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The Brookings Institution is a nonprofit, public policy organization based in Washington, D.C.marker One of Washington's oldest think tanks, Brookings conducts research and education in the social sciences, primarily in economics, metropolitan policy, governance, foreign policy, and global economy and development.

Its stated mission is to "provide innovative and practical recommendations that advance three broad goals: strengthen American democracy; foster the economic and social welfare, security and opportunity of all Americans; and secure a more open, safe, prosperous, and cooperative international system."

The Foreign Policy Think Tank Index ranked Brookings as the #1 U.S. think tank in 2009. The organization's president, Strobe Talbott, was United States Deputy Secretary of State under President Bill Clinton. Brookings employs five research vice presidents: Kemal Derviş (former head of the United Nations Development Programme), Karen Dynan, Bruce Katz, Martin Indyk, and Darrell M. West. Ted Gayer serves as co-director of the Economic Studies program.

Publications

Brookings as an institution produces an Annual Report. The Brookings Institution Press publishes books and journals from the institution's own research as well as authors outside the organization. The books and journals they publish include Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, America Unbound: The Bush Revolution in Foreign Policy, Globalphobia: Confronting Fears about Open Trade, India: Emerging Power, Through Their Eyes, Taking the High Road, Masses in Flight and Stalemate to name a few. In addition, books, papers, articles, reports, policy briefs and opinion pieces are produced by Brookings research programs, centers, projects and, for the most part, by experts.

Policy influence

Brookings traces its history back to 1916 and has contributed to the creation of the United Nations, the Marshall Plan, and the Congressional Budget Office, as well as influenced policies of deregulation, broad-based tax reform, welfare reform, and foreign aid. It is ranked the number one think tank in the world in the annual think tank index published by Foreign Policy[42611], Foreign Policy: The Think Tank Index., of the 200 most prominent think tanks in the U.S., the Brookings Institution's research is the most widely cited by the media. In a 1997 survey of congressional staff and journalists, Brookings ranked as the second-most influential and first in credibility among 27 think tanks. Moreover, “Brookings and its researchers are not so concerned, in their work, in affecting the ideological direction of the nation” and rather tend “to be staffed by researchers with strong academic credentials.” Along with the American Enterprise Institute and Heritage Foundation, Brookings is generally considered one of the three most influential policy institutes in the U.S.

Political stance

As a 501 non-profit organization, Brookings describes itself as independent and non-partisan. The New York Times has referred to the organization as liberal, liberal-centrist, centrist, and conservative. The Washington Post sometimes describes Brookings as liberal but usually does not characterize the institution and has quoted both Republican and Democratic scholars. The Los Angeles Times described Brookings as liberal-leaning and centrist before concluding these labels made no sense. In 1977, Time Magazine described them as the "nation's pre-eminent liberal think tank." The organization is described as centrist by the progressive media watchdog group Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting.

Some liberals argue that despite its left-of-center reputation, Brookings foreign policy scholars have been overly supportive of Bush administration policies abroad. Matthew Yglesias, for example, has pointed out that Brookings's Michael O'Hanlon frequently agrees with—and appears on stage with—scholars from conservative organizations such as the American Enterprise Institute, The Weekly Standard, and the Project for a New American Century. Similarly, Brookings fellow and research director Benjamin Wittes is a member of the conservative Hoover Institution's Task Force on National Security and Law. Brookings scholars have served in Republican and Democratic administrations, including Mark McClellan, Ron Haskins and Martin Indyk. Michael O'Hanlon and Benjamin Wittes have never served in government.

The Brookings Board of Trustees include prominent Republicans such as Kenneth Duberstein, a former chief of staff to Ronald Reagan, and prominent Democrats, such as Laura Tyson, former chair of the Council of Economic Advisers under Bill Clinton. Its scholars include former government officials hailing from both Democratic and Republican administrations, as well as many who have not served in government and do not advertise a party affiliation.

Saban Center for Middle East Policy

In 2002, the Brookings Institution established the Saban Center for Middle East Policy in order "to promote a better understanding of the policy choices facing American decision makers in the Middle East". The Center is named after Haim Saban, an Israeli-American media proprietor, who donated $13 million toward its establishment and directed by Ken Pollack.

21st Century Defense Initiative (21CDI)

The 21st Century Defense Initiative (21CDI) was launched by the Foreign Policy Studies at Brookings Institution, in response to recent changes in the international security environment. The Initiative produces cutting-edge research, analysis, and outreach that address some of the most critical issues facing leaders shaping defense and security policy in the coming century. 21CDI focuses on three core issues: the future of war, the future of U.S. defense needs and priorities, and the future of the U.S. defense system.

