Butte (IPA: [bjut]) is a
city in Montana and the
county seat of Silver Bow
In 1977, the city and county governments
consolidated to form the sole entity of The City and County
of Butte-Silver Bow
. As of the 2000 census
, Butte's population
was 33,892. In its heyday between the late 19th century and about
1920, it was one of the largest and most notorious copper boomtowns
, home to hundreds of
and a famous red-light district
. The documentary
depicts its history as
a copper producer and the issues of labor unionism, economic rise
and decline, and environmental degradation that resulted from the
is served by Bert Mooney
The airport code for Butte is BTM.
Butte began as a mining town in the late 19th century in the Silver
Bow Creek Valley (or Summit Valley), a natural bowl sitting high in
the Rockies straddling the Continental Divide
. At first only
mined in the area, but the advent of electricity caused a soaring
demand for copper
, which was abundant in the
area. The small town soon became one of the most prosperous cities
in the country, especially during World War
, and was often called "the Richest Hill on Earth". It was the
largest city for many hundreds of miles in all directions.
attracted workers from Ireland, Wales, England, Lebanon, Canada, Finland, Austria, Serbia, Italy, China, Syria, Croatia, Montenegro, Mexico, and all
areas of the USA.
The legacy of the immigrants lives on in
the form of the Cornish pasty
popularized by mine workers who needed something easy to eat in the
mines, the povitica
-- a nutroll which is a
holiday favorite sold in many supermarkets and bakeries in the
Butte area -- and the boneless pork-chop sandwich.
The influx of miners gave Butte a reputation as a wide-open town
where any vice was obtainable. The city's famous saloon and red-light
district, called the "Line", was centered on Mercury Street, where
the elegant bordellos included the famous
Brothel, regarded as the longest-running house of prostitution in the U.S.
In the brick
alley behind the brothel was the equally famous Venus Alley
, where women plied their trade in
small cubicles called "cribs". The red-light district brought
miners and other men from all over the region and was openly
tolerated by city officials until the 1980s as one of the last such
urban districts in the U.S. The Dumas Brothel is now operated as a
museum to Butte's rougher days. Close by Wyoming Street is home to
the Butte High School
(home of the
At the end of the 19th century, copper was in great demand because
of new technologies such as electric power that required the use of
copper. Three men fought for control of Butte's mining wealth.
These three "Copper Kings
William A. Clark
, and F. Augustus Heinze
In 1899, Daly joined with William
, Henry H. Rogers
, and Thomas W. Lawson
to organize the
Amalgamated Copper Mining Company. Not long after, the company
changed its name to Anaconda Copper Mining
(ACM). Over the years, Anaconda was owned by assorted
larger corporations. In the 1920s, it had a virtual monopoly over
the mines in and around Butte. Between approximately 1900 and 1917,
Butte also had a strong streak of Socialist
politics, even electing a Mayor on the
Socialist ticket in 1914.
The prosperity continued up to the 1950s, when the declining grade
of ore and competition from other mines led the Anaconda company to
switch its focus from the costly and dangerous practice of underground mining
to open pit mining
. This marked the beginning
of the end for the boom times in Butte.
Night scene in Butte in 1939
Butte was also known as "the Gibraltar of Unionism", with a very
active labor union
movement that sought
to counter the power and influence of the Anaconda company, which
was also simply known as "The Company."
By 1885, there were about 1,800 dues-paying members of a general
union in Butte. That year the union reorganized as the Butte
Miners' Union (BMU), spinning off all non-miners to separate
. Some of these joined
the Knights of Labor
, and by 1886
the separate organizations came together to form the Silver Bow
Trades and Labor Assembly, with 34 separate unions representing
nearly all of the 6,000 workers around Butte. The BMU established
branch unions in mining towns like Barker, Castle, Champion,
Granite, and Neihart, and extended support to other mining camps
hundreds of miles away.
there was a
violent strike in Coeur d'Alene.
