The Full Wiki

British princess: Map

  
  
  

Wikipedia article:

Map showing all locations mentioned on Wikipedia article:

This is a list of British princesses from the accession of King George I in 1714. This article deals with both princesses of the blood royal and women who become princesses upon marriage.

The use of the title of Princess of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is entirely at the will of the Sovereign. Individuals holding the title of princess are styled "Her Royal Highness" (HRH). Since King George V's Letters Patent of 30 November 1917, the title "Princess" and the use of the style "Royal Highness" has generally been restricted to the following persons:

  • the legitimate daughters of a British Sovereign,
  • the legitimate male line granddaughters of a British Sovereign,
  • the wife of a British prince.


There have been several exceptions to these rules, as explained later in this article.

Princesses of the blood royal and princesses by marriage

Under the current practice, princesses of the blood royal are the legitimate daughters and the legitimate male line granddaughters of a British Sovereign. They are dynasts, that is potential successors to the throne. For these individuals, the title "Princess of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" and the style "Her Royal Highness" is an entitlement for life. The title Princess and the style Royal Highness is prefixed to the Christian name, before another title of honour. From 1714 until 1917, the male-line great granddaughters of the Sovereign were titled "Princess of Great Britain and Ireland" with the style "Highness". Since 1917, the male-line great granddaughters of the Sovereign, have held "the style and title enjoyed by the children of dukes". For example, the daughters of the current Duke of Gloucester, a male line grandson of George V, are styled The Lady Davina Lewis and The Lady Rose Gilman.

Princesses by marriage are the recognized wives of the Sovereign's sons and male-line grandsons. Generally, these women are entitled to the style Royal Highness by virtue of marriage. They retain the style during their widowhood. However, Queen Elizabeth II issued Letters Patent dated 21 August 1996 stating that any woman divorced from a Prince of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland with the style "Royal Highness" would no longer be entitled to the style "Royal Highness". This has so far applied to HRH The Princess of Wales and HRH The Duchess of York.

Since the passage of the Royal Marriages Act 1772, there have been several instances in which princes of the blood contracted marriages in contravention of that act (which meant they were not legally married) and several instances in which the Sovereign withheld the style "Her Royal Highness" from a prince's wife deemed to be unsuitable. For example, Prince George, Duke of Cambridge, a male-line grandson of King George III, married Sarah Louisa Fairbrother, in contravention of the Royal Marriages Act. Although morganatic marriage did not exist in British law, the duke's wife was never titled the Duchess of Cambridge or accorded the style "Her Royal Highness". Instead, she was known as "Mrs FitzGeorge". Most famously, King George VI issued Letters Patent dated 27 May 1937 that entitled The Duke of Windsor "to hold and enjoy for himself only the title style or attribute of Royal Highness so however that his wife and descendants if any shall not hold the said title style or attribute".

The wife of a prince of the blood takes her husband's Christian name in her title as do all married royal women. For example, upon her marriage to Prince Michael of Kent in 1978, Baroness Marie-Christine von Reibnitz assumed the title and style of "Her Royal Highness Princess Michael of Kent". Similarly, upon her marriage to then Prince Richard of Gloucester, the former Birgitte van Deurs assumed the title and style of "Her Royal Highness Princess Richard of Gloucester".

The situation is slightly different when a woman is married to a prince who happens to be a peer or the Prince of Wales. Upon marriage, the wife of the Prince of Wales becomes "Her Royal Highness The Princess of Wales". Upon marriage, the wife of a royal duke (or earl) becomes "Her Royal Highness The Duchess (or Countess) of X". When Prince Richard of Gloucester succeeded to his father's dukedom in 1974, his wife became "Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Gloucester".

Whilst it has been traditional, as is still technically the case, that a princess by marriage cannot be called Princess and her first name, Diana, Princess of Wales, was so consistently referred to as "Princess Diana" that the usage (at least in her case) has come to be accepted even by official sources such as the Royal website and respected media organisations such as the BBC.

History

The use of the titles prince and princess and the styles of Highness and Royal Highness for members of the Royal Family is of fairly recently usage in the British Isles. Before 1714, there was no settled practice regarding the use of the titles prince and princess other than the heir apparent and his wife. From 1301 onward, the eldest sons of the Kings of England (and later Great Britain and the United Kingdom) have generally been created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester. Their wives were titled Princess of Wales.

