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Buenos Aires Province ( , Provincia de Buenos Aires) is the most populous province of Argentinamarker. Though it takes its name from the city of Buenos Airesmarker, the latter is not part of the provincial territory; Buenos Aires is an autonomous city. The province has a population of 15,011,248 (2008) and its capital is La Platamarker (694,253 inhabitants), south of the city of Buenos Airesmarker.

Legislature of the Province of Buenos Aires, La Plata.


History

Enactment of the Constitution of the Province, 1854.
Secessionist pressure continued until 1880.


The inhabitants of the province before the 16th century advent of Spanish colonisation were aboriginal peoples such as the Charruas and the Querandíes; but their culture has been lost for, over the next 350 years, they were subjected to a virtual genocide from which few survived. The survivors joined other tribes or have been mostly absorbed by Argentina's European majority.

Pedro de Mendoza founded Santa María del Buen Ayremarker in 1536 and even though the first contact with the aboriginals was peaceful, it soon became hostile. The city was evacuated in 1541. Juan de Garay re-founded it in 1580 as Santísima Trinidad y Puerto Santa María de los Buenos Aires.

Amidst ongoing conflict with the aboriginals, the cattle farms extended from Buenos Aires, whose port was always the centre of the economy of the territory. Following the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata at the end of the 18th century, the export of meat, leather and their derivatives through the port of Buenos Aires was the basis of the economic development of the region.

Jesuits unsuccessfully tried to peacefully assimilate the aboriginals into the European culture brought by the Spanish conquistadores. A certain balance was found at the end of the 18th century, when the Salado Rivermarker became the limit between both civilizations, even though the frequent malones aboriginal attacks to border settlements. The end to such situation came as late as 1879 with the Conquest of the Desert (Conquista del Desierto) in which the aboriginals where almost completely exterminated.

After the independence from Spainmarker in 1816, the city and province of Buenos Aires were allied in constant confrontation with the other provinces because of the federal system so controlled by Buenos Aires. The 1859 Pact of San Jose de Flores defeated secessionist aspirations per se; but, intermittent conflict with the nation did not truly cease until 1880, when the city of Buenos Aires was formally federalized and, thus, separated from the province itself.

La Platamarker was founded in 1882 with the purpose of becoming the province's capital and by that time, the province had around half a million inhabitants (about a quarter of Argentina's). Nearly a billion (1880s) dollars of British investment and pro-development, education and immigration policies pursued at the national level soon brought dramatic economic growth, however; like Argentina's, the province's population nearly doubled by 1895 and doubled again (to 2 million) by 1914. Likewise, by then, rail lines connected nearly every town and hamlet in the province; indeed, many developed around the new railway stations, themselves.

This era of accelerated development was cut short by the Wall Street Crash of 1929, which, of course, led to a sharp drop in commodity prices (99% of Argentine exports were, at the time, agricultural in nature) and a halt to the flow of investment funds between nations. Not unlike U.S.marker President Franklin Roosevelt, Argentina's leaders began pursuing ambitious lending and public works programs, visible in Buenos Aires Province through the panoply of levees, power plants, water works, paved roads, municipal buildings and (particularly during Pres. Juan Peron's 1946-55 term) schools, clinics and massive regional hospitals.


The province's population, after 1930, began to grow disproportionately quickly in the suburban areas around the city of Buenos Aires. These suburbs had grown to include 4 million out of the province's total 7 million people in 1960. Much of the area these new suburbs were developed on, however, (particularly the poorer ones) consisted of wetlands and were prone to flooding. To address this, Gov. Oscar Alende initiated the province's most important flood-control project to this day, the Roggero Reservoir. Completed a decade later, in 1971, the reservoir and associated electric and water-treatment facilities encouraged still more - and more orderly - development of the Greater Buenos Aires region, which today includes around 10 million people (2/3 of the province's); but, it did not address worsening pollution resulting from the area's industrial growth, which had made itself evident since around 1920. This problem has been worst along the Reconquista River west and north of the city of Buenos Aires; over 4 million people (One in 10 Argentines) today live on the Reconquista's basin. Of these, about a million still live with seriously compromised water quality, despite the province's numerous (sometimes counterproductive) efforts to remedy the issue.

