Busan Metropolitan City,
also known as Pusan ( ) is the largest port city in South Korea and the fifth largest port
in the world.
Busan has a population of about 3.6 million.
South Korea's second largest metropolis, after Seoul.
is located on the Southeasternmost tip of the Korean Peninsula and
faces the Korea
The most densely built up areas of the city
are situated in a number of narrow valleys between the Nakdong River
and Suyeong River, with
mountains separating some of the districts. Administratively, it is
designated as a Metropolitan
. The Busan metropolitan area is divided into 15 major
administrative districts and a single county.
Busan was the host city of the 2002
and APEC 2005 Korea
. It was
also one of the host cities for the 2002 FIFA World Cup
, and is a center for
international conventions in Korea. On November 14, 2005, the city
officially announced its bid to host the 2020 Summer Olympics
Geochilsan-guk existed in the second and third and fourth centuries
as a chiefdom of Jinhan
. It was absorbed by
and renamed Geochilsan-gun. The word
Geochilsan means rough mountain, probably referring to Hwangnyeongsan
, located at the center of the
The grave goods
excavated from mounded
burials at Bokcheon-dong
a complex chiefdom
ruled by powerful
individuals was present in the Busan area just as the Three Kingdoms of Korea
forming, c. A.D. 300-400. The mounded burials of Bokcheon-dong
were built along the top of a
ridge that overlooks a wide area that makes up parts of modern-day
. Archaeologists excavated more than 250
iron weapons and ingots
from Burial No. 38, a
wooden chamber tomb at Bokcheon-dong
In 757, Geochilsan-gun was again renamed Dongnae, which it is still
beginning of the fifteenth century, the Korean government
designated Busan as a trading port with the Japanese and allowed
their settlement. Other Japanese settlements in Ulsan and Jinhae diminished
later, but the Busan settlement, called Waegwan at the time,
continued until Japan
invaded Korea in 1592.
After the war, diplomatic
relations with the new shogunate
were established in 1607, and Busan Waegwan was permitted to be
reconstructed. The Japanese settlement, though relocated into
later, continued to exist until
Korea was exposed to modern diplomacy in 1876. In 1876, Busan
became the first international port in Korea.
Busan seen from Spot satellite
the Japanese rule
) developed into a hub trading port with
Japan. Busan was the only city in Korea to adopt the steam tramway
was introduced in 1924 .
along with Jeju
City, is the only city in Korea, with the exemption of
Daegu, that was never taken by the North Korean
Communists during the Korean War.
As a result the city was a refugee camp site for Koreans during the
Busan was one of the few areas in Korea that remained under the
control of South Korea throughout the Korean
and for some time it served as a temporary capital of the
Republic of Korea. UN troops established a defensive perimeter
around the city known as the Pusan
in the summer and autumn of 1950. Since then, like
Seoul, the city has been a self-governing metropolis and
has built a strong urban character.
Busan is located on the Southeastern tip of the Korean Peninsula
. It is located on the
coast, which determined the development of the whole city
Located on the Southeasternmost tip of the Korean Peninsula, Busan
has a humid subtropical
climate classification Cfa
). Extremely high or low
temperatures are rare. May to July, Late Springs and Early Summers,
are usually cooler than inland region because of the ocean effect.
Late Summer and Early Autumn, August and September, are generally
hot and humid and the city may experience typhoons
at that time and be generally rainy. On
September 15, 1959, Super Typhoon
passed by the coast of the city and caused catastrophic
damage. An unusually severe storm on September 12, 2003, Typhoon Maemi
, also caused damage to ships and
buildings and resulted in over 48 fatalities.
October and November are generally the most comfortable, with clear
skies and pleasant temperatures. Winters are cold and dry with high winds,
but much milder than other parts of Korea except Jeju-do and several
islands of the southern coast.
Busan and the nearby area has
the least amount of snow compared to other regions of Korea due to
its location. Snow falls on an average of only about 6 days per
year. Even a little accumulation of snow can effectively shut down
this seaport city because of the hilly terrain and unfamiliarity of
motorists with driving on snow.
In 1957 Busan adopted a division system
the creation of 6 gu
: Busanjin-gu, Dong-gu, Dongnae-gu,
Jung-gu, Seo-gu, and Yeongdo-gu.
