to commence its first-ever scheduled services from London to Scandinavia at the start of the 1979 summer timetable period.

Government initiatives in support of Gatwick's development also included new policies to transfer all scheduled services between London and Canada as well as London and the Iberian peninsulamarker from Heathrow to Gatwick by 1 April 1979, and to compel all airlines that were planning to operate a scheduled service to or from London for the first time to use Gatwick instead of Heathrow. The latter policy was officially known as the "London Air Traffic Distribution Rules". It came into effect on 1 April 1978 and was applied retroactively from the beginning of April 1977. These rules were designed to achieve a fairer distribution of traffic between London Heathrow and London Gatwick, the UK's two main international gateway airports. The policy was aimed at increasing Gatwick's utilisation to help the airport make a profit.

Another pro-active measure the Government took to aid BCal's and Gatwick's development at the time was to grant permission for a high-frequency helicopter shuttle service linking both of London's main airports.

The new helicopter shuttle service linking London Heathrow and London Gatwick was inaugurated on 9 June 1978.

This service was operating ten times a day in each direction using a 28-seater Sikorsky S-61N helicopter, which was owned by the BAA. BCal held the licence to operate the service and provided the cabin crew. (A single crew member used to look after the passengers on this 15-minute flight.) British Airways Helicopters, the wholly owned helicopter subsidiary of BA whose headquarters were located at Gatwick, provided the flight deck crew and engineering support.

The service gave BCal's passengers easier access to flight connections at Heathrow, especially to destinations not served by scheduled flights from Gatwick at the time.

It was used by 60,000 passengers during the first year of its operation.

1978 was also the year BCal set up a task force headed by Gordon Davidson, BA's former Concorde director, to investigate the possibility of operating the Aérospatiale-BAC Concorde supersonic airliner viably on the airline's long-haul route network as there were still two unsold, "white tail" examples available at that time.

Another important reason for BCal's decision to set up a Concorde task force was that the 1976 aviation policy review had left open the possibility of BA launching supersonic services to prime business and leisure destinations within BCal's sphere of influence, such as Lagos or Rio de Janeiro for example. To ward off this potential threat, BCal's senior management decided to develop its own Concorde plans, either independently or in partnership with BA.

The most obvious choice for a supersonic service was Gatwick-Lagos, the backbone and main money spinner of BCal's scheduled operation. BCal's Concorde task force's brief was to assess the viability of a second daily all-premium supersonic service complementing the airline's existing daily subsonic, mixed-class widebody service on this route.

BCal put in a bid to acquire one of the remaining two "white tail" aircraft. The bid was not successful.

However, BCal eventually arranged for two aircraft to be leased from BA and Aérospatiale respectively and to have them maintained by either BA or Air France. It became necessary to find additional work for BCal's envisaged two-strong Concorde fleet to increase the aircraft's utilisation, thus permitting a cost-effective operation. Therefore, BCal decided to use the second aircraft to launch a supersonic service between Gatwick and Houston via Atlanta. It also considered using the aircraft on its South American network at a later stage.

Both supersonic services were to be launched at the start of the 1980 summer timetable period.

In 1979 the airline took delivery of its delayed third and fourth McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30 widebodied aircraft during the first and third quarter. This permitted the aircraft's introduction on its daily Gatwick-Houston schedule as well as the replacement of the remaining 707-operated services on its mid- and South Atlantic routes. The narrowbodied capacity released was used to add frequencies on existing routes as well as to launch services to new medium- and long-haul destinations. As a result, BCal launched a fourth weekly service to Brazil. It also launched a new route to Oranmarker and added Quitomarker and Guayaquilmarker to the mid-Atlantic schedule. The company furthermore increased frequencies on its short-haul routes. A fourth daily round-trip was added to both Gatwick-Manchester and Gatwick-Brussels. A third daily frequency operating on week days was added to the Newcastle-Amsterdam sector of BCal's Glasgow-Newcastle-Amsterdam regional route.

During that year BCal also established a wholly owned helicopter subsidiary and it placed the launch order for a brand-new widebodied aircraft, the Airbus A310.