In a nutshell, this is part of the paradox of the Buenos Aires Province today. Vast and immensely productive both agriculturally and industrially, its economy nevertheless strains to provide for its 15 million people (particularly in Greater Buenos Aires).

Geography

The Buenos Aires province has an area of 307,571 km² and its neighbouring provinces clockwise from the southwest are Rio Negromarker, La Pampa, Córdoba, Santa Fe and Entre Rios. To the east is the Atlantic Oceanmarker. It is also the largest province of Argentina.The landscape is mainly flat, with two low mountain ranges; Sierra de la Ventana (near Bahía Blancamarker) and Sierra de Tandil (Tandilmarker). The highest point is Cerro Tres Picos ( amsl; 38° 8' S, 61° 58' W) and the longest river is Río Saladomarker ( long).

As part of The Pampasmarker the weather of the province is strongly influenced by the ocean, with hot summers and temperate winters. Humidity is high and precipitations are abundant and distributed over the year. The Western and Southwestern regions are dryer.

Climate

The weather of the Buenos Aires Province is temperate with average temperatures between and . In the coastal areas the wind from sea cools down the nights during the summer and keeps a high humidity during the winters.

Precipitations vary from 500 mm to 1,000 mm per year on the coast, and due to the flatness of the terrain can produce flooding.

The geography of the province is crossed by occasional west Pampero winds. The southern Sudestada produces storms and temperature drops, most notably the Santa Rosa storm [34353], which takes place every year almost exactly on August 30.

Economy

Railway Museum of the Province, Avellaneda.
The province's economy has long been the largest in Argentina, estimated in 2006 to have been US$107.6 billion (a third of the national total). Its per capita income of US$7,780, though, was somewhat below the national average and even accounting for the much lower local cost of living, this was still probably a fourth of that in the United Statesmarker.

Agriculture in the province is renowned around the world for its productivity, though the sector adds about 5% to the province's total economy, among the most diverse in Argentina. The province's agriculture did however, bring in at least US$6 billion in export earnings in 2006 and is itself quite diverse; though cattle historically provided the main animal husbandry activity, Buenos Aires is also the top producer of sheep, pork, and chicken meat of the country. Equally important is the Dairy industry. Crop harvests, of course, have become even more important in recent decades. The most important crops include soybean, maize, wheat, sunflower and other oilseeds, like flax. More recently, premium wines are produced in the Buenos Aires wine region in the south of the province.
Manufacturing accounts for a fourth of the province's output and is about 40% of the entire nation's. The industry of the province is diverse: chemical, pharmaceutical, metallurgic, motor vehicles, machinery, textiles and the food industry are the most notable. Excluding processed agricultural items, the province was responsible for over US$10 billion of industrial exports in 2006 and accounted for a third of all Argentine exports.

The province's services sector is well-diversified and differs little from national trends. The largest local bank is the public Bank of the Province of Buenos Aires. The institution, the second-largest in Argentina, holds nearly a tenth of the nation's bank deposits.

Tourism

Mar del Plata.
Tourists, mainly from Buenos Aires, visit the Atlanticmarker coast.There are many cities and town along the coast line that starts some 250 kilometres from Buenos Aires after the Samborombón Baymarker.Among them, the biggest and most important is Mar del Platamarker, followed by Pinamar, Villa Gesell, Miramar and Necocheamarker.

Other destinations include the Sierras of Tandilmarker, Tigre and the many islands of the Río de la Platamarker delta, Isla Martín Garcíamarker, the Chascomúsmarker Lagoon, and the La Platamarker city.

Lately agritourism in estancias ranches has become somewhat popular for foreigners visiting the province.