The Initiative also serves as a mechanism to draw upon the wealth of expertise and capacity that exist within the Brookings Foreign Policy Studies Program and its world-class regional centers, including the Center on the United States and Europe, the Center for Northeast Asian Policy Studies, the Thorton China Center, and the Saban Center for Middle East Policy. Its creation allows the integration of regional knowledge with defense analysis in a manner not possible at other institutions.

21CDI research topics include counter-insurgency, military technology, current military operations, the United States Department of Defensemarker budgeting, and general defense issues. 21CDI has a special portal to the policy community through its Federal Executive Fellows Program:career officers from each military service, the CIA, and the Coast Guard, who spend a year in residence researching and publishing on cutting-edge defense topics.

Dr. Peter W. Singer, author of Wired for War, serves as the Director of the 21st Century Defense Initiative and Dr. Michael E. O'Hanlon, Senior Fellow and expert in U.S. national security policy, serves as the Director of Research.Senior Fellow Stephen P. Cohen, a South Asian security and proliferation expert and Vanda Felbab-Brown, expert in the national security implications of illicit economies, are also affiliated with 21CDI. Click here for the 21st Century Defense Initiative (21CDI) website.

History

1916-1979

Brookings was founded in 1916 as the Institute for Government Research (IGR) with the mission of becoming "the first private organization devoted to analyzing public policy issues at the national level."

The Institution's founder, philanthropist Robert S. Brookings (1850–1932), originally financed the formation of three organizations: the Institute for Government Research, the Institute of Economics, and the Robert Brookings Graduate School. The three were merged into the Brookings Institution in 1927.

During the Great Depression economists at Brookings embarked on a large scale study commissioned by President Franklin D. Roosevelt to understand the underlying causes of the depression. Brookings's first president Harold Moulton and other Brookings's scholars later led an effort to oppose President Roosevelt's New Deal policies because they thought such measures were impeding economic recovery. With the outbreak of World War II, Brookings researchers turned their attention to aiding the administration with a series of studies on mobilization.

In 1948, Brookings was asked to submit a plan for the administration of the European Recovery Program. The resulting organization scheme assured that the Marshall Plan was run carefully and on a businesslike basis.

In 1952, Robert Calkins succeeded Moulton as president of the Brookings Institution. He secured grants from the Rockefeller Foundation and the Ford Foundation that put the Institution on a strong financial basis. He reorganized the Institution around the Economic Studies, Government Studies, and Foreign Policy Progams. In 1957, the Institution moved from Jackson Avenue to a new research center near Dupont Circlemarker on Massachusetts Avenue in Washington, DC.

Kermit Gordon assumed the presidency of Brookings in 1967. He began a series of studies of program choices for the federal budget in 1969 entitled "Setting National Priorities". He also expanded the Foreign Policy Studies Program to include research in national security and defense. After the election of Richard Nixon to the presidency in 1968, the relationship between the Brookings Institution and the White House deteriorated. Yet throughout the 1970s, Brookings was offered more federal research contracts than it could handle.

1980-2009

By the 1980s, the Institution faced an increasingly competitive and ideologically charged intellectual environment. The need to reduce the Federal Budget Deficit became a major research theme as well as investigating problems with national security and government inefficiency. Bruce MacLaury, fourth president of Brookings, also established the Center for Public Policy Education to develop workshop conferences and public forums to broaden the audience for research programs.

In 1995, Michael Armacost became the fifth president of the Brookings Institution and led an effort to refocus the Institution's mission heading into the 21st Century. Under Armacost's direction, Brookings created several interdisciplinary research centers such as the Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy (now the Metropolitan Policy Program) led by Bruce J. Katz, brought attention to the plight of cities and metropolitan areas, and the Center for Northeast Asian Policy Studies, which brings together specialists from different Asian countries to examine regional problems.

Strobe Talbott became president of Brookings in 2002. Shortly thereafter, Brookings launched the Saban Center for Middle East Policy and the John L. Thornton China Center. In October 2006, Brookings announced the establishment of the Brookings-Tsinghua Center in Beijing. In July 2007, the Institution announced the creation of the Engelberg Center for Health Care Reform to be directed by senior fellow Mark McClellan, and then in October 2007, the creation of the Brookings Doha Center directed by fellow Hady Amr in Qatar.

