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The Burning of Washington took place on August 24, 1814, during the War of 1812 between the British Empire and the United States of Americamarker. British forces occupied Washington, D.C.marker and set fire to many public buildings following the American defeat at the Battle of Bladensburg. The facilities of the U.S. government, including the White Housemarker, were largely destroyed, though strict discipline and the British commander's orders to burn only public buildings are credited with preserving the city's private buildings.

Reasons for the attack

Historians assert that the attack was in retaliation for the American looting of York, Upper Canadamarker (now Torontomarker) after the Battle of Yorkmarker in 1813, and the burning down of the Parliament Buildings of Upper Canada. The British Army commanders said they chose to attack Washington "on account of the greater political effect likely to result,".

Governor-General Sir George Prevost of Canada wrote to the Admirals in Bermuda calling for a retaliation for the American sacking of Yorkmarker and requested their permission and support in the form the provision of naval resources. At the time, it was considered against the civilized laws of war to burn a non-military facility and the Americans had not only burned the Parliament but also looted and burned the Governor's mansion, private homes and warehouses.

Further proof of the intention was that after the limited British burning of some public facilities, the British left. There was no territory that they wanted to occupy, no military facility that they had planned to attack, and the attack caused no American casualties.

Events

On August 24, 1814, the advance guard of British troops made a march to Capitol Hillmarker. General Robert Ross sent a party under a flag of truce to agree to terms, but they were attacked by partisans from a house at the corner of Maryland Avenue, Constitution Avenue, and Second Street NE. This was to be the only resistance the soldiers met. The house was burned, and the Union Flag raised over Washington.

The buildings housing the Senate and House of Representatives—construction on the central rotunda of the Capitolmarker had not yet begun—were set ablaze not long after. The interiors of both buildings, including the Library of Congressmarker, were destroyed, although the thick walls and a torrential rainfall preserved their exteriors. (Thomas Jefferson later sold his library to the government to restock the Library of Congressmarker.) The next day Admiral Cockburn entered the building of the D.C. newspaper, National Intelligencer, intending to burn it down; however, a group of neighborhood women persuaded him not to because they were afraid the fire would spread to their neighboring houses. Cockburn wanted to destroy the newspaper because they had written so many negative items about him, branding him as "The Ruffian." Instead he ordered his troops to tear the building down brick by brick making sure that they destroyed all the "C" type so that no more pieces mentioning his name could be printed .

The troops then turned north down Pennsylvania Avenue toward the White House. First Lady Dolley Madison remained there after many of the government officials — and her own bodyguard — had already fled, gathering valuables, documents and other items of importance, notably the Lansdowne Portrait, a full-length painting of George Washington by Gilbert Stuart. She was finally persuaded to leave moments before invading soldiers entered the building. Once inside, the soldiers found the dining hall set for a dinner for 40 people. After eating all the food, they took souvenirs (e.g., one of the president's hats) and then set the building on fire.

Fuel was added to the fires that night to ensure they would continue burning into the next day; the smoke was reportedly visible as far away as Baltimore and the Patuxent River.

The British also burned the United States Treasurymarker Buildingmarker and other public buildings. Much of the historic Washington Navy Yardmarker, founded by Thomas Jefferson and the first federal installation in the United States, was burned by the Americans to prevent capture of stores and ammunition, as well as the 44-gun frigate USS Columbia which was then being built. The Navy Yard's Latrobe Gatemarker, Quarters A, and Quarters B were the only buildings to escape destruction. The United States Patent Office building was saved by the efforts of William ThorntonArchitect of the Capitol and then superintendent of patents—who convinced the British of the importance of its preservation. Also spared were the Marine Barracksmarker, which some attribute as a gesture of respect for their conduct at Bladensburg. However, Alexandriamarker was raided by the British, although a deal with the mayor kept that town from being burnt.

Less than a day after the attack began, a hurricane which included a tornado passed through, killing more British than American guns, tossing cannons, and putting out fires. This forced the British troops to return to their ships, many of which were badly damaged by the storm, and so the actual occupation of Washington lasted about 26 hours. President Madison and the rest of the government quickly returned to the city.

Aftermath

Damage to the White House



The White Housemarker had been set ablaze causing extensive damage; only the exterior walls remained, and they had to be torn down and mostly reconstructed due to weakening from the fire and subsequent exposure to the elements, except for portions of the southwall. A legend emerged that during the rebuilding of the structure white paint was applied to mask the burn damage it had suffered, giving the building its namesake hue. This is unfounded as the building had been painted white since its construction in 1798. Of the many spoils taken from the White House when it was ransacked by British troops, only two have been recovered — a painting of George Washington, rescued by the door-keeper and the gardener but falsely attributed to then-first lady Dolley Madison in her own memoir, and a jewelry box returned to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1939 by an old man who said his grandfather had taken it from Washington.

Political effects

The British raid on Washington successfully diverted the attention of the government, and was designed to land a humiliating blow to the Americans. Indeed, John Armstrong, Jr. was dismissed as United States Secretary of War as a result of the incident.

American historians contend the attack was not as demoralizing as Cockburn intended, for it caused outrage among many previously neutral or anti-war Americans, and diverted forces the British needed in their failed invasion of New York state.

Reconstruction

The thick sandstone walls of the White House survived, although scarred with smoke and scorch marks. The inland frontier town of Cincinnati, Ohiomarker was a proposed location for the rebuilding of the White House fearing any more sea raids by Britain. Reconstruction of the White House began in early 1815 and was finished in time for President James Monroe's inauguration in 1817. Madison resided in The Octagon Housemarker for the remainder of his term.

Reconstruction of the Capitol did not begin until 1815.

References

  1. Roger Morriss, Cockburn and the British Navy in Transition: Admiral Sir George Cockburn, 1772-1853 (University of Exeter Press, 1997), P. 104
  2. Charles W. Humphries, "The Capture of York", in Zaslow, p.264
  3. http://www.blupete.com/Hist/NovaScotiaBk2/Part5/Ch14.htm
  4. D.C. Listing of Tornadoes
  5. http://www.jamesmadisonmus.org/faqs.htm#british
  6. see Joseph A. Whitehorne, The Battle for Baltimore: 1814 (1997), p. 50


Further reading

  • Martin, John. " The British Are Coming: Historian Anthony Pitch Describes Washington Ablaze," LC Information Bulletin, September 1998
  • Pack, A. James. The Man Who Burned The White House, Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1987. ISBN 0-87021-420-9
  • Phelan, Mary Kay. The Burning of Washington: August 1814, Ty Crowell Co, 1975. ISBN 0-690-00486-9
  • Pitch, Anthony S. The Burning of Washington, Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2000. ISBN 1-55750-425-3
  • Latimer, Jon. 1812: War with America, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007. ISBN 0-674-02584-9
  • Whitehorne, Joseph A. The Battle for Baltimore: 1814 (1997)



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