Political division

Political division of the province and its capital La Plata (red dot).
Field of sunflowers, Balcarce.
Otamendi Natural Preserve, Campana.
300px-Laguna_Chascomús_-_"La_Bajadita".jpg" style='width:300px' alt="" />
Lake Chascomus.
Roggero Reservoir, Merlo.
Grottoes, Necochea.
Beach and pier, Pinamar.
Park in Tandil.
Parana River delta, Tigre.
Wineries and vineyards in Médanos
The province is divided in 134 administrative sections called "partidos" (administrative centres in brackets).

  1. Adolfo Alsina (Carhuémarker)
  2. Adolfo Gonzales Chaves (Adolfo Gonzales Chavesmarker)
  3. Alberti (Albertimarker)
  4. Almirante Brown (Adroguémarker)
  5. Arrecifes (Arrecifesmarker)
  6. Avellaneda (Avellanedamarker)
  7. Ayacucho (Ayacuchomarker)
  8. Azul (Azulmarker)
  9. Bahía Blanca (Bahía Blancamarker)
  10. Balcarce (Balcarcemarker)
  11. Baradero (Baraderomarker)
  12. Benito Juárez (Benito Juárezmarker)
  13. Berazategui (Berazateguimarker)
  14. Berisso (Berissomarker)
  15. Bolívar (San Carlos de Bolívarmarker)
  16. Bragado (Bragadomarker)
  17. Brandsen (Brandsenmarker)
  18. Campana (Campanamarker)
  19. Cañuelas (Cañuelasmarker)
  20. Capitán Sarmiento (Capitán Sarmientomarker)
  21. Carlos Casares (Carlos Casaresmarker)
  22. Carlos Tejedor (Carlos Tejedor)
  23. Carmen de Areco (Carmen de Arecomarker)
  24. Castelli (Castellimarker)
  25. Chacabuco (Chacabuco, Buenos Airesmarker)
  26. Chascomús (Chascomúsmarker)
  27. Chivilcoy (Chivilcoymarker)
  28. Colón (Colónmarker)
  29. Coronel Dorrego (Coronel Dorregomarker)
  30. Coronel Pringles (Coronel Pringlesmarker)
  31. Coronel Rosales (Punta Altamarker)
  32. Coronel Suárez (Coronel Suárezmarker)
  33. Daireaux (Daireauxmarker)
  34. Dolores (Doloresmarker)
  35. Ensenada (Ensenadamarker)
  36. Escobar (Belén de Escobarmarker)
  37. Esteban Echeverría (Monte Grandemarker)
  38. Exaltación de la Cruz (Capilla del Señormarker)
  39. Ezeiza (Ezeiza)
  40. Florencio Varela (Florencio Varelamarker)
  41. Florentino Ameghino (Florentino Ameghinomarker)
  42. General Alvaradomarker (Miramarmarker)
  43. General Alvear (General Alvearmarker)
  44. General Arenales (General Arenalesmarker)
  45. General Belgrano (General Belgranomarker)
  46. General Guido (General Guidomarker)
  47. General La Madrid (General La Madridmarker)
  48. General Las Heras (General Las Herasmarker)
  49. General Lavalle (General Lavallemarker)
  50. General Madariagamarker (General Juan Madariagamarker)
  51. General Paz (Ranchosmarker)
  52. General Pinto (General Pintomarker)
  53. General Pueyrredón (Mar del Platamarker)
  54. General Rodríguez (General Rodríguezmarker)
  55. General San Martín (General San Martínmarker)
  56. General Viamonte (General Viamontemarker)
  57. General Villegas (General Villegasmarker)
  58. Guaminí (Guaminímarker)
  59. Hipólito Yrigoyen (Hendersonmarker)
  60. Hurlingham (Hurlinghammarker)
  61. Ituzaingo (Ituzaingomarker)
  62. José C. Paz (José C.marker Pazmarker)
  63. Junín (Junínmarker)
