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Brugia timori is a human filarial parasite which causes the disease "Timor filariasis." While this disease was first described in 1965, the identity of Brugia timori as the causative agent was not known until 1977. In that same year, Anopheles barbirostris was shown to be its primary vector.

Characteristics of Brugia timori

The microfilariae of Brugia timori are longer and morphologically distinct from those of Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti, with a cephalic space length-to-width ratio of about 3:1. Also, the sheath of B. timori does not stain pink with Giemsa stain as is observed with B. malayi and W. bancrofti.

Brugia timori filariasis

Like other human filariasis infections, Brugia timori filariasis causes acute fever and chronic lymphedema. The life cycle of Brugia timori is very similar to that of Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi, leading to nocturnal periodicity of the disease symptoms.

So far Brugia timori has only been found in the Lesser Sunda Islandsmarker of Indonesiamarker. It is locally confined to areas inhabited by its mosquito vector, which breeds in rice fields. One study of the prevalence of infection in Mainang village, Alor Islandmarker, found microfilariae in the blood of 157 of 586 individuals (27%), with 77 of them (13%) exhibiting lymphedema of the leg.


Anthelmintics such as diethylcarbamazine and albendazole have shown promise in the treatment of Brugia timori filariasis. Some researchers are confident that Brugia timori filariasis may be an eradicable disease.

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