This was also the time BCal came up with a proposal to create a new network of European low-fare services. These were to be marketed under the trademark Miniprix and were meant to counter Laker's plans for a pan-European Skytrain operation. Excluding BCal's existing four European destinations, it envisaged linking Gatwick with 20 additional points on the Continent. These services were to be operated during off-peak times, initially using the airline's existing narrowbodied equipment. BCal was evaluating both the McDonnell Douglas MD-80 narrowbody as well as the Airbus A310 widebody as suitable long-term replacements for its existing narrowbodied aircraft on these routes.

BCal's setbacks during 1979 included continuing frustration of the airline's desire to launch scheduled services to Scandinavia despite the conclusion of a new Anglo-Scandinavian bilateral air services agreement and the temporary grounding of the airline's widebodied fleet - then comprising three McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30s - during the second quarter following the crash of American Airlines flight 191marker, a DC-10-10, in Chicagomarker during May of that year.

The grounding of the worldwide DC-10 fleet in the aftermath of American's May 1979 Chicago crash necessitated the short-term lease of a 747 to enable BCal to provide adequate capacity on its Nigerian trunk routes during that period. BCal also operated a Dan-Air Comet on short-term lease between Gatwick and Tripoli while the 707s normally used on that service were redeployed to operate a reduced schedule to Houston and South America during the aforesaid period. In addition to these aircraft, a 707-120B[50027] was leased during that period as well to cover the capacity shortfall.

The 1980s

Reasons for the failure of the Second Force concept and for British Caledonian's demise

Aircraft operated

Fleet details

BCal and its subsidiaries operated the following fixed wing aircraft types:

















Fleet in 1972

In May 1972 BCal's fleet comprised 32 jet aircraft.

BCal fleet in May 1972
Aircraft

Total
Boeing 707-320C 8
Vickers VC-10 1103/9 4
BAC One-Eleven 500 13
BAC One-Eleven 200 7
Total 32


5,300 people were employed.

(Source for the above fleet notes: World Airlines, Flight International, 18 May 1972, Supplement 18.)

Fleet in 1975

In March 1975 BCal's fleet comprised 24 jet aircraft.

BCal fleet in March 1975
Aircraft

Total
Boeing 707-320C 11
BAC One-Eleven 500 6
BAC One-Eleven 200 7
Total 24


4,846 people were employed.

(Source for the above fleet notes: Flight International, 20 March 1975, World Airline Directory, Flight International, 20 March 1975, p. 478.)

Fleet in 1978

In April 1978 BCal's fleet comprised 29 aircraft.

BCal fleet in April 1978
Aircraft

Total
McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30 2
Boeing 707-320C 9
BAC One-Eleven 500 9
BAC One-Eleven 200 7
Piper PA-31 Navajo Chieftain 2
Total 29


5,500 people were employed.

(Source for the above fleet notes: World Airline Directory, Flight International, 22 April 1978, p. 1147.)

Fleet in 1981

In May 1981 BCal's fleet comprised 29 jet aircraft.

BCal fleet in May 1981
Aircraft

Total
McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30 8
Boeing 707-320C 5
BAC One-Eleven 500 9
BAC One-Eleven 200 7
Total 29


6,600 people were employed.

(Source for the above fleet notes: World Airline Directory, Flight International, 16 May 1981, p. 1417.)

Fleet in 1984

In March 1984 BCal's mainline fleet comprised 25 jet aircraft.

BCal fleet in March 1984
Aircraft

Total
Boeing 747-200B[50028] 1
McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30 8
Airbus A310-200 2
Boeing 707-320C 2
BAC One-Eleven 500 12
Total 25


6,300 people were employed.

(Source for the above fleet notes: Flight International, 31 March 1984, World Airline Directory, Flight International, 31 March 1984, p. 826.)

Fleet in 1986

In March 1986 BCal's mainline fleet comprised 27 jet aircraft.

BCal fleet in March 1986
Aircraft

Total
Boeing 747-200B 1
Boeing 747-200B Combi 1
McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30 10
Airbus A310-200 2
BAC One-Eleven 500 13
Total 27


6,750 people were employed.

(Source for the above fleet notes: World Airline Directory, Flight International, 29 March 1986, p. 60.)

Incidents and accidents

BCal had an enviable safety record during its 17-year existence.

BCal aircraft were never involved in fatal accidents.