The title Princess Royal came into being in 1642 when Queen Henrietta Maria, the French-born wife of King Charles I, wished to imitate the way the eldest daughter of the French King was styled (Madame Royale). However, there was no settled practice on the use of the title princess for the Sovereign's younger daughters or male-line granddaughters. For example, as late as the time of King Charles II, the daughters of his brother James, Duke of York, both of whom became Queens regnant, were called simply "The Lady Mary" and "The Lady Anne". The future Queen Anne was styled princess in her marriage treaty to Prince George of Denmark and then styled "Princess Anne of Denmark" once married. However, in exile at Saint-Germain-en-Laye the deposed James II gave the title of Princess Royal to his last daughter, Louisa Maria (1692-1712).

After the accession of George I of Hanover, the princely titles were changed to follow the German practice. The children, grandchildren, and male line great grandchildren of the British Sovereign were automatically titled "Prince or Princess of Great Britain and Ireland" and styled "Royal Highness" (in the case of children and grandchildren) or "Highness" (in the case of male line great grandchilren). Queen Victoria confirmed this practice in Letters Patent dated 30 January 1864 (the first Act of the Prerogative dealing with the princely title in general terms).

Styling of princesses

Princesses of the blood royal

  • Daughter of a Sovereign: HRH The Princess N.
    • The style HRH The Princess Royal is customarily granted, when vacant, to the sovereign's eldest daughter.
  • Daughter of a son of a Sovereign: HRH Princess N of X, where X is the territorial designation of their father’s senior peerage; e.g. HRH Princess Alexandra of Kent.
    • Prior to Princess Charlotte Augusta, a daughter of the Prince of Wales: HRH Princess N
    • Prior to 1917, a daughter of a son of a son of a Sovereign: HH Princess N of X


When a princess marries, she still takes on her husband's title. If the title is higher than (or equal to) the one she possesses, she will normally be styled using the female equivalent. If her husband has a lower title or style, her style as a princess remains in use, although it may then be combined with her style by marriage, e.g. HRH The Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll or HRH Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone – if that princess had a territorial designation, she ceases its use. However, some of the lowest styles aren't utilised by senior royals — Princess Anne remains HRH The Princess Royal rather than HRH The Princess Royal, Mrs Tim Laurence.

Princess by marriage

  • Wife of a prince who has a peerage: HRH The Duchess/Countess of X, or, prior to 1917, possibly HH
  • Wife of a son of a Sovereign, who has no peerage: HRH The Princess Husband.
  • Wife of another prince who has no peerage: HRH Princess Husband of X.
  • Prior to 1917, the wife of a prince in the third generation, who has no peerage: HH Princess Husband of X.