Although the BMU was experiencing
relatively friendly relations with local management, the events in
Idaho were disturbing. The BMU not only sent thousands of dollars
to support the Idaho miners, they mortgaged their buildings to send
There was a growing concern that local unions were vulnerable to
the power of Mine Owners'
like the one in Coeur d'Alene. In May of 1893,
about forty delegates from northern hard-rock mining camps met in
Butte and established the Western Federation of Miners
(WFM), which sought to organize miners throughout the West. The
Butte Miners' Union became Local Number One of the new WFM.
won a strike in
Colorado, the following year, but then in 1896-97 lost another violent
strike in Leadville,
Colorado, prompting the Montana State Trades and Labor
Council to issue a
proclamation to organize a new Western labor federation along
After 1905, Butte became a hotbed of Industrial Workers of the
(IWW, or the "Wobblies") organizing. There were a number
of clashes between laborers, labor organizers, and the Anaconda
company, including the lynching of IWW activist Frank Little
, and at one point,
guards hired by
The Company resorted to gunning down strikers in the Anaconda Road Massacre
In 1917, copper production from the Butte mines peaked and has
steadily declined since. By WWII, copper production from the ACM's
holdings in Chuquicamata, Chile, far exceeded Butte's production.
The historian Janet Finn has examined this "tale of two
cities"--Butte and Chuquicamata as two ACM mining towns.
The open-pit era
1942 view of the city
Composite Fisheye View of the
Berkeley Pit, April, 2005
of homes were destroyed in the Meaderville suburb and surrounding
areas, McQueen and East Butte, to excavate the Berkeley Pit
, which opened in 1955. At the time, it was the
largest truck-operated open pit copper mine in the United States.
Other open pit mines were dug in the area, including the
still-operational East Continental Pit. The Berkeley pit grew with
time, and in November 1973 the Columbia
, William A.
gift to the people of
Butte, was torn down to expand the Berkeley Pit. In 1977 the
company purchased Anaconda Mining, and
only three years later started shutting down mines due to lower
metal prices. In 1982, all mining in the Berkeley Pit was
Anaconda stopped mining at the Continental pit in 1983. Montana
Resources bought the property and reopened the Continental pit in
1986. The company stopped mining in 2000, but resumed in 2003 with
higher metal prices, and continues at last report, employing 346
people. From 1880 through 2005, the mines of the Butte district
have produced more than 9.6 million tonnes of copper, 2.1 million
tonnes of zinc, 1.6 million tonnes of manganese, 381 thousand
tonnes of lead, 87 thousand tonnes of molybdenum, 715 million troy
ounces of silver, and 2.9 million ounces of gold.
When mining shut down at the Berkeley pit in 1982, water pumps in
nearby mines were also shut down, which resulted in highly acidic
water laced with toxic heavy metals filling up the pit. Only two
years later the pit was classified as a Superfund
site and an environmental hazard site.
Meanwhile, the acidic water continued to rise. It was not until the
1990s that serious efforts to clean up the Berkeley Pit began. The
situation gained even more attention after as many as 342 migrating
geese picked the pit lake as a resting place, resulting in their
deaths. Steps have since been taken to prevent a recurrence,
including but not limited to loudspeakers broadcasting sounds to
scare off waterfowl. However, in November 2003 the Horseshoe Bend
treatment facility went online and began treating and diverting
much of the water that would have flowed into the pit. Ironically, the
Pit is also one of the city's biggest tourist
It is the largest pit lake in the United
States, and is the most costly part of the country's largest
Since about 1960, the city's population has been about 30,000,
despite periodic rises and drops. Over a dozen of the headframes
still stand over the mine shafts,
and the city still contains thousands of historic commercial and
residential buildings from the boom times, which, especially in the
Uptown section, give it a very old-fashioned appearance like a
, with the many buildings and
comparatively few people. As with many industrial cities, tourism
and services, especially health care (Butte's St. James Hospital
has Southwest Montana's only major trauma center), are rising as
primary employers. Many areas of the city, especially the areas
near the old mines, show signs of wear from time but a recent
influx of investors and an aggressive campaign to remedy blight has
led to a renewed interest in restoring property in Uptown Butte's
historic district, which was expanded in 2006 to include parts of
Anaconda and is now the largest National Historic Landmark
District in the United States with nearly 6,000 contributing
A century after the era of intensive mining and smelting, the area
around the city remains an environmental issue. Arsenic
and heavy metals such as lead
are found in high concentrations in some spots
affected by old mining, and for a period of time in the 1990s the
tap water was unsafe to drink due to poor filtration and
decades-old wooden supply pipes. Efforts to improve the water
supply have taken place in the past few years, with millions of
dollars being invested to upgrade water lines and repair
infrastructure. Environmental research and clean-up efforts have
contributed to the diversification of the local economy, and signs
of vitality remain, including a multi-million dollar polysilicon
manufacturing plant locating nearby in the 1990s and the city's
recognition and designation in the late 1990s as an All-American City
and also as one of the
National Trust for Historic Preservation's Dozen Distinctive
Destinations in 2002. In 2004, Butte received another economic
boost as well as international recognition as the location for the
Hollywood film Don't Come
, directed by renowned director Wim Wenders and
released throughout the world in 2006.