However, there were a few noteworthy non-fatal incidents involving the airline's aircraft.
  • On 28 January 1972 a Vickers VC-10-1109 (registration: G-ARTA) sustained severe structural damage as a result of an exceptionally hard landing at Gatwick at the end of a short ferry flight from Heathrow, where the aircraft had been diverted due to Gatwick being fog-bound and where all passengers had disembarked. A survey of the aircraft's damage had revealed that its airframe had been bent out of shape and that it required extensive repairs to be restored to an airworthy condition. The airline's senior management decided that these repairs were not cost-effective. The aircraft was written off and a decision taken to have it scrapped. It was eventually broken up at Gatwick in 1975. (This aircraft had been the VC-10's prototype. It had subsequently been converted as a 1109 series passenger aircraft before being sold in February 1968 to Laker Airways, who immediately leased it out to Middle East Airlines [MEA]. Laker Airways sold on the aircraft to BUA. The handover occurred on 1 April 1969 at the conclusion of the MEA leasing contract.)
  • On 19 July 1972 a BAC One-Eleven 501EX (registration: G-AWYS) sustained substantial damage as a result of aborting its takeoff too late. Operating the return leg of a non-scheduled passenger flight between the UK and Corfumarker, the aircraft passed through a pool of standing water close to its decision speed (V1) during the takeoff run at Corfu Airport. This caused a temporary reduction of engine thrust from water ingestion, resulting in a momentary loss of aircraft acceleration. The flight's commander interpreted this as a failure of the plane's no. 1 engine that demanded an immediate rejection of the takeoff. This chain of events was thought to have delayed by about three seconds the flight deck crew's decision to abandon their takeoff. As a result, it was impossible to bring the aircraft to a halt within the remaining runway distance, and after crossing some rough ground, it finally came to rest in a 1m-deep lagoon. None of the 85 occupants (six crew members and 79 passengers) was seriously injured, but an elderly female passenger subsequently died of cardiac arrest on her way to hospital.
  • On 26 June 1976 a BAC One-Eleven 530FX (registration: G-AZMF) burst all its main wheel tyres while landing at Gatwick at the end of a scheduled flight from Jerseymarker. All 72 occupants safely evacuated the aircraft.
  • On 16 December 1980 a BAC One-Eleven 201AC (registration: G-ASJI) swung off the runway on landing at Amsterdam Schiphol at the end of a scheduled flight from London Gatwick. The aircraft came to a halt in a ploughed field. There were no serious injuries.
  • On 23 July 1981 a McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30 (registration: G-BFGI) aquaplaned and overran the runway at Kano Airportmarker in northern Nigeria. There were no injuries among the 155 occupants (14 crew and 141 passengers).