List of princesses of the blood since 1714

Title at birth Birth Death Lineage Comments
Princess Sophia of Hanover 1687 1757 Daughter of George I Gained title in 1714 upon accession of her father as King George I. Queen-consort of Prussia 1713–1740.
Princess Anne of Hanover 1709 1759 Daughter of George II Gained title in 1714 upon accession of her grandfather as King George I.
Princess Amerlia of Hanover 1711 1746 Daughter of George II Gained title in 1714 upon accession of her grandfather as King George I
Princess Caroline of Hanover 1713 1757 Daughter of George II Gained title in 1714 upon accession of her grandfather as King George I
The Princess Mary 1723 1772 Daughter of George II Title held from her birth to death
The Princess Louise 1724 1751 Daughter of George II Title held from her birth to death. Queen of Denmark 1746-1751.
Princess Augusta 1737 1813 Daughter of Frederick, Prince of Wales Title held from her birth to death. Duchess of Brunswick 1780–1806.
Princess Elizabeth 1740 1759 Daughter of Frederick, Prince of Wales Title held from her birth to death
Princess Louisa 1749 1768 Daughter of Frederick, Prince of Wales Title held from her birth to death
Princess Caroline Matilda 1751 1775 Daughter of Frederick, Prince of Wales Title held from her birth to death. Queen of Denmark 1767–1772
The Princess Charlotte 1766 1828 Daughter of George III Held the title 'The Princess Charlotte' from birth and formally styled 'The Princess Royal' in 1789. Queen of Württembergmarker 1806–1816.
The Princess Augusta Sophia 1768 1840 Daughter of George III Title held from her birth to death
The Princess Elizabeth 1770 1840 Daughter of George III Title held from her birth to death
Princess Sophia of Gloucester 1773 1834 Great granddaughter of George II Title held from her birth to death, granted style of Royal Highness in 1816
Princess Caroline of Gloucester 1774 1775 Great granddaughter of King George II, daughter of Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester Title held from her birth to death
The Princess Mary 1776 1857 Daughter of George III Title held from her birth to death
The Princess Sophia 1777 1848 Daughter of George III Title held from her birth to death
The Princess Amelia 1783 1810 Daughter of George III Title held from her birth to death
Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales 1796 1817 Daughter of George IV Title held from her birth to death
Princess Charlotte of Clarence 1819 1819 Daughter of Prince William, Duke of Clarence Title held from her birth to death
Princess Alexandrina Victoria of Kent 1819 1901 Granddaughter of George III, succeeded as Queen Victoria, reigned 1837–1901. Title held until her accession in 1837 as Queen Victoria
Princess Elizabeth of Clarence 1820 1821 Daughter of Prince William, Duke of Clarence (later King William IV) Title held from her birth to death
Princess Augusta of Cambridge 1822 1916 Granddaughter of George III Title held from her birth to death. Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz 1860–1904
Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge 1833 1897 Granddaughter of George III, mother of Queen Mary Title held from her birth to death
The Princess Victoria 1840 1901 Daughter of Queen Victoria, mother of Wilhelm II of Germany Held the title 'The Princess Victoria' from birth and styled 'The Princess Royal' in 1841. German Empress 1888.
The Princess Alice 1843 1878 Daughter of Queen Victoria Title held from her birth to death. Grand Duchess of Hesse 1877–1878.
The Princess Helena 1846 1923 Daughter of Queen Victoria Title held from her birth to death
Princess Frederica of Hanover 1848 1926 Great-granddaughter of George III, daughter of George V of Hanover Title from birth until 1917
The Princess Louise 1848 1939 Daughter of Queen Victoria Title held from her birth to death
Princess Marie of Hanover 1849 1904 Great granddaughter of George III, daughter of George V of Hanover Title held from her birth to death
The Princess Beatrice 1857 1944 Daughter of Queen Victoria Title held from her birth to death
Princess Louise of Wales 1867 1931 Daughter of Edward VII Held the title 'Princess Louise of Wales' from birth, 'The Princess Margaret' from her father's accession in 1901 and styled 'The Princess Royal' in 1905
Princess Victoria of Wales 1868 1935 Daughter of Edward VII Held the title 'Princess Victoria of Wales' from birth, 'The Princess Victoria' from her father's accession in 1901, held title until death
Princess Maud of Wales 1869 1938 Daughter of Edward VII Title held from her birth to death. Queen of Norway 1905–1938.
Princess Marie of Edinburgh 1875 1938 Granddaughter of Queen Victoria, daughter of Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh Title held from her birth to death. Queen of Romaniamarker 1914–1927.
Princess Victoria Melita of Edinburgh 1876 1936 Granddaughter of Queen Victoria, daughter of Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh Title held from her birth to death. Grand Duchess of Hesse 1894–1901
Princess Alexandra of Edinburgh 1878 1942 Granddaughter of Queen Victoria, daughter of Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh Title held from her birth to death
Princess Marie Louise of Hanover and Cumberland 1879 1948 Great-great granddaughter of King George III, daughter of Ernst August, 3rd Duke of Cumberland. Title held from her birth until 1917
Princess Margaret of Connaught 1882 1920 Granddaughter of Queen Victoria, daughter of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught Title held from her birth to death
Princess Alexandra of Hanover and Cumberland 1882 1963 Great-great granddaughter of King George III, daughter of Ernst August, 3rd Duke of Cumberland. Title held from her birth until 1917
Princess Alice of Albany 1883 1981 Granddaughter of Victoria, daughter of Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany Title held from her birth to death
Princess Beatrice of Edinburgh 1884 1966 Granddaughter of Queen Victoria, daughter of Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh Title held from her birth to death
Princess Olga of Hanover and Cumberland 1884 1958 Great-great granddaughter of King George III, daughter of Ernst August, 3rd Duke of Cumberland. Title held from her birth until 1917
Princess Patricia of Connaught 1886 1974 Granddaughter of Queen Victoria Title held from her birth until 1919 when she relinquished her title and style upon marriage
Lady Alexandra Duff 1891 1959 Granddaughter of Edward VII, daughter of Princess Louise, Duchess of Fife Title granted by Letters Patent of 1905
Lady Maud Duff 1893 1945 Granddaughter of Edward VII, daughter of Princess Louise, Duchess of Fife Title granted by Letters Patent of 1905, ceased use of title after her marriage in 1923 although it was never formally relinquished
Princess Mary of York 1897 1965 Daughter of George V Held the title 'Princess Mary of York' from birth, 'The Princess Mary' on her father's accession in 1910, and styled 'The Princess Royal' in 1932
Princess Sibylla of Albany 1907 1972 Great granddaughter of Victoria, daughter of Prince Charles Edward, 2nd Duke of Albany Title held from her birth until 1917
Princess Caroline Mathilde of Albany 1912 1983 Great granddaughter of Victoria, daughter of Prince Charles Edward, 2nd Duke of Albany Title held from her birth until 1917
Princess Fredrica of Hanover and Brunswick-Luneburg 1917 1981 Great great great granddaughter of George III, daughter of Prince Ernst August of Cumberland and Hanover, Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg Title held under Royal Warrant from her birth until 1917
Princess Elizabeth of York 1926 Daughter of George VI Held the title 'Princess Elizabeth or York' from birth, 'The Princess Elizabeth' from her father's accession in 1936, until her succession in 1952 as Queen Elizabeth II
Princess Margaret of York 1930 2002 Daughter of George VI Held the title 'Princess Margaret of York' from birth, 'The Princess Margaret' from her father's accession in 1936, held title until death
Princess Alexandra of Kent 1936 Granddaughter of George V, daughter of Prince George, Duke of Kent Title held from birth
Princess Anne of Edinburgh 1950 Daughter of Elizabeth II Held the title 'Princess Anne of Edinburgh' from birth, 'The Princess Anne' from her mother's accession, and styled 'The Princess Royal' in 1987
Princess Beatrice of York 1988 Granddaughter of Elizabeth II, daughter of Prince Andrew, Duke of York Title held from birth
Princess Eugenie of York 1990 Granddaughter of Elizabeth II, daughter of Prince Andrew, Duke of York Title held from birth
Lady Louise Windsor 2003 Granddaughter of Elizabeth II, daughter of Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex Styled as an earl's daughter per her parents' wishes