St. Patrick's day celebration in
The annual celebration of Butte's Irish heritage (since 1882) is
the annual St. Patrick's Day festivities. In these modern times
about 30,000 revelers converge on Butte's Historic Uptown District
to enjoy the parade led by the Ancient Order of Hibernians
celebrate in bars such as Maloney's, the Silver Dollar Saloon, the
M&M Cigar Store, and The Irish Times Pub.
Butte is one of the few cities in the United States where
possession and consumption of open containers
on the street (although not in vehicles).
The larger and better known annual celebration is Knievel Days
held each summer. This event draws
over 50,000 bikers and daredevils from across the world. The
highlight of the event is when all participants share a moment of
silence for the whole Knievel clan traditionally observed at 4:20
pm on the second day of the event. The moment is broken by five
daredevils simultaneously jump 19 trucks while fireworks explode
and fifty foot flames of fire shoot up through the trucks while God
Bless America plays.
Butte's Fourth of July Parade and Fireworks show is the largest in
the state. In 2008 Barack Obama
his last Fourth of July before his Presidency campaigning in Butte
taking in the parade with his family and celebrating his daughter
's 10th Birthday.
In March 2009, Butte was the location of an airplane crash that made headlines worldwide. Fourteen passengers and crew were killed when the plane crashed into the Holy Cross Cemetery near the runway at Bert Mooney Airport.
Granite Mountain/Speculator Mine Disaster
Sparked by a tragic accident more than below the ground on June 8,
1917, a fire in the Granite Mountain shaft
spewed flames, smoke, and poisonous gas
through the labyrinth
tunnels including the connected Speculator mine. A rescue effort
commenced but the carbon monoxide
was stealing the air supply. A few men built man-made bulk heads to
save their lives but many others died in a panic to try to get out.
Rescue workers set up a fan to prevent the fire from spreading.
This worked for a short time but when the rescuers tried to use
water, the water evaporated creating steam
that burned people trying to escape. Once the fire was out, those
waiting to hear the news on the surface couldn't identify the
victims. They were too mutilated to recognize, leading many to
assume the worst. 168 bodies were removed from the mine, most had
died due to lack of oxygen and smoke inhalation as opposed to the
actual fire itself. Due to the heroic efforts of men such as Ernest
Sullau, Manus Duggan, Con O'Neil, and JD Moore, some survived to
tell the tale. The Speculator
was built as a reminder of the greatest loss of
life in US hard rock mining history, a title it still holds
Tech, a university specialising in the resources
and engineering fields. (The giant letter "M" visible in the top
photograph on this page stands for Montana Tech and was constructed
- Our Lady of the Rockies
Statue, a statue of the Blessed Virgin Mary, dedicated to women
and mothers everywhere, on top of the Continental Divide, overlooking
Pit, a gigantic former open pit copper mine filled with
toxic water. There is an observation deck on the south wall
of the Berkeley Pit lake.
- The World Museum of Mining on the site of the Orphan Girl mine.