Notes

  1. High Risk: The Politics of the Air, p. 173
  2. BCAL Atlantic growth, Air Transport, Flight International, 20 September 1973, p. 466
  3. High Risk: The Politics of the Air, p. 201
  4. Airline Profile: Number Forty-Two in the Series - British Caledonian, Flight International, 3 August 1972, p. 156
  5. Airline Profile: Number Forty-Two in the Series - British Caledonian, Flight International, 3 August 1972, p. 159
  6. High Risk: The Politics of the Air, pp. 256/7
  7. High Risk: The Politics of the Air, p. 93
  8. Staff signed up, Air Transport ..., Flight International, 1 April 1971, p. 444
  9. BCAL changes course, Air Transport, Flight International, 31 October 1974, p. 588
  10. The Edwards Report - Principal recommendations, Air Transport, Flight International, 8 May 1969, p. 745
  11. The White Paper summarised, Air Transport ..., Flight International, 20 November 1969, p. 760
  12. High Risk: The Politics of the Air, p. 199
  13. guardian.co.uk>News>Obituaries>Sir Adam Thomson (R. Cowe, The Guardian, print edition, 1 June 2000)
  14. High Risk: The Politics of the Air, p. 258
  15. Fly me, I'm Freddie!,p. 130
  16. The Caledonian punchbag, Flight International, 21 March 1987, p. 33
  17. £30m value put on Caledonian, Air Transport, Flight International, 26 May 1979, p. 1714
  18. High Risk: The Politics of the Air, pp. 159, 241
  19. "British Airways Plc and British Caledonian Group plc; A report on the proposed merger", Chapter 4, Competition Commission website
  20. High Risk94-258: The Politics of the Air, pp. 94, 258
  21. GUS Share in Caledonian, Air Transport, Flight International, 9 November 1967, p. 749
  22. It's British Caledonian, Air Transport, Flight International, 9 September 1971, p. 395
  23. World Airlines, Flight International, 18 May 1972, Supplement 17
  24. B.CAL opens feeder link, General Aviation - Business, Flight International, 21 January 1978, p. 165
  25. High Risk: The Politics of the Air, p. 512
  26. BCAL Atlantic growth, Air Transport, Flight International, 20 September 1973, p. 467
  27. Rest of the Package, World News ..., Flight International, 1 April 1971, p. 440
  28. Airline Profile: Number Forty-Two in the Series - British Caledonian, Flight International, 3 August 1972, p. 160
  29. Caledonian/BUA, Air Transport ..., Flight International, 12 August 1971, p. 245
  30. British Airways loses Casablanca ..., Air Transport, Flight International, 28 February 1974, p. 257
  31. High Risk: The Politics of the Air, p. 273
  32. Caledonian/BUA, Air Transport, Flight International, 17 June 1971, p. 883
  33. Fly me, I'm Freddie!, pp. 88/9
  34. High Risk: The Politics of the Air, p. 275
  35. Undue preference or national benefit?, Flight International, 27 April 1972, p. 579
  36. Air Terminal for Victoria, Air Commerce, Flight International, 29 June 1961, p. 907
  37. Air Commerce ..., Flight International, 3 May 1962, p. 705
  38. Aviation News - UK and Irish airlines since 1945 (Update 5 British United Airways)
  39. Aviation News - UK and Irish airlines since 1945 (Update 5 British United Airways)
  40. High Risk: The Politics of the Air, p. 271
  41. West Africa changeover, Air Transport ..., Flight International, 22 April 1971, p. 542
  42. High Risk: The Politics of the Air, p. 272
  43. Caledonian/BUA, Air Transport ..., Flight International, 17 June 1971, p. 886
  44. Preparing for Paris, Air Transport ..., Flight International, 29 July 1971, p. 154
  45. Three to Paris, Flight International, 11 November 1971, p. 753
  46. Airline Profile: Number Forty-Two in the Series - British Caledonian, Flight International, 3 August 1972, p. 157
  47. High Risk: The Politics of the Air, p. 276
  48. BCAL applies for walk-on fares, Air Transport ..., Flight International, 25 November 1971, pp. 848/9
  49. Aircraft (Gone but not forgotten ... BRITISH CALEDONIAN), Vol 42, No 12, p. 42, Ian Allan Publishing, Hersham, December 2009
  50. High Risk: The Politics of the Air, p. 277
  51. Airline Profile: Number Forty-Two in the Series - British Caledonian, Flight International, 3 August 1972, p. 158
  52. Britannia: no more long-haul, Air Transport, Flight International, 1 February 1973, p. 146
  53. BCAL: second force on Atlantic, Air Transport, Flight International, 5 April 1973, pp. 536/7 (1)
  54. BCAL: second force on Atlantic, Air Transport, Flight International, 5 April 1973, pp. 536/7 (2)