Funders

At the end of 2004 the Brookings Institution had assets of $258 million and spent $39.7 million, while its budget has grown to more than $80 million in 2009.Large contributors include the Pew Charitable Trusts, the MacArthur Foundation, the Carnegie Corporation; and the governments of the United Statesmarker, Japanmarker, and the United Kingdommarker.

See also



References

  1. About Brookings
  2. Brookings Institution Encyclopedia Britannica.
  3. Robert Somers Brookings - Brookings Institution
  4. [1]
  5. Brookings Annual Report
  6. Brookings Institution Press
  7. Brookings Press Blog
  8. Brookings Institution Press: Books
  9. [2], Brookings Institution History.
  10. "A Measure of Media Bias" by Tim Groseclose and Jeff Milyo, December 2004.
  11. Study Finds First Drop in Think Tank Cites by Michael Dolny, ‘’FAIR’’, May/June 2006
  12. War of Ideas: Why Mainstream and Liberal Foundations and the Think Tanks they Support are Losing in the War of Ideas in American Politics by Andrew Rich, Stanford Social Innovation Review, Spring 2006
  13. Happy Birthday, Heritage Foundation by Jacob Weisberg, Slate, January 9, 1998
  14. [3], Closing Guantanamo.
  15. Next Generation of Conservatives (By the Dormful) by Jason DeParle, ‘’New York Times’’, June 14, 2005
  16. Silicon Valley's New Think Tank Stakes Out 'Radical Center' by Neil A. Lewis, ‘’New York Times’’, May 15, 1999
  17. ECONOMIC VIEW; Friedman And Keynes, Trading Pedestals by Tom Redburn, ‘’New York Times’’, September 24, 2000
  18. Marshall A. Robinson, 83, Former Foundation Chief, Dies by Wolfgang Saxon, ‘’New York Times’’, January 13, 2006
  19. Air Force's Newest Jet Fighter Is in Fierce Fight, in Capitol by Elizabeth Becker, ‘’New York Times’’, September 8, 1999
  20. The Way to Save ‘’New York Times’’, February 20, 2006
  21. Stumping for Attention To Deficit Disorder by Lori Montgomery, ‘’The Washington Post’’, June 21, 2007
  22. The Unbelievable Karl Rove by Dan Froomkin, ‘’Washingtonpost.com’’, November 13, 2006
  23. 2003 Budget Completes Big Jump in Spending by Glenn Kessler, ‘’The Washington Post’’, April 15, 2002
  24. [4], "Left-leaning" or "Nonpartisan"?.
  25. Parties Suggest They'd Yield for Stimulus Pact by Maura Reynolds and Richard Simon, ‘’Los Angeles Times’’, January 17, 2008
  26. U.S. Won't Say Who Killed Militant by Josh Meyer, ‘’Los Angeles Times’’, February 2, 2008
  27. A green light to genocide by Goldberg, ‘’Los Angeles Times’’, July 24, 2007
  28. The Other Think Tank Time Magazine, September 19, 1977
  29. Sam Husseini, " Brookings: The Establishment's Think Tank," Extra!, Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting (November/December 1998).
  30. Lawrence Soley, " Brookings: Stand-In for the Left," Extra!, Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting (1991).
  31. Michael Dolny, " Think Tanks in a Time of Crisis," Extra!, Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting (March/April 2002).
  32. Very Serious Indeed by Matthew Yglesias, Atlantic Monthly, August 24, 2007
  33. The Truth Behind the Pollack-O'Hanlon Trip to Iraq by Glenn Greenwald, Salon.com.
  34. Yoonited States of America
  35. [5], The Brookings Institution Experts.
  36. [6], The Brookings Board of Trustees.
  37. About Us, Saban Center for Middle East Policy, Brookings Institution
  38. Saban Family Foundation Announces $100 Million in Charitable Gifts Find Articles 2003-06-23
  39. [http://www.brookings.edu/projects/21defense.aspx.
  40. [http://www.http://www.brookings.edu/projects/21defense/about.aspx.
  41. [http://www.brookings.edu/foreign-policy/research.aspx.
  42. [http://www.http://www.brookings.edu/projects/21defense/about.aspx.
  43. [http://www.http://www.brookings.edu/projects/21defense/experts.aspx.
  44. [http://www.brookings.edu/projects/21defense.aspx.
  45. Brookings Institution History Brookings Institution.
  46. Brookings History: The Depression.
  47. Brookings History: War and Readjustment.
  48. Brookings History: Academic Prestige.
  49. Brookings History: National Doubts and Confusion.
  50. Brookings History: Setting New Agendas.
  51. Brooking's Annual Report


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