Today, Busan is divided into 15 gu
(districts) and 1
Administrative divisions of Busan.
Busan is the fifth busiest seaport in the world, with
transportation and shipping among the most high profile aspects of
the local economy. Since 1978, Busan has opened three container
ports including Jaseungdae, Shinsundae, and Gamman. Busan is
renowned as one of the world's largest ports and can handle up to
13.2 million TEU
containers per year.
Busan-Jinhae Free Economic Zone
Authority, one of two such administrations (the other in the harbor
of Incheon), was created to reassert Busan's status as a
traditional international trading centre.
The port attracts
ships from all over the globe and the surrounding area aspires to
become a regional financial centre.
Shopping and Commerce
Commercial areas are dispersed through the city near busy
intersections and adjacent to university campuses, but the two
largest central business districts in Busan are Seomyeon and
Gwangbok-dong/Nampo-dong. There are also four substantial shopping
areas of note: Seomyeon
, Busan Dae Hakap in
Jangjeon-dong, and Haeundae
Seomyeon is the crossroads of Busan. The local subway station
serves two lines and is one of the busiest in the city. The local
head offices of Korean and international banks are located in
Seomyeon. It is recognized as the ascendant shopping and
entertainment district. Directly adjacent to Seomyeon is Bujeon
Market, the largest traditional market in the city. Other companies
with offices here include Yeolmae
, and Jungang-dong areas form the old
central business district. Some of the restaurants in this district
are locally famous with family recipes passed down the generations.
(near part of the
very active port) is an area of narrow street stalls and is well
known for its fish market. The Gukje Market is also located nearby.
Jungang-dong is the home of many international law offices, the old
Immigation Office, and the international ferry terminal serving
Japanese routes. Lotte World II is currently under construction
along the water between Jungang-dong 7-Ga and 8-Ga.
Universities with graduate schools
Other institutes of higher education
Parks, Beaches, and Resorts
to the west is a popular
weekend hiking spot for Busan residents. To the north, the
neighborhoods around Pusan National University (also known as PNU, which is one of the most highly
recognized national institutes of high education in Korea) have
student theaters, cafes, bars and restaurants, as well as open-air
cultural street performances on weekend nights.
, the city's main Korean Buddhist
-gu is a wealthy and traditional
residential area. Dongnae Oncheon
a natural spa area with many baths, tourist hotels, restaurants,
clubs and shopping areas. Many restaurants in the area are famous
for their family recipes. Chungnyeolsa
is a Confucian shrine for soldiers who died during the sixteenth
century battle against the Japanese at Dongnae Fortress.
Busan is called the summer capital of Korea since it attracts
tourists from all over the country to its six beaches. Luxury
hotels and a carnival boardwalk line the beach at Haeundae
. Gwangalli Beach
is famous for its cafes,
bars, and restaurants along the beach, and the Grand Gwangan
Bridge. The area around Pukyong National University
cafes, bars and restaurants attracting college students and
, is a natural park with
magnificent cliffs facing the open sea on the island of Yeongdo
known as the "Foreigners' Shopping Street", but commonly referred
to as "Texas Street" near part of the Port of Busan, has many
businesses that cater to the local Russian population, as well as the crews of foreign
The area was originally the location of the local
Chinatown and still contains a Chinese school. Because of the
Chinese presence, the area was designated to serve as the
commercial and entertainment needs of American soldiers, and
businesses were set up there during the 1940s and 1950s to cater to
Temples, Shrines and other Historical sites
Since 1982, the city has been home to the Lotte Giants
, who play in the Korean baseball
league. In Korea, Busan is known as the capital of baseball and has
a reputation for very enthusiastic baseball fans . For the first
few years, Lotte Giants utilized Gudeok Stadium as their home. In
the mid-1980s, they moved to Sajik Stadium, which was built as part
of a sports complex for the 1986 Asian Games.
The city is home to K-League
. They were formerly known
as the Daewoo Royals and were a strong team during the 1990s in the
K-league. It is also home to National League
soccer club Busan Transportation Corporation
Busan also has a basketball team (KTF Magic Wings) that plays in
the Sajik Sports Complex area of the city.
a booth for PIFF
Busan is also famous for the Pusan International Film
, or PIFF, a large and well-known international film
festival in Asia that attracts film-loving tourists from all over
East Asia and the world. It is also the home of the Busan Biennale
, a well renowned international
contemporary art biennale which takes place every two years.