  55. Caledonian Western, Air Transport, Flight International, 12 April 1973, p. 568
  56. The airborne sector, Air Transport, Flight International, 21 November 1974, p. 708
  57. BCAL gets Paris de Gaulle rights, World News, Flight International, 27 December 1973, p. 1051
  58. BCAL in Paris, Flight International, 14 March 1974, p. 320
  59. The Spirit of Dan-Air, p. 88
  60. Dan-Air and BCAL joint timetable, Air Transport, Flight International, 9 May 1974, p. 588
  61. BCAL to Brussels ..., Air Transport, Flight International, 18 April 1974, p. 474
  62. Second-force second-thoughts, Air Transport, Flight International, 19 June 1975, p. 961
  63. Court Line bids for Horizon, World News, Flight International, 7 February 1974, p. 158
  64. BCAL and the North Atlantic, Air Transport, Flight International, 24 July 1975, p. 109
  65. BCAL and the North Atlantic, Air Transport, Flight International, 24 July 1975, p. 110
  66. High Risk: The Politics of the Air, pp. 297-302, 304-307
  67. Fly me, I'm Freddie!, p. 201
  68. British Caledonian cuts back, Flight International, 24 October 1974, p. 527
  69. Scottish DC-10s and B.CAL’s wide-body plans, Flight International, 26 February 1977, p. 471
  70. CAA dilemma on UK trunk fares, Air Transport, Flight International, 20 March 1975, p. 439
  71. British Caledonian Airways, Air Transport, Flight International, 30 January 1975, p. 129
  72. High Risk: The Politics of the Air, p. 303
  73. High Risk: The Politics of the Air, pp. 316/7
  74. UK abandons long-haul competition, Air Transport, Flight International, 7 August 1975, p. 173
  75. UK aviation policy review: first in a long series, Air Transport, Flight International, 21 February 1976, p. 397
  76. UK aviation policy review: first in a long series, Air Transport, Flight International, 21 February 1976, p. 398
  77. B.CAL expands in South America, Flight International, 24 July 1976, p. 212
  78. B.CAL on the mid-Atlantic, Air Transport, Flight International, 30 October 1976, p. 1301
  79. Scottish DC-10s and B.CAL’s wide-body plans, Flight International, 26 February 1977, p. 472
  80. High Risk: The Politics of the Air, p.375
  81. Britain to end Bermuda Agreement, Air Transport, Flight International, 3 July 1976, p. 4
  82. Bermuda 2 initialled, Air Transport, Flight International, 2 July 1977, p. 5
  83. Bermuda 2 initialled, Air Transport, Flight International, 2 July 1977, p. 6
  84. Bermuda 2: signed and sealed ..., Air Transport, Flight International, 23 July 1977, p. 254
  85. Bermuda 2 capacity mechanism, Air Transport, Flight International, 13 August 1977, p. 465
  86. Bermuda 2 revisions create 12 new US gateways and agreement on Gatwick, Air Transport, Flight International, 15 March 1980, p. 825
  87. High Risk: The Politics of the Air, Thomson, A., Sidgwick and Jackson, London, 1990, pp. 343-350
  88. B.CAL to serve Dallas/Forth Worth, World News, Flight International, 19 August 1978, p. 515
  89. B.CAL wins Dallas appeal, Air Transport, Flight International, 27 January 1979, p. 238
  90. Hustlin' to Houston, Air Transport, Flight International, 12 November 1977, p. 1409
  91. High Risk: The Politics of the Air, Thomson, A., Sidgwick and Jackson, London, 1990, p. 333
  92. High Risk: The Politics of the Air, Thomson, A., Sidgwick and Jackson, London, 1990, p. 350
  93. Stormy Atlantic summer forecast, Air Transport, Flight International, 1 April 1978, p. 904
  94. High Risk: The Politics of the Air, Thomson, A., Sidgwick and Jackson, London, 1990, p. 321
  95. B.CAL chooses DC-10s, Air Transport, Flight International, 12 June 1976, p. 1548
  96. The Spirit of Dan-Air, Simons, G.M., GMS Enterprises, Peterborough, 1993, pp. 88, 101
  97. High Risk: The Politics of the Air, Thomson, A., Sidgwick and Jackson, London, 1990, p. 319
  98. World News, Flight International, 19 March 1977, p. 686
  99. Air Transport, Flight International, 7 May 1977, p. 1236
  100. High Risk: The Politics of the Air, Thomson, A., Sidgwick and Jackson, London, 1990, p. 341
  101. B.CAL appeals on LA Skytrain, Air Transport, Flight International, 27 May 1978, p. 1590
  102. 747/DC-10 battle intensifies, Air Transport, Flight International, 26 August 1978, p. 603
  103. Air Transport, Flight International, 11 November 1978, p. 1721
  104. High Risk: The Politics of the Air, Thomson, A., Sidgwick and Jackson, London, 1990, pp. 359/60
