Cordova) is a city in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the
capital of the province of Córdoba.
Located at 37.88° North, 4.77° West, on the
river, it was founded in
. Its population in 2008 was 325,453.
Today a moderately-sized modern city, the old town contains many
impressive architectural reminders of when Qurṭuba
(قرطبة), the thriving capital of the Caliphate of Córdoba
, governed almost
all of the Iberian peninsula. It has been estimated that in the
latter half of the tenth century Córdoba, with up to 500,000
inhabitants, was then the most populated city in Europe and,
perhaps, in the world.
Roman temple of Córdoba.
Córdoba was the capital of the Roman province of Hispania Ulterior Baetica
. Great Roman
philosophers like Lucius Annaeus Seneca the Younger
, orators like Seneca the Elder
and poets like Lucan
came from Roman Cordoba. Later,
it occupied an important place in the Provincia Hispaniae
of the Byzantine Empire (552-572) and during the Visigoth
captured in 711 by the Muslims, and Córdoba
became capital during the Umayyad Caliphate, the period of its apogee, with a population of
roughly 400,000 inhabitants, though estimates range between 250,000
In the 10th century, Cordoba – called
(Qurṭuba) in Arabic
was one of the most advanced cities in the world, as well as a
great cultural, political and economic centre. The Córdoba Mosque
dates back to this time. In 1236 it was captured by King Ferdinand
III during the Spanish Reconquista.
of the most extensive historical heritages in the world (declared a
World Heritage Site by UNESCO December 17,
1984), the city also features a number of modern areas, including
the districts of Zoco and the railway station district, Plan
regional government (the Junta
de Andalucía) has for some time been studying the creation of a
Córdoba Metropolitan Area that would comprise, in addition
to the capital itself, the towns of Villafranca, Obejo, La Carlota, Villaharta, Villaviciosa, Almodóvar del
Río and Guadalcázar.
The combined population of such an area
would be around 351,000.
The city is located on the banks of the Guadalquivir river and its
easy access to the mining resources of the Sierra
(coal, lead, zinc) satisfies the population’s
The city is located in a depression of the valley of the
Guadalquivir. In the north is the Sierra Morena
defines the borders of the municipal area.
one of the few cities in the world
that has a near-exact antipodal city –
Córdoba has a Mediterranean
with Atlantic coastal influences. Winters are mild with
Summers, with increased daily thermal oscillations, have the
highest maximum temperatures in Europe, exceeding 40 °C
occasionally. Local minimum summer temperature is 27 °C, the
highest in Spain and Europe. Precipitation is concentrated in the
coldest months; this is due to the Atlantic coastal influence.
Precipitation is generated by storms from the west that occur more
often from December through February. This Atlantic characteristic
then gives way to a hot summer with significant drought more
typical of Mediterranean climates.
Annual rain surpasses 500 mm although there is a recognized
inter-annual irregularity. In agreement with the Köppen climate
, the local climate can be described as
Registered maximum temperatures at Cordoba Airport (located at
6 km of the city) are 46.6° (23rd, July 1995) and 46.2° (1st,
August 2003). The minimum temperature is -8.2° (28 January
Tourism is especially intense in Córdoba during May because of the
weather and as this month hosts three very popular festivals.
The May Crosses Festival takes place at the beginning of the month.
During three or four days, crosses of around 3 meters of height are
placed in many squares and streets and decorated with flowers and a
contest is held to choose the most beautiful one. Usually there is
regional food and music near the crosses.
The most important of the three is the Patios Festival celebrated
during the second and third week of the month. Many houses of the
historic center open their private patios to the public and compete
in a contest. Both the architectonic value and the floral
decorations are taken into consideration to choose the winners. It
is usually very difficult and expensive to find accommodation in
the city during the festival.
Córdoba's Fair takes place at the ending of the month and is
similar, if smaller, to the better known Seville Fair
- Great Mosque of Córdoba, which contains columns that date back to the Roman
and Visigothic periods, primarily constructed during the Umayyad period (its construction started in
784). It was converted into a Cathedral after the Reconquista.
- Córdoba Synagogue (14th
- Fernandine and Alphonsine-style churches (13th century)
- Various monasteries and convents
- Walcha Cave (built in 1489)
Civil and military architecture
- Alcázar of the
Christian Kings (14th century)
- Palace of Viana with its flowered patios (16th century)
- Royal residences and palaces
- The Tower of Calahorra (14th century)
- The Door of the Bridge (16th century)
- The Plaza Vieja or Plaza Mayor
- Walls and towers of the Muslim and also Christian period
- Roman archaeological remains (temple, mausoleum)
- Islamic archaeological remains (minarets preserved in the
churches, Arab baths)
- Archaeological site of Madinat
Al-Zahra (10th century)
- The Roman Bridge
Parks and Gardens
- Garden of the Victory
- Garden of the Rivas Duc
- Garden of the Agriculture
- Garden of the Conde de Vallellano
- Garden of Juan Carlos I
- Park Cruz Conde
- Sotos de la Albolafia
- Balcón del Guadalquivir
- Peri-urban park of Los Villares
- Park of the Miraflores
Famous people born in Córdoba and its province
Cordova was the birthplace of five famous philosophers and
- In Roman times the Stoic philosopher
- In classical Islamic times
Calleja de las flores
|Weather averages for
Average high (°C)
Average low (°C)
Córdoba was also the birthplace of
- The Roman poet Lucan,
- The medieval Spanish poet Juan de
- The Renaissance poet Luis de
Góngora, who lived most of his life and wrote all his most
important works but one in Cordoba.
In addition some scholars have linked to Córdoba
Both of these were evidently descended from families which lived in
Córdoba before the expulsion of the Jews from
More recently, several flamenco
were born here as well, including
is connected by high speed trains to the main Spanish cities:
Madrid, Barcelona, Seville, Malaga and Zaragoza. More than 20 trains per day connect the
downtown area, in 54 minutes, with Málaga Airport.
- São Paulo, Brazil
- Manchester, United
- Bourg-en-Bresse, France
- Fes, Morocco
- Lahore, Pakistan
- Bethlehem, Palestinian
- Damascus, Syria
- Al Qayrawan, Tunisia
- Adana, Turkey
- Istanbul, Turkey
- Izmir, Turkey
- Bukhara, Uzbekistan
Instituto Nacional de Estadística
- (Spanish) Registros históricos del observatorio de Córdoba
(1971-2000) Datos de valores climatológicos procedentes del
Instituto Nacional de Meteorología extracto de la publicación
Guía resumida del clima en España 1971-2000.
- In the city the temperature is higher than at the airport. The
airport is about 7 kilometers from the city center.
- Corporaciones locales españolas hermanadas con
Europa - Federación Española de Municipios y Provincias
- The City of Bethlehem has signed a twinning agreements
with the following cities Bethlehem Municipality.
- La Cooperación Directa en el Ayuntamiento de
Córdoba - Córdoba City Council Web