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Bullfighting also known as tauromachy (from Greek ταυρομαχία - tauromachia, "bull-fight"), is a traditional spectacle of Spainmarker, Portugalmarker, some cities in southern Francemarker and in several Latin American countries, in which one or more bull are ritually killed in a bullring as a public spectacle. In Portugal it is illegal to kill a bull in the arena, a nonlethal variant stemming from Portuguese influence is also practiced on the Tanzanian island of Pembamarker.

The tradition, as it is practiced today, involves professional toreros (toureiros in Portuguese; also referred to as toreadors in English), who execute various formal moves in order to subdue the bull itself. Such maneuvers are performed at close range, and have in some cases resulted in injury or even death of the performer. The bullfight usually concludes with the death of the bull by a sword thrust. In Portugal the finale consists of a tradition called the pega, where men (forcados)try to grab and hold the bull by its horns when it runs at them. Forcados are dressed in a traditional costume of damask or velvet, with long knit hats as worn by the campinos (bull headers) from Ribatejomarker.

Bullfighting generates heated controversy in many areas of the world, including Mexicomarker, Ecuadormarker, Spain, Peru, and Portugal. Supporters of bullfighting argue that it is a culturally important tradition, while animal rights groups argue that it is a blood sport because of the suffering of the bull and horses during the bullfight.

There are many historic fighting venues in the Iberian Peninsulamarker and Latin America. The largest venue of its kind is the Plaza de toros Méxicomarker in central Mexico Citymarker which seats 48,000 people,and the oldest is the Plaza de Toros de Acho in Lima, Peru, which was built in 1766.

History

Bullfighting traces its roots to prehistoric bull worship and sacrifice. The killing of the sacred bull (tauromachy) is the essential central iconic act of Mithras, which was commemorated in the mithraeum wherever Roman soldiers were stationed. The oldest representation of what seems to be a man facing a bull is on the celtiberian tombstone from Cluniamarker and the cave painting "El toro de hachos", both found in Spainmarker.

Bullfighting is often linked to Rome, where many human-versus-animal events were held. There are also theories that it was introduced into Hispania by the Emperor Claudius when he instituted a short-lived ban on gladiatorial games, as a substitute for those combats. The latter theory was supported by Robert Graves. (Picadors are the remnants of the javelin, but their role in the contest is now a relatively minor one limited to "preparing" the bull for the matador.) Bullfighting spread from Spain to its Central and South American colonies, and in the 19th century to France, where it developed into a distinctive form in its own right.

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Mithras killing a bull.
Religious festivities and royal weddings were celebrated by fights in the local plaza, where noblemen would ride competing for royal favor, and the populace enjoyed the excitement.The Spanish introduced the practice of fighting on foot around 1726. Francisco Romero is generally regarded as having been the first to do this.

As bullfighting developed, men on foot started using capes to aid the horsemen in positioning the bulls. This type of fighting drew more attention from the crowds. Thus the modern corrida, or fight, began to take form, as riding noblemen were substituted by commoners on foot. This new style prompted the construction of dedicated bullrings, initially square, like the Plaza de Armas, and later round, to discourage the cornering of the action.The modern style of Spanish bullfighting is credited to Juan Belmonte, generally considered the greatest matador of all time. Belmonte introduced a daring and revolutionary style, in which he stayed within a few inches of the bull throughout the fight. Although extremely dangerous (Belmonte himself was gored on many occasions), his style is still seen by most matadors as the ideal to be emulated.Today, bullfighting remains similar to the way it was in 1726, when Francisco Romero, from Ronda, Spain, used the estoque, a sword, to kill the bull, and the muleta, a small cape used in the last stage of the fight.

Bullfighting has had its detractors throughout history. Pope Pius V issued a papal bull titled De Salute Gregis in November 1567 which forbade fighting of bulls and any other beasts as the voluntary risk to life endangered the soul of the combatants, but it was abolished eight years later by his successor, Pope Gregory XIII, at the request of king Philip II.

During the 18th and 19th centuries bullfighting was banned at several occasions (for instance by Philip V) but always reinstituted later by other governments. It was during these two centuries that the bullfight acquired the form it has today. During the Francomarker dictatorship bullfights were supported by the state as something genuinely Spanish so that bullfights became associated with the regime and, for this reason, many thought they would decline after the transition to democracy, but this did not happen. During this time the social-democratic governments, particularly the current government of Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero, have generally been more opposed to bullfighting, prohibiting children under 14 from attending and limiting or prohibiting the broadcast of bullfights on national TV. During the current (2008) social-democratic administration most bullfights are broadcast on regional TV stations.