Its main attraction is "Hell Roarin' Gulch" a mockup of a frontier
- There are many underground mine headframes (Gallows
frames) still remaining on the hill in Butte,
including the Anselmo, the Steward, the Original, the Travona, the
Belmont, the Kelly, the Mountain Con, the Lexington, the
Bell/Diamond, the Granite Mountain, and the Badger.
Brothel, widely considered America's longest running house
- Venus Alley
- Mai Wah Museum
- Rookwood Speakeasy , an underground, prohibition era
- Copper King Mansion ,
a bed and breakfast/local museum and previously home to William Andrews Clark, one of Butte's
three Copper Kings.
- The Arts Chateau, formerly the home of William Andrews Clark's son, Charles,
the home was designed in the image of a French Chateau. This ornate
mansion now serves as a community arts center and gallery.
- The Butte-Silver Bow Public Archives  stores
and provides public access to documents and artifacts from Butte's
- U.S. High Altitude Speed Skating Center is an outdoor
speed-skating rink, one of three such rinks in the USA.
- Butte Silver Bow Public Library
Located at 226 W. Broadway in uptown Butte. The Library is the
first open source public library in Montana and has been serving
Butte since 1893.
Notable natives and residents
- Eden Atwood, jazz vocalist
- Rudy Autio,
- John W. Bonner, Governor of Montana
- Rosemarie Bowe, actress
- Patricia Briggs, fantasy
- Scott Brow, Arizona Diamondbacks pitcher
- John Francis Buckley,
member of the Canadian House
- Albert J. Campbell, United States Representative
- Morgan Earp, law
enforcement officer known for participation in the Gunfight at
the O. K. Corral
- Barbara Ehrenreich,
- Julian Eltinge, actor and female
- Henry Frank, businessman and Butte
- George F. Grant, innovative fly tier, author, and
- Kirby Grant, actor
- Karla M. Gray, Chief Justice of the Montana Supreme
Court, worked here.
- Dashiell Hammett worked for the
- Bobby Hauck, head coach of
University of Montana football team
- Tim Hauck, NFL
defensive back and defensive coordinator for UCLA
- Sam Jankovich, football player,
- Keith Jardine, mixed martial artist
- Rob Johnson, Seattle Mariners catcher
- Helmi Juvonen, artist
- Evel Knievel, motorcycle
- Robbie Knievel, motorcycle
daredevil and son of Evel
- Ella J. Knowles Haskell, the first woman to
practice law in Montana
- Andrea Leeds, actress
- Levi Leipheimer, Olympic
- Frank Little, union
- Paul B. Lowney, writer and humorist, author of At
Another Time â€” Growing up in Butte
- Sonny Lubick,
football coach at Colorado State University
- Betty MacDonald, humor
- Mary MacLane, renowned feminist
author and "Wild Woman of Butte"
- Mike Mansfield, U.S. senator from Montana and
longest-serving Senate Majority
- Lee Mantle, United States Senator
- Judy Martz, Olympic speed skater and Governor of Montana
- Mike McGrath, Montana Attorney
- Joseph P. Monaghan, United States Representative
- Bob O'Billovich - CFL executive, former CFL player,
coach, and administrator
- Pat Ogrin, Washington Redskins defensive lineman
- Arnold Olsen, United States
Congressman from Montana
- Erin Popovich, Paralympic swimmer,
gold medalist and world record holder
- Milt Popovich, former professional
- Martha Raye, actress
- John E. Rickards, first Lieutenant Governor of
- Fritzi Ridgeway, actress
- Michael Sells, professor of
Islamic Studies at the University of Chicago
Sweeney, head football coach at Washington
State University and longtime head coach at Fresno State
- Montana Taylor, pianist
- George Leo Thomas, Bishop of
- Jacob Thorkelson, United States
Representative from Montana
- Michael Twomey, violinist,
composer, and educator
- Burton K. Wheeler, United States Senator from
- Kathlyn Williams, actress
- Colt Anderson, NFL Minnesota
According to the United
States Census Bureau
, the city has a total area of
716.8 square miles (1,856.5 kmÂ˛), of which,
716.1 square miles (1,854.7 kmÂ˛) of it is land and
0.7 square miles (1.7 kmÂ˛) of it is water. The total area
is 0.09% water
. Butte is also home to one of
the largest deposits of Bornite
. Of all U.S.