  105. High Risk: The Politics of the Air, Thomson, A., Sidgwick and Jackson, London, 1990, p. 365
  106. Caledonian reports best results, Air Transport, Flight International, 12 May 1979, p. 1547
  107. Profit shares for B.CAL workers, World News, Flight International, 12 August 1978, p. 456
  108. High Risk: The Politics of the Air, Thomson, A., Sidgwick and Jackson, London, 1990, p. 340
  109. British Airports Authority Annual Report and Accounts 1978/9, British Airports Authority, London, 1979, p. 20
  110. British Airports Authority Annual Report and Accounts 1978/9, British Airports Authority, London, 1979, p. 21
  111. British Airports Authority Annual Report and Accounts 1977/8, British Airports Authority, London, 1978, p. 19
  112. High Risk: The Politics of the Air, Thomson, A., Sidgwick and Jackson, London, 1990, p. 354
  113. Scottish DC-10s and B.CAL’s wide-body plans, Flight International, 26 February 1977, p. 475
  114. High Risk: The Politics of the Air, Thomson, A., Sidgwick and Jackson, London, 1990, p. 360
  115. CAA gives routes decisions, Flight International, 5 November 1977, p. 1342
  116. Please come to Gatwick, Britain tells carriers, Air Transport, Flight International, 16 April 1977, p. 1028
  117. British Airports Authority Annual Report and Accounts 1978/9, British Airports Authority, London, 1979, pp. 21, 76
  118. World News, Flight International, 17 June 1978, p. 1832
  119. High Risk: The Politics of the Air, Thomson, A., Sidgwick and Jackson, London, 1990, pp. 355/6
  120. High Risk: The Politics of the Air, Thomson, A., Sidgwick and Jackson, London, 1990, p. 356
  121. B.CAL to lease unsold Concorde?, Air Transport, Flight International, 24 February 1979, p. 517
  122. B.CAL appoints Concorde consultant, Air Transport, Flight International, 24 March 1979, p. 881
  123. B.CAL drops Concorde plans but asks for Hong Kong licence, Air Transport, Flight International, 30 June 1979, p. 2331
  124. New job for B.CAL Concorde man, Air Transport, Flight International, 21 July 1979, p. 158
  125. High Risk: The Politics of the Air, Thomson, A., Sidgwick and Jackson, London, 1990, pp. 316/7
  126. Cheaper fares on Swedish routes?, Air Transport, Flight International, 31 March 1979, p. 965
  127. Two Concordes, A310s and 20 new routes in B.CAL package, Air Transport, Flight International, 19 May 1979, p. 1637
  128. Short hauls ..., Air Transport, Flight International, 20 October 1979, p. 1264
  129. High Risk: The Politics of the Air, Thomson, A., Sidgwick and Jackson, London, 1990, p. 389
  130. Small World ... British Caledonian Helicopters, World News, Flight International, 28 April 1979, p. 1287
  131. B.CAL signs for A310s as Airbus clarifies new types, World News, Flight International, 3 November 1979, p. 1464
  132. High Risk: The Politics of the Air, Thomson, A., Sidgwick and Jackson, London, 1990, pp. 367-369
  133. Trade Secretary rejects UK-European low-fare routes appeal ..., Air Transport, Flight International, 1 November 1980, p. 1673
  134. High Risk: The Politics of the Air, Thomson, A., Sidgwick and Jackson, London, 1990, p. 372
  135. B.CAL clears £5 million profit and seeks One-Eleven replacement, Air Transport, Flight International, 2 February 1980, p. 295
  136. The Spirit of Dan-Air, Simons, G.M., GMS Enterprises, Peterborough, 1993, pp. 59/60
  137. Individual Histories - G-ARTA, VC10.net
  138. ASN Aircraft incident description Vickers VC-10-1109 G-ARTA - London Gatwick Airport (LGW)
  139. BUA/Laker Tie-up, Air Transport, Flight International, 21 November 1968, p. 813
  140. ASN Aircraft incident description BAC One-Eleven 501EX G-AWYS - Corfu Airport (CFU)
  141. Flight Safety - Non-fatal incidents: scheduled flights, Flight Safety, Flight International, 4 December 1976, p. 1637
  142. Accidents, World News, Flight International, 10 January 1981, p. 51
  143. Aquaplaning: a new bogey-word, Air Commerce, Flight International, 13 July 1961, p. 57
  144. Non-fatal accidents/incidents: scheduled flights, Commercial flight safety: 1981 reviewed, Flight International, 23 January 1982, p. 185


References

  • ( Aviation News online)
  • (various backdated issues relating to British Caledonian and the "Second Force" concept, 1969-1988)
  • (various backdated issues relating to British Caledonian scheduled flight information, 1970-1988)


External links




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