The Spanish royal family is divided on the issue, from Queen Sophia who does not hide her dislike for bullfights, to King Juan Carlos who occasionally presides over a bullfight from the royal box as part of his official duties, to their daughter Princess Elena who is well known for her liking of bullfights and who often accompanies the king in the presiding box or attends privately in the general seating.

Styles of bullfighting

Originally, there were at least five distinct regional styles of bullfighting practised in southwestern Europe: Andalusiamarker, Aragonmarker-Navarremarker, Alentejo, Camarguemarker, Aquitainemarker. Over time, these have evolved more or less into standardized national forms mentioned below. The "classic" style of bullfight, in which the bull is killed, is the form practised in Spain and many Latin American countries.Interestingly, in general the matador is cheered for in Spain and the the bull cheered for in Latin America.

Spanish-style bullfighting

Spanish-style bullfighting is called corrida de toros (literally "race of bulls") or la fiesta ("the festival"). In a traditional corrida, three matadores ("killers"), each fight two bulls, each of which is at least four years old and weighs 460–600 kg. Each matador has six assistants — two picadores ("lancers") mounted on horseback, three banderilleros ("flagmen") - who along with the matadors are collectively known as toreros ("bullfighters") - and a mozo de espada ("sword page"). Collectively they comprise a cuadrilla ("entourage").

The modern corrida is highly ritualized, with three distinct stages or tercios ("thirds"), the start of each being announced by a trumpet sound. The participants first enter the arena in a parade, called the paseíllo, to salute the presiding dignitary, accompanied by band music. Torero costumes are inspired by 18th century Andalusian clothing, and matadores are easily distinguished by the gold of their traje de luces ("suit of lights") as opposed to the lesser banderilleros who are also called toreros de plata ("bullfighters of silver").

Corrida in Sevilla, Spain
Next, the bull enters the ring to be tested for ferocity by the matador and banderilleros with the magenta and gold capote ("dress cape"). This is the first stage, the tercio de varas ("the lancing third"), and the matador first confronts the bull with the capote, observing the behaviour of the bull while performing a tanda ("series of passes") to impress the crowd.

Next, a picador enters the arena on horseback armed with a vara ("lance"). To protect the horse from the bull's horns, the horse is surrounded by a peto — a protective mattress-like covering. Prior to 1930, the horse did not wear any protection, and the bull would usually disembowel the horse during this stage. Until this change was instituted, the number of horses killed during a fight was higher than the number of bulls killed. At this point, the picador stabs just behind the morillo, a mound of muscle on the fighting bull's neck, weakening the neck muscles and leading to the animal's first loss of blood. The manner in which the bull charges the horse provides important clues to the matador about which side the bull favors. If the picador is successful, the bull will hold its head and horns lower during the following stages of the fight. This makes the bull's charges less dangerous and more reliable, enabling the matador to perform.

In the next stage, the tercio de banderillas ("the third of flags"), the three banderilleros each attempt to plant two banderillas, sharp barbed sticks into the bull's shoudlers. These anger and invigorate the bull who has been tired by his attacks on the horse and the damage he has taken from the lance. Sometimes a matador will place his own banderillas.

In the final stage, the tercio de muerte ("the third of death"), the matador re-enters the ring alone with a small red cape, or muleta, and a sword. It is a common misconception that the color red is supposed to anger the bull, because bulls, in fact, are colorblind. The cape is thought to be red to mask the bull's blood, although this is now also a matter of tradition. The matador uses his cape to attract the bull in a series of passes which serve the dual purpose of wearing the animal down for kill and producing a beautiful display or faena. He may also demonstrate his domination over the bull by caping it especially close to his body. The faena is the entire performance with the muleta and it is usually broken down into tandas, "series", of passes. The faena ends with a final series of passes in which the matador with a muleta attempts to maneuver the bull into a position to stab it between the shoulder blades and through the aorta or heart. The act of thrusting the sword is called an estocada.

If the matador has performed particularly well, the crowd may petition the president to award the matador an ear of the bull by waving white handkerchiefs. If his performance was exceptional, he will award two, and in certain more rural rings a tail can still be awarded. Very rarely, if the public or the matador believe that the bull has fought bravely, they may petition the president of the plaza to grant the bull an indulto before the tercio de muerte. This is when the bull’s life is spared and allowed to leave the ring alive and return to the ranch where it came from. Then the bull becomes a stud bull for the rest of his life.