- Busan Museum
- Bokcheon Museum
- Busan Modern History Museum
- Dongsam-dong Shell Midden Museum
- Temporary Capital Commemoration Hall
- Busan Museum of Modern Art
- Pusan National University Museum
- Dong-A University Museum
- Kyungsung University Museum
- Dong-eui University Museum
Busan was once a center of military affairs in the southern region
of the peninsula and therefore was an important site for diplomatic
relationships with Japan; high-ranking officers and officials from
the court frequently visited the city. Special foods were prepared
for the officers such as Dongnae pajeon
(동래파전), a variant
(Korean savory pancakes),
made with whole scallions, sliced chili peppers, and various kinds
of seafood in a thick batter
wheat flour, glutinous rice flour, eggs, salt and water.
During the Korean War, Busan was the biggest refugee destination on
the peninsula; people from all regions of Korea came to Busan. Some
of these refugees stayed and adapted and adjusted the recipes of
their local specialties. One of these foods is milmyeon
(밀면) (lit. 'wheat noodle') a version
, cold buckwheat
noodle soup, but using wheat flour instead. Naemyeon is
originally a specialty food of Hamhung and Pyongyang, the northern regions of the Korean peninsula, now
part of North
Korea. Dwaeji gukbap
'pork/pig soup rice') is also a result of Korean War. It is a
hearty pork soup and is becoming more popular nation-wide.
Major express bus lines link Busan with other cities in Korea at
two primary bus terminals, Nopodong Bus Terminal
(at the northern
terminus of Subway Line 1) and Seobu
at Sasang Station on Subway Line 2.
134 routes of urban buses service whole part of Busan Metropolitan
Coastal Ferry Terminal serves ferry services to many
locations on Geoje
Island as well as to Jeju City in Jeju-do.
leaving from the International Ferry Terminal on Busan Harbour Pier 1 connect Busan to the
Japanese ports of Izuhara and Hitakatsu on Tsushima
Island, as well as the cities of Shimonoseki, Fukuoka, and Osaka on
Busan Harbour Pier 1 with the
International Ferry Terminal (3 docked ferries shown).
- PanStar operates the PanStar Ferry between Busan and
- The Seaflower 2, the ferry to Tsushima operated by
Dae-a Express Shipping, carries passengers only between Busan and
Hitakatsu in 1 hour 40 minutes and between Busan and Izuhara in 2
hours 40 minutes.
- The Seonghee, operated by Pukwan Ferry, links Busan to
- One of the ferries to Fukuoka is the Camellia,
operated by Camellia Line. The Camellia make the trip to Fukuoka
over-night in 7 hours 30 minutes, and trip back in the afternoon in
5 hours 30 minutes.
- The other ferry service to Fukuoka is assumed by the
Beetles and the Kobees, 2 fleets of high-speed
hydrofoils operated by Mirajet. About five
departures from each city are scheduled every day. By hydrofoil it only
takes 2 hours 55 minutes to cross the Korea Strait to Fukuoka. The Beetles are owned
by JR Kyushu.
lies on a number of rail lines, of which the most important is the
Gyeongbu Line which connects it to
other major cities such as Seoul, Daejeon, and Daegu.
classes of trains run along the Gyeongbu Line, including the
trains which provide service to Seoul in
approximately 150 minutes. The Gyeongbu Line terminates at Busan Station.
Other lines include the Donghae Nambu Line
The Busan Subway
network contains three
, and 3
. The network is operated by the
. The Busan-Gimhae Light Rail
line is under construction for completion in
served by Gimhae International Airport to the west in Gangseo-gu.
Twin towns — Sister cities
Busan shares the title of sister city
with several coastal cities or provinces around the world.
Kaohsiung, Republic of China (Taiwan)
Republic of China (1993)
Surabaya, Republic of
Victoria, Australian state
Ho Chi Minh
City, Vietnam (1995)
- - Western Cape, South African province (2000)
Dubai, United Arab Emirates (2006)
Manila, Philippines (2008)
- - Varsity Shores, Australia (2008)
Penh, Cambodia (2009)
The Port of Busan also has 6 sister ports.
Big cities of South Korea
Notes and references