communities situated on the Continental Divide, Butte is the most
populous. Every highway heading out from Butte (except westbound
I-90) crosses the Divide (eastbound I-90 via Homestake Pass;
eastbound MT 2 via Pipestone Pass; northbound I-15 via Elk Park
Pass; and southbound I-15 via Deer Lodge Pass).
As of the census
of 2000, there were 33,892
people, 14,135 households, and 8,735 families residing in the city.
The population density
people per square mile (18.3/kmÂ˛). There were 15,833 housing units
at an average density of 22.1/sq mi (8.5/kmÂ˛). The racial
makeup of the city was 95.38% White
, 0.16% African American
, 0.06% Pacific Islander
, 0.59% from
, and 1.39%
from two or more races. Hispanic
of any race were 2.74% of the
There were 14,135 households out of which 27.9% had children under
the age of 18 living with them, 47.7% were married couples
living together, 10.5% had a female
householder with no husband present, and 38.2% were non-families.
32.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.8% had
someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average
household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.97.
In the city the population was spread out with 23.7% under the age
of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 26.7% from 25 to 44, 23.9% from 45 to
64, and 16.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was
39 years. For every 100 females there were 97.8 males. For every
100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.2 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $30,516, and the
median income for a family was $40,186. Males had a median income
of $31,409 versus $21,626 for females. The per capita income
for the city was
$17,068. About 10.7% of families and 15.0% of the population were
below the poverty line
, including 19.2%
of those under age 18 and 9.0% of those age 65 or over.
County are merged into one governmental body.
Butte and Superfund
The Upper Clark Fork River, with Butte at the headwaters, is
America's largest Superfund site. This area takes in the cities of
Butte, Anaconda, and Missoula. The mining and smelting activity in
Butte resulted in significant contamination of the Butte Hill as
well as downstream and downwind areas. The contaminated land
extends along a corridor of that reaches to Milltown near Missoula
and takes in adjacent areas such as the Anaconda smelter site. The
mining and smelting operations of the Anaconda Copper Mining
Corporation were the primary cause of this pollution at the
headwaters of the Columbia River.
Between the upstream city of Butte and the downstream city of
Missoula lies the Deer Lodge Valley. By the 1970s, local citizens
and agency personnel were increasingly concerned over the toxic
effects of arsenic and heavy metals on environment and human
health. Most of the waste was created by the Anaconda Copper Mining
Corporation (ACM), which merged with the Atlantic Richfield
) in 1977. Shortly thereafter,
in 1983, Arco ceased mining and smelting operations in the
For more than a century, the Anaconda Copper Mining company mined
ore from Butte and smelted it in Butte (prior to c. 1920) and in
nearby Anaconda. During this time, the Anaconda smelter released up
to per day of arsenic, per day of sulfur, and great quantities of
lead and other heavy metals into the air (MacMillan). In Butte,
mine tailings were dumped directly into Silver Bow Creek, creating
a plume of pollution extending down the valley to Milltown Dam on
the Clark Fork River just upstream of Missoula. Air and water borne
pollution poisoned livestock and agricultural soils throughout the
Deer Lodge Valley. Modern environmental clean-up efforts continue
to this day.
Movies featuring Butte and Butte buildings
Butte in literature
Sports Teams from Butte
- 1929 - Red Harvest, Based on the Dashell Hammett
- 1930 - Roadhouse Nights, Based on the Dashell Hammett
- 1961 - Yojimbo, Based on the Dashell Hammett
- 1971 - Evel Knievel,
- 1974 - The Killer Inside
Me, Cyclone Productions
- 1985 - Runaway
Train, Cannon Films
- 1989 - Lonesome Dove, RHI
- 1992 - Die Vergessene Stadt, Directed by Thomas
Schadt. Known in translation as Butte, Montanaâ€”The Abandoned
- 1993 - Return to
Lonesome Dove, RHI Productions.