Recortes

Goya: The Speed and Daring of Juanito Apiñani in the Ring of Madrid 1815–16

Etching and aquatint
Recortes, a style of bullfighting practised in Navarra, La Rioja, and North of Castille, has been far less popular than the traditional corridas. There has been a recent resurgence of recortes in Spain where they are sometimes shown on TV.

This style was common in the early 19th century. Etchings by painter Francisco de Goya depict these events.

Recortes differs from a corrida in the following ways:
  • The bull is not physically injured. Drawing blood is rare and the bull returns to his pen at the end of the performance.
  • The men are dressed in common street clothes and not in traditional bullfighting dress.
  • Acrobatics are performed without the use of capes or other props. Performers attempt to evade the bull solely through the swiftness of their movements.
  • Rituals are less strict so the men have freedom to perform stunts as they please.
  • Men work in teams but with less role distinction than in a corrida.
  • Teams compete for points awarded by a jury.


Animal rights groups such as PETA object to recortes; however, some people find recortes less objectionable than traditional bullfighting since the bull survives the ordeal. Since horses are not used, and performers are not professionals, recortes are less costly to produce.

Portuguese

Cavaleiro and bull


Most Portuguese bullfights are held in two phases: the spectacle of the cavaleiro, and the pega. In the cavaleiro, a horseman on a Portuguese Lusitano horse (specially trained for the fights) fights the bull from horseback. The purpose of this fight is to stab three or four bandeirilhas (small javelin) in the back of the bull.

In the second stage, called the pega ("holding"), the forcados, a group of eight men, challenge the bull directly without any protection or weapon of defense. The front man provokes the bull into a charge to perform a pega de cara or pega de caras (face grab). The front man secures the animal's head and is quickly aided by his fellows who surround and secure the animal until he is subdued.

The bull is not killed in the ring and, at the end of the corrida, leading oxen are let into the arena and two campinos on foot herd the bull along them back to its pen. The bull is usually killed, away from the audience's sight, by a professional butcher. It can happen that some bulls, after an exceptional performance, are healed, released to pasture until their end days and used for breeding.

French

the 19th century Spanish-style corridas have been increasingly popular in Southern France where they enjoy legal protection in areas where there is an uninterrupted tradition of such bull fights, particularly during holidays such as Whitsun or Easter. Among France's most important venues for bullfighting are the ancient Roman arenas of Nîmesmarker and Arlesmarker, although there are bull rings across the South from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic coasts.

A more indigenous genre of bullfighting is widely common in the Provence and Languedoc areas, and is known alternately as "course libre" or "course camarguaise". This is a bloodless spectacle (for the bulls) in which the objective is to snatch a rosette from the head of a young bull. The participants, or raseteurs, begin training in their early teens against young bulls from the Camarguemarker region of Provence before graduating to regular contests held principally in Arles and Nîmes but also in other Provençal and Languedoc towns and villages. Before the course, an encierro — a "running" of the bulls in the streets — takes place, in which young men compete to outrun the charging bulls. The course itself takes place in a small (often portable) arena erected in a town square. For a period of about 15–20 minutes, the raseteurs compete to snatch rosettes (cocarde) tied between the bulls' horns. They don't take the rosette with their bare hands but with a claw-shaped metal instrument called a raset or crochet (hook) in their hands, hence their name. Afterwards, the bulls are herded back to their pen by gardians (Camarguais cowboys) in a bandido, amidst a great deal of ceremony. The star of these spectacles are the bulls, who get top billing and stand to gain fame and statues in their honor, and lucrative product endorsement contracts.

A raseteur takes a rosette.
Another type of French 'bullfighting' is the course landaise style, in which cows are used instead of bulls. This is a competition between teams named cuadrillas, which belong to certain breeding estates. A cuadrilla is made up of a teneur de corde, an entraîneur, a sauteur, and six écarteurs. The cows are brought to the arena in boxes and then taken out in order. Teneur de corde controls the dangling rope attached to cow's horns and the entraîneur positions the cow to face and attack the player. The écarteurs will try, at the last possible moment, to dodge around the cow and the sauteur will leap over it. Each team aims to complete a set of at least one hundred dodges and eight leaps. This is the main scheme of the "classic" form, the course landaise formelle. However, different rules may be applied in some competitions. For example, competitions for Coupe Jeannot Lafittau are arranged with cows without ropes.