List of princesses by marriage since 1714

Princess Birth Death Husband Comments
Caroline of Ansbach 1683 1737 George, Prince of Wales Gained title by accession of her father-in-law as George in 1714 and held it until her husband's accession as 1727, when she became Queen-consort
Augusta of Saxe-Gotha 1719 1772 Frederick, Prince of Wales Gained title by her marriage in 1736 and held it until her death.
Maria Walpole 1736 1807 Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh Gained title by her second marriage in 1766 and held it until her death.
Anne Horton 1742 1808 Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn Gained title by her second marriage in 1771 and held it until her death.
Frederica Charlotte of Prussia 1767 1820 Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany Gained title by her marriage in 1791 and held it until her death.
Caroline of Brunswick 1768 1821 George, Prince of Wales Gained title by her marriage in 1795 and held it until her husband's accession as George IV in 1820.
Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz 1778 1841 King Ernest Augustus of Hanover Gained title by her third marriage in 1815 and held it until her death.
Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld 1786 1861 Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn Gained title by her second marriage in 1818 and held it until her death.
Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen 1792 1849 Prince William, Duke of Clarence and St Andrews Gained title by her marriage in 1818 and held it until her husband's accession as William IV in 1830.
Augusta of Hesse-Kassel 1797 1889 Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge Gained title by her marriage in 1818 and held it until her death.
Marie of Saxe-Altenburg 1818 1907 King George V of Hanover Gained title by her marriage in 1843 and held it until her death.
Alexandra of Denmark 1844 1925 Albert Edward, Prince of Wales Gained title by her marriage in 1863 and held it until her husband's accession as Edward VII in 1901.
Thyra of Denmark 1853 1933 Prince Ernest Augustus, 3rd Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale Gained title by her marriage in 1878 and held it until 1917
Maria of Russia 1853 1920 Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh Gained title by her marriage in 1874 and held it until her death.
Louise Margaret of Prussia 1860 1917 Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn Gained title by her marriage in 1879 and held it until her death.
Helena of Waldeck 1861 1922 Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany Gained title by her marriage in 1882 and held it until her death.
Mary of Teck 1867 1953 George, Prince of Wales Gained title by her marriage in 1893 and held it until her husband's accession as George V in 1910.
Victoria Adelaide of Schleswig-Holstein 1885 1970 Prince Charles Edward, Duke of Albany Gained title by her marriage in 1905 and held it until 1919, when her husband was stripped of his British titles and honours by Order-in-Council for fighting with Germany during World War I.
Viktoria Luise of Prussia 1892 1980 Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick Gained title by her marriage in 1913 and held it until 1917. It should be noted that Princess Viktoria Luise was already a Royal Highness. She was born Princess of Prussia being the only daughter of the German Kaiser Wilhelm II.
Wallis Simpson 1895 1986 Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor See notes
Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon 1900 2002 Prince Albert, Duke of York Gained title by her marriage in 1920 and held it until her husband's accession as George VI in 1936.
Alice Montagu-Douglas-Scott 1901 2004 Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester Gained title by her marriage in 1935 and held it until her death. She was later granted special permission to style herself as a princess suo jure.
Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark 1906 1968 Prince George, Duke of Kent Gained title by her marriage in 1934 and held it until her death. Although she was a princess of Greece and Denmark by birth.
Katharine Worsley 1933 Prince Edward, Duke of Kent Gained title by her marriage in 1961
Marie-Christine Freiin von Reibnitz 1945 Prince Michael of Kent Gained title by her second marriage in 1978
Birgitte van Deurs 1946 Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester Gained title by her marriage in 1972
Camilla Shand 1947 Charles, Prince of Wales Gained title by her second marriage in 2005. Although she is legally The Princess Charles, Princess of Wales, she uses the subsidiary style Duchess of Cornwall
Sarah Ferguson 1959 Prince Andrew, Duke of York Gained title by her marriage in 1986 and held it until her divorce in 1996.
Lady Diana Spencer 1961 1997 Charles, Prince of Wales Gained title by her marriage in 1981 and held it until her divorce in 1996
Sophie Rhys-Jones 1965 Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex Gained title by her marriage in 1999.