  64. La Costa (Mar del Tuyúmarker)
  65. La Matanza (San Justomarker)
  66. La Plata (La Platamarker)
  67. Lanús (Lanúsmarker)
  68. Laprida (Lapridamarker)
  69. Las Flores (Las Floresmarker)
  70. Leandro N. Alem (Vediamarker)
  71. Lincoln (Lincolnmarker)
  72. Lobería (Loberíamarker)
  73. Lobos (Lobosmarker)
  74. Lomas de Zamora (Lomas de Zamoramarker)
  75. Luján (Lujánmarker)
  76. Magdalena (Magdalenamarker)
  77. Maipú (Maipúmarker)
  78. Malvinas Argentinas (Los Polvorinesmarker)
  79. Mar Chiquita (Coronel Vidalmarker)
  80. Marcos Paz (Marcos Pazmarker)
  81. Mercedes (Mercedesmarker)
  82. Merlo (Merlomarker)
  83. Monte Hermoso (Monte Hermosomarker)
  84. Moreno (Morenomarker)
  85. Morón (Morónmarker)
  86. Navarro (Navarromarker)
  87. Necochea (Necocheamarker)
  88. Nueve de Julio (Nueve de Juliomarker)
  89. Olavarríamarker (Olavarríamarker)
  90. Patagones (Carmen de Patagonesmarker)
  91. Pehuajó (Pehuajómarker)
  92. Pellegrini (Pellegrinimarker)
  93. Pergamino (Pergaminomarker)
  94. Pila (Pilamarker)
  95. Pilar (Pilarmarker)
  96. Pinamar (Pinamarmarker)
  97. Presidente Perón (Guernicamarker)
  98. Puán (Puánmarker)
  99. Punta Indio (Verónicamarker)
  100. Quilmes (Quilmesmarker)
  101. Ramallo (Ramallomarker)
  102. Rauch (Rauchmarker)
  103. Rivadavia (Américamarker)
  104. Rojas (Rojasmarker)
  105. Roque Pérez (Roque Pérezmarker)
  106. Saavedra (Pigüémarker)
  107. Saladillo (Saladillomarker)
  108. Salto (Saltomarker)
  109. Salliqueló (Salliquelómarker)
  110. San Andrés de Giles (San Andrés de Gilesmarker)
  111. San Antonio de Areco (San Antonio de Arecomarker)
  112. San Cayetano (San Cayetanomarker)
  113. San Fernando (San Fernandomarker)
  114. San Isidro (San Isidromarker)
  115. San Miguel (San Miguelmarker)
  116. San Miguel del Monte (San Miguel del Montemarker)
  117. San Nicolás (San Nicolás de los Arroyosmarker)
  118. San Pedro (San Pedromarker)
  119. San Vicente (San Vicentemarker)
  120. Suipacha (Suipachamarker)
  121. Tandil (Tandilmarker)
  122. Tapalqué (Tapalquémarker)
  123. Tigre (Tigremarker)
  124. Tordillo (General Conesamarker)
  125. Tornquist (Tornquistmarker)
  126. Trenque Lauquen (Trenque Lauquenmarker)
  127. Tres Arroyos (Tres Arroyosmarker)
  128. Tres de Febrero (Caserosmarker)
  129. Tres Lomas (Tres Lomasmarker)
  130. Veinticinco de Mayo (Veinticinco de Mayomarker)
  131. Vicente López (Olivosmarker)
  132. Villa Gesell (Villa Gesellmarker)
  133. Villarino (Médanosmarker)
  134. Zárate (Záratemarker)


See also



References

  1. http://www.indec.mecon.gov.ar/nuevaweb/cuadros/2/pobl_1895-01.xls
  2. http://www.unsam.edu.ar/home/rr.pdf
  3. Río Reconquista, un basural acuático : Argentina Indymedia (( i ))
  4. I.A.D.E.R
  5. CIA Site Redirect — Central Intelligence Agency
  6. Dirección Provincial De Estadistica
  7. Exportaciones De La Provincia De Buenos Aires
  8. INDEC: Foreign trade data
  9. Argentine Banking Association: August 2008


External links




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