At one point it resulted in so many fatalities that the French government tried to ban it, but had to back down in the face of local opposition. The bulls themselves are generally fairly small, much less imposing than the adult bulls employed in the corrida. Nonetheless, the bulls remain dangerous due to their mobility and vertically formed horns. Participants and spectators share the risk; it is not unknown for angry bulls to smash their way through barriers and charge the surrounding crowd of spectators. The course landaise is not seen as a dangerous sport by many, but écarteur Jean-Pierre Rachou died in 2003 when a bull's horn tore his femoral artery.

Freestyle bullfighting

Freestyle bullfighting is a style of bullfighting developed in American rodeo. The style was developed by the rodeo clowns who protect bull riders from being trampled or gored by an angry bull. Freestyle bullfighting is a 70-second competition in which the bullfighter (rodeo clown) avoids the bull by means of dodging, jumping and use of a barrel. Competitions are organized in the US as the World Bullfighting Championship (WBC) and the Dickies National Bullfighting Championship under auspices of the Professional Bull Riders (PBR).

Comic bullfighting

Comical spectacles based on bullfighting, called espectáculos cómico-taurinos or charlotadas, are still popular in Spain and Mexico, with troupes like El empastre or El bombero torero.

Hazards

The goring of a matador
Killing of a bull
Muerte del Maestro (Death of the Master) – Jose Villegas Cordero, 1884.
Spanish-style bullfighting is normally fatal for the bull, and it is also dangerous for the matador. Picadors and banderilleros are sometimes gored, but this is not common. They are paid less and noticed less, because their job takes less skill and is perceived as requiring less courage. The suertes with the capote are risky, but it is the faena that is the most dangerous, in particular the estocada. A matador of classical style—notably, Manolete—is trained to divert the bull with the muleta but always come close to the right horn as he makes the fatal sword-thrust between the clavicles and through the aorta. At this moment, the danger is the greatest. A matador can run off to one side and stab the bull in the lungs—and may even achieve a quick kill—but it will not be a clean kill, because he will have avoided the difficult target, and the mortal risk, of the classical technique. Such a matador will often be booed.

Some matadors, notably Juan Belmonte, have been gored many times: according to Ernest Hemingway, Belmonte's legs were marred by many ugly scars. A special type of surgeon has developed, in Spain and elsewhere, to treat cornadas, or horn-wounds.

The bullring has a chapel where a matador can pray before the corrida, and where a priest can be found in case a sacrament is needed. The most relevant sacrament is now called "Anointing of the Sick"; it was formerly known as "Extreme Unction", or the "Last Rites".

Cultural aspects of bullfighting

Many supporters of bullfighting regard it as a deeply ingrained, integral part of their national cultures. The aesthetic of bullfighting is based on the interaction of the man and the bull. Rather than a competitive sport, the bullfight is more of a ritual which is judged by aficionados (bullfighting fans) based on artistic impression and command. Ernest Hemingway said of it in his 1932 non-fiction book Death in the Afternoon: "Bullfighting is the only art in which the artist is in danger of death and in which the degree of brilliance in the performance is left to the fighter's honour." Bullfighting is seen as a symbol of Spanish culture.

The bullfight is above all about the demonstration of style, technique and courage by its participants. While there is usually no doubt about the outcome, the bull is not viewed as a sacrificial victim — it is instead seen by the audience as a worthy adversary, deserving of respect in its own right. Bulls learn fast and their capacity to do so should never be underestimated. Indeed, a bullfight may be viewed as a race against time for the matador, who must display his bullfighting skills before the animal learns what is going on and begins to thrust its horns at something other than the cape. A hapless matador may find himself being pelted with seat cushions as he makes his exit.

The audience looks for the matador to display an appropriate level of style and courage and for the bull to display aggression and determination. For the matador, this means performing skillfully in front of the bull, often turning his back on it to demonstrate his mastery over the animal. The skill with which he delivers the fatal blow is another major point to look for. A skillful matador will achieve it in one stroke. Two is barely acceptable, while more than two is usually regarded as a bad job.

The moment when the matador kills the bull is the most dangerous point of the entire fight, as it requires him to reach between the horns, head on, to deliver the blow. Matadors are at the greatest risk of suffering a goring at this point. Gorings are not uncommon and the results can be fatal. Many bullfighters have met their deaths on the horns of a bull, including one of the most celebrated of all time, Manolete, who was killed by a bull named Islero, raised by Miura, and Paquirri, who was killed by a bull named Avispado.