- 1994 - The Last Ride,
Ivar Productions & Mondofin B.V.
- 2002 - From Beara to Butte: The Road to McCarthy,
Directed by Pete McCarthy
- 2002 - An Injury to One, Directed by Travis
- 2003 - Love Comes
to the Executioner, Aura Entertainment
- 2004 - Don't Come
Knocking, Wim Wenders Productions
- 2005 - Who
Killed Cock Robin?, Extreme Low Frequency
- 2007 - Hidden Fire: The Great Butte Explosion
- 2008 - Butte, America: The Saga of a Hard Rock Mining
shares its Neilsen market with nearby
Bozeman, with which it forms the 194th largest TV market in
the United States. Butte has the distinction of being near the
dividing line in terms of Pro-Sports markets, so the city receives
both Seattle and Denver teams games
on local cable channels.
- KXLF (Channel 4)
affiliate. KXLF is the oldest broadcast television station
in the state of Montana.
- KTVM (Channel 6)
NBC affiliate. The station airs
local news and commercials from Butte, most of the other
programming comes from nearby KECI-TV in Missoula, Montana.
- KUSM (Channel 9)
PBS affiliate. The station
broadcasts out of Montana State University in Bozeman.
- KWYB (Channel
19) ABC/FOX affiliate and last of the "Big
Three" networks to come into the market (1992). Prior to this Butte's
ABC feeds came from KUSA-TV in Denver, Colorado and FOX from now-defunct Butte station KBTZ.
Butte has one local daily, a weekly paper, as well as several
papers from around the state of Montana.
Books and book chapters
- Barnett, Harold C. 1994. Toxic Debts and the Superfund Dilemma.
University of North Carolina Press.
- Beirle, Thomas C. and Jerry Cayford. 2002. Democracy in
Practice: Public Participation in Environmental Decisions.
Washington DC, USA: Resources For the Future Press.
- Callon, Michel. 1986. â€śSome Elements of a Sociology of
Translation: Domestication of the Scallops and Fishermen of St.
Brieuc Bay.â€ť In John Law (ed.), Power, Action and Belief: A New
Sociology of Knowledge. (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul).
- Calvert, Jerry. 1988. The Gibraltar: Socialism and Labor in
Butte, Montana (Helena, Montana: Montana Historical Society).
- Castree, Noel and Tom MacMillan. 2001. â€śDissolving Dualisms:
Actor-networks and the Reimagination of Nature.â€ť In Noel Castree
and Bruce Braun (eds.), Social Nature: Theory, Practice, and
Politics (Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers).
- Church, Thomas W. and Robert T. Nakamura. 2003. Taming
Regulation: Superfund and the Challenge of Regulatory Reform
(Washington: Brookings Institution Press).
- Church, Thomas W. and Robert T. Nakamura. 1993.Cleaning up the
Mess: Implementation Strategies in Superfund (Washington: The
- Clark Fork Coalition. 2005. State of the Clark Fork:
Understanding our Watershed. Missoula, Montana: The Clark Fork
- Cranor CF. 1993. Regulating Toxic Substances (NY: Oxford U.
- Edelstein, Michael R. 2003. Contaminated Communities: Coping
with Residential Toxic Exposure. Westview Press.
- Emmons, David. 1989. The Butte Irish: Class and Ethnicity in an
American Mining Town, 1875-1925 (Urbana: University of Illinois
- Everett, George. 2007. Butte Trivia (Helena, Montana: Riverbend
- Finn, Janet. 1998. Tracing the Veins: Of Copper, Culture, and
Community from Butte to Chuquicamata (Berkeley: University of
- Freudenberg, Nicholas and Carol Steinspir. 1992. â€śNot in Our
Backyards: The Grassroots Environmental Movement,â€ť pp. 27â€“38 in
Dunlap, Riley E. and Angela G. Mertig (eds.) American
Environmentalism: The U.S. Environmental Movement: 1970-1990
(Philadelphia, PA: Taylor & Francis).