Notes

The following women married a Royal Prince but as their marriages were invalid under the Royal Marriages Act 1772, they did not become Princesses:

In addition, the status of Wallis Simpson as a British princess has not been officially confirmed, Although she married the Duke of Windsor in 1937, and he was a British prince with the style His Royal Highness, having been confirmed as such by letters patent 27 May 1937 from his brother, George VI, Wallis and her descendants from the marriage were expressly denied the style of "Royal Highness" by the same letters patent. However, since the marriage did not contravene the Royal Marriages Act of 1772, and the letters patent denying her the style "Royal Highness" did not per se address her status as a British princess, it is not clear what legal princely status, if any, Wallis held. In any case, as a duke's wife, she was always styled Her Grace The Duchess of Windsor.

There have been two instances where a British princess married a British prince: first The Princess Mary, daughter of King George III, who married her first cousin Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh; and secondly Princess Alexandra, Duchess of Fife, granddaughter of King Edward VII, who married her first cousin once removed Prince Arthur of Connaught. In the first instance Princess Mary was of higher rank and the Duke of Gloucester and his sister were elevated from the style His/Her Highness to His/Her Royal Highness. In the second instance Princess Alexandra had been granted the style Her Highness by her grandfather the King; as the wife of a Prince she received the style Her Royal Highness.

There is also the curious case of Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg, later Queen Victoria Eugenia of Spain (the daughter of Princess Beatrice and Prince Henry of Battenberg). Prior to her marriage to King Alfonso XIII of Spain in May of 1906, she was styled Her Highness Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg. On April 3, 1906, King Edward VII, in order to elevate her standing prior to her wedding, raised her status to Royal Highness per royal declaration which read: "Whitehall April 3, 1906. The KING has been graciously pleased to declare and ordain that His Majesty's niece, Her Highness Princess Victoria Eugenie Julia Ena, daughter of Her Royal Highness the Princess Beatrice Mary Victoria Feodore (Princess Henry of Battenberg), shall henceforth be styled and called "Her Royal Highness"; And to command that the said Royal concession and declaration be registered in His Majesty's College of Arms." King Edward VII concurrently issued a Royal Warrant on the elevation which read: "Our Will and Pleasure is and we do hereby declare and ordain that from and after the date of this Warrant our most Dear Niece Princess Victoria Eugénie Julia Ena, only daughter of Our most Dear Sister Beatrice Mary Victoria Feodore (Princess Henry of Battenberg) shall be styled entitled and called "Her Royal Highness" before her name and such Titles and Appellations which to her belong in all Deeds Records Instruments or Documents whatsoever wherein she may at any time hereafter be named or described. And We do hereby authorize and empower Our said most Dear Niece henceforth at all times to assume and use and to be called and named by the Style, Title and Appellation of "Her Royal Highness" accordingly. Given at Our Court of Saint James's, the Third day of April 1906: in the Sixth Year of Our Reign. By His Majesty's Command. M Gladstone" Whether this made her a British Royal Princess is the subject of debate.

Common names

Of the above named princesses, there are a great number of shared names:



Sources

  1. Royal Styles and Titles – 1864 Letters Patent
  2. Ibid, 1816 Letters Patent
  3. Ibid, 1917 Letters Patent regarding the Royal Family
  4. Ibid, 1919 Letters Patent
  5. Ibid, 1905 Letters Patent
  6. Ibid, 1937 Letters Patent
  7. http://news.webshots.com/photo/2840607590081543377YuoQez
  8. http://www.heraldica.org/topics/britain/prince_highness_docs.htm#1864



Embed code:






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message