In Spanish-speaking countries, when the bull charges through the cape, the crowd cheers saying Olé. If the matador has done exceptionally well, he will be given a standing ovation by the crowd, throwing hats and roses into the arena to show their appreciation. The successful matador will also receive one or two severed ears, and even the tail of the bull, depending on the quality of his performance. If the bull’s performance was also exceptional, the public may petition the president for a vuelta. This is when the crowd applauds as the dead bull is dragged once around the ring.

Some in Spain despise bullfighting because of its association with the Spanish nation and its blessing by the Franco regime as the fiesta nacional. Despite the long history and popularity of bullfighting in Barcelona, Catalan nationalism played an important role in Barcelona's recent symbolic vote against bullfighting. However, even Jon Idigoras, a former Basque Batasuna leader, was a novillero before becoming a politician.

Another current of criticism comes from aficionados themselves, who may despise modern developments such as the defiant style ("antics" for some) of El Cordobés or the lifestyle of Jesulín de Ubrique, a common subject of Spanish gossip magazines. His "female audience"-only corridas were despised by veterans, many of whom reminisce about times past, comparing modern bullfighters with early figures.

Fin-de-siècle Spanish regeneracionista intellectuals protested against what they called the policy of pan y toros ("bread and bulls"), an analogue of Roman panem et circenses promoted by politicians to keep the populace content in its oppression.

Popularity

A 2002 Gallup poll found that 68.8% of Spaniards express "no interest" in bullfighting while 20.6% expressed "some interest" and 10.4% "a lot of interest." The poll also found significant generational variety, with 51% of those 65 and older expressing interest, compared with 23% of those between 25–34 years of age. Popularity also varies significantly according to regions in Spain with it being least popular in Galicia and Catalonia with 81% and 79% of those polled expressing no interest. Interest is greatest in the zones of the north, centre, east and south, with around 37% declaring themselves fans and 63% having no interest.

In the Canary Islandsmarker, bullfights and other spectacles that involve cruelty to animals are formally banned, with the exception of cockfighting, which is traditional in some towns in the Islands.

According to a poll conducted by the Sports Marketing Group in Atlanta in 2003, 46.2% of Americans polled hated or strongly disliked bull fighting.

Bullfighting also saw a presence in Cuba during its colonial period but was quickly abolished after its independence in 1901. Never truly succeeding in being too popular, most Cubans saw bullfighting as a primitive barbaric spectacle of old world character that had no reason to continue in the new republic. Soon after, boxing and baseball, among other sports, were received much more favorably, with baseball becoming the national sport.

Bullfighting was also introduced in Argentinamarker by Spain but after Argentina's independence the event drastically diminished in popularity and was abolished in 1899 under law 2786.

Criticism

Animal concerns

Bull dying in a bullfight
Bullfighting is criticized by many people, including but not limited to animal rights activists, referring to it as a cruel or barbaric blood sport, in which the bull suffers severe stress and a slow, torturous death. A number of animal rights or animal welfare activist groups undertake anti-bullfighting actions in Spain and other countries. In Spanish, opposition to bullfighting is referred to as antitaurina. However, some commentators have called into question how much worse the welfare of the bull is across its life as compared to the lives and death of meat cattle in commercial farming.

Bullfighting guide The Bulletpoint Bullfight warns that bullfighting is "not for the squeamish," advising spectators to "be prepared for blood." The guide details prolonged and profuse bleeding caused by horse-mounted lancers, the charging by the bull of a blindfolded, armored horse who is "sometimes doped up, and unaware of the proximity of the bull", the placing of barbed darts by banderilleros, followed by the matador's fatal sword thrust. The guide stresses that these procedures are a normal part of bullfighting and that death is rarely instantaneous. The guide further warns those attending bullfights to "Be prepared to witness various failed attempts at killing the animal before it lies down."

Bullfighting is banned in many countries; people taking part in such activity would be liable for terms of imprisonment for animal cruelty. "Bloodless" variations, though, are permitted and have attracted a following in Californiamarker, and Francemarker.

In Spain, national laws against cruelty to animals have abolished most blood sports, but specifically exempt bullfighting. Over time, Spanish regulations have reduced the goriness of the fight, but only for the matadors and the horses, introducing the padding for picadors' horses and mandating full-fledged operating rooms in the premises.

The Barcelonamarker city council held a symbolic vote against bullfighting in 2004, but bullfighting in Barcelona continues, against the majority of public opinion. Several other towns in Spain have banned bullfighting.