- Gibbs, Lois. 1998. Love Canal: The story continues... (Stony
Creek, CT: New Society Publishers).
- Glasscock, C.B. 1935. The War of the Copper Kings (NY: Grosset
- Hird, John. 1994. Superfund: The Political Economy of
Environmental Risk (Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University
- Hiskes, Richard P. 1998. Democracy, Risk, and Community:
Technological Hazards and the Evolution of Liberalism (NY: Oxford
- Kemmis, Daniel. 1990. Community and the Politics of Place
(Norman: University of Oklahoma Press).
- Krimsky, Sheldon and Alonzo Plough.1988. Environmental Hazards:
Communicating Risks as a Social Process (Dover, Mass: Auburn House
- Law, John and John Hassard (eds.). 1999. Actor Network Theory
and After (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers).
- Available online through the Washington State
Library's Classics in Washington History collection Elma
MacGibbons reminiscences of her travels in the United States
starting in 1898, which were mainly in Oregon and Washington.
Includes chapter "Butte and Anaconda."
- MacMillan, Donald. 2000. Smoke Wars: Anaconda Copper, Montana
Air Pollution, and the Courts, 1890-1924. Helena: Montana
Historical Society Press.
- Malone, Michael. 1981. The Battle for Butte: Mining and
Politics on the Northern Frontier (Seattle: University of
- McCarthy, Pete. 2002. From Beara to Butte: The Road To McCarthy
(Great Britain: Hodden and Stroughton)
- Mercier, Laurie. 2001. Anaconda: Labor, Community, and Culture
in Montanaâ€™s Smelter City (Chicago: University of Illinois
- Munday, Pat. 2001. Montanaâ€™s Last Best River: The Big Hole
River and its People (Guilford, Connecticut: The Lyons Press).
- Murphy, Mary. 1997. Mining Cultures: Men, Women, and Leisure in
Butte, 1914-1941 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press).
- Nash, June. 1979. We Eat the Mines and the Mines Eat Us (NY:
Columbia University Press).
- National Research Council. 2005. Superfund and Mining
Megasites: Lessons from the Coeur dâ€™Alene River Basin (Washington,
DC: National Academy Press).
- Novotny, W. Patrick. 2000. We Live, Work, and Play: The
Environmental Justice Movement and the Struggle for a New
Environmentalism (Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers).
- Punke, Michael. 2006. Fire and Brimstone The North Butte Mining
Disastor of 1917 (New York: Hyperion Books).
- Salzman, James and Barton H. Thompson, Jr. 2003. Environmental
Law and Policy (NY: Foundation Press).
- Taylor, Peter. 2005. Unruly Complexity: Ecology,
Interpretation, Engagement (Chicago: University of Chicago
- Capek, Stella M. 1992. Environmental Justice, Regulation, and
the Local Community.â€ť International Journal of Health Services
- Chess, C. and Purcell, K. 1999. Public participation and the
environment: Do we know what works? Environmental Science and
Technology 33(16): 2685-2692.
- Covello VT and Mumpower J. 1985 â€śRisk Analysis and Risk
Management: A Historical Perspective,â€ť Risk Analysis 5(2):
- Folk, Ellison. "Public Participation in the Superfund Cleanup
Process," Ecology Law Quarterly 18 (1991), 173-221.
- Hird, J. A. 1993. â€śEnvironmental Policy and Equity: the case of
Superfund.â€ť Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 12:
- Jasanoff, Sheila. 1992. "Science, Politics, and the
Renegotiation of Expertise at EPA", Osiris, Vol. 7 (1992):
- Light, Andrew. 2000. "What is an Ecological Identity?,"
Environmental Politics 9 (4): 59-81.
- Malone, Michael. 1985. â€śThe Close of the Copper Century.â€ť
Montana: The Magazine of Western History 35: 69-72.
- Moore, Johnnie N. and S.N. Luoma, S.N. 1990. "Hazardous wastes
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