State-run Spanish TV canceled live coverage of bullfights in August 2007, claiming that the coverage was too violent for children who might be watching, and that live coverage violated a voluntary, industry-wide code attempting to limit "sequences that are particularly crude or brutal". In October 2008, in a statement to Congress, Luis Fernández, the President of Spanish State Broadcaster TVE, confirmed that the station will no longer broadcast live bullfights due to the high cost of production and a rejection of the events by advertisers. However the station will continue to broadcast ‘Tendido Cero’, a bullfighting magazine program. . Having the national Spanish TV stop broadcasting it, after 50 years of history, was considered a big step for its abolition. Nevertheless, other regional and private channels keep broadcasting it with good audience.

A Portuguesemarker television station also prohibited the broadcasting of bullfights in January 2008, because they are too violent for minors. In March 2009, Viana do Castelomarker, a city in northern Portugalmarker, became the first city in that country to ban bullfighting. Mayor Defensor Moura cited torture and imposition of unjustifiable suffering as a factor in arriving at the ban. The city’s bullfighting arena will be torn down to accommodate a new cultural center.

Funding

Finally, it has also been criticized that bullfighting is financed with public money. In 2007, the Spanish fighting bull breeding industry was allocated 500 million euros in grants, and in 2008 almost 600. Some of this money comes from European funds to the livestock.

See also



References

  1. online descriptions in English - most available references are in Swahili Photos of Pemba bullfight on Flikr
  2. www.worldstadiums.com
  3. Pierre tombale de Clunia - 4473 - L'encyclopédie - L'Arbre Celtique
  4. Toro de Lidia - Toro de lidia
  5. Queen Sofia of Spain - Phantis
  6. Casa de Su Majestad el Rey de España
  7. Casa Real
  8. Plaza de Toros de Las Ventas
  9. Plaza de Toros de Las Ventas
  10. "bullfighting." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 14 Jan. 2009 http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/84444/bullfighting>.
  11. ITLA - Longhorn_Information - handling
  12. http://iacuc.tennessee.edu/pdf/Policies-AnimalCare/Cattle-BasicCare.pdf
  13. Fiske-Harrison, Alexander. "A Noble Death", Prospect. September 2008. Retrieved on 2009-03-13
  14. Isaacson, Andy, (2007), "California's 'bloodless bullfights' keep Portuguese tradition alive", San Francisco Chronicle.
  15. Vaches Pour Cash: L'Economie de L'Encierro Provencale, Dr. Yves O'Malley, Nanterre University 1987.
  16. Bullfighting Spactacles: State Norms (in Spanish) Example: Los espectáculos cómico-taurinos no podrán celebrarse conjuntamente con otros festejos taurinos en los que se dé muerte a las reses.
  17. http://www.idausa.org/campaigns/sport/bull/alert.html
  18. Encuesta Gallup: Interés por las corridas de toros (In Spanish)
  19. Canary Islands Government. Law 8/1991, dated April the 30th, for animal protection (in Spanish)
  20. [1]
  21. [2]
  22. Fiske-Harrison, Alexander. "A Noble Death" Prospect. September 2008. Retrieved on 2009-03-24
  23. The Bulletpoint Bullfight, p. 6, ISBN 978-1-4116-7400-4
  24. Barcelona Passes Symbolic Vote Against Bullfighting
  25. http://www.news1130.com/news/international/article.jsp?content=w082258A | No more 'ole'? Matadors miffed as Spain removes bullfighting from state TV
  26. TVE explains the decision not to broadcast bullfighting is a financial one
  27. http://www.abc.es/hemeroteca/historico-22-08-2007/abc/Nacional/las-corridas-de-toros-corren-peligro-en-tve-_164480243859.html
  28. ¡PROHÍBEN CORRIDAS DE TOROS PARA NIÑOS! (EN COSTA RICA) :: ASANDA :: Asociación Andaluza para la Defensa de los Animales
  29. Landmark bullfighting ban
  30. No permitas que tus impuestos financien la tortura a los toros: ¡Actúa ya! AnimaNaturalis
  31. Parte de nuestros impuestos se dedican a financiar estas prácticas. Cada gallego aporta 42 euros al año a la tauromaquia 21/07/2008. El Progreso
  32. Los alcaldes antitaurinos cierran el grifo a las corridas Público
  33. For a Bullfighting-free europe
  34. Lorca's poem in English


Further reading

  • Ciofalo, John J. "The Artist in the Vicinity of Death." The Self-Portraits of Francisco Goya. Cambridge University Press, 2001.
  • Shadow of a Bull, book by Maia Wojciechowska about a bullfighter's son


External links



Supporting bullfighting



Against bullfighting




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