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The Yingji-82 or YJ-82 ( , literally "Eagle Strike"; NATO reporting name: CSS-N-8 Saccade) is a Chinesemarker anti-ship missile first unveiled in 1989 by the China Haiying Electro-Mechanical Technology Academy (CHETA), also known as the Third Academy. Due to the Yingji-82 missile's small radar reflectivity, low attack flight path (only five to seven meters above the sea surface) and strong anti-jamming capability of its guidance equipment, target ships have a very small chance of intercepting the missile. The single shot hit probability of the Yingji-82 is estimated to be as high as 98%. The Yingji-82 can be launched from airplanes, surface ships, submarines and land-based vehicles. Its export name is the C-802.

Design

The Yingji-82 (C-802) anti-ship missile was derived from the Chinese YJ-8 (C-801) with extended range. The YJ-82 is externally similar to the YJ-8, and has the same solid-propellant rocket booster and guidance system as the YJ-8. The most distinctive difference on the YJ-82 is that it employs a turbojet with paraffin-based fuel to replace the original solid rocket engine. For this reason the fuselage was extended to accommodate the extra fuel. The maximum range of the missile has also been extended from the original 40 km (or 80 km for YJ-81/C-801A) to 120 km.

Deployment

The YJ-82 missile is carried by the latest Chinese-made surface combatants including the Type 051B Luhai-class destroyer. Some ships built in earlier years have also been upgraded to carry YJ-82 missiles. Because of its extended range, the YJ-82 missile sometimes has to rely on airborne radar systems carried by helicopters or fixed-wing aircraft to provide target information. Iran reportedly bought about 60 land-launched variant YJ-82 missiles following the 1991 Persian Gulf War. The air launched variant of the YJ-82 is designated YJ-82K (C-802K). A JH-7 fighter-bomber can carry four missiles. The secondary role for the YJ-82 is for shore bombardment, and in the land attack role, the missile can only be used against fixed targets but not mobile targets.

Launch platforms



Variants

  • YJ-82 (C-802): Basic variant
  • YJ-82K (C-802K): Air launched variant
  • C-802KD
  • YJ-83 (C-803): Extended range variant to 150-200 km (255+km air-launched)
  • KD-88
  • YJ-85 (C-805): 400 km range land-attack cruise missile variant
  • Noor: Iranian advanced variant.


Design features

The YJ-82 is almost identical to the YJ-8 in appearance apart from a slightly longer fuselage and an air inlet for the turbojet engine. The missile has a slim body and ovoid nose. There are four front delta wings, four smaller control surfaces, and four large tail stabilising wings. The tail wings are mounted on the rocket booster and will be lost when the booster detaches from the missile body. The air inlet is located between the main fins under the missile body. The front and tail wings are folded when the missile is in the launcher.

Flight profile

When the missile is launched, the solid rocket propellant booster accelerates the speed of the missile from 0 to 0.9 Mach in a few seconds. After the booster burns out, it detaches from the missile body and the missile's turbojet engine starts working. Controlled by the inertial autopilot system and radio altimeter, the missile flies at a cruising speed of 0.9 Mach, and the cruise altitude is reduced to 10 - 20 metres (depending on the sea state) from the original 20 - 30 metres of the C-801/YJ-81.

When entering the terminal phase of flight, the missile switches on its terminal guidance radar to search for the target. Once within a few kilometers of the target, the missile drops to 3-5 meters above sea level, about the same as a French Exocet missile. This altitude is slightly lower than the original 5 - 7 metres of the C-801/YJ-81. The missile may also maneuver during the terminal phase to make it a more difficult target for shipborne air defense systems. When approaching the target, the missile dives to hit the waterline of the ship to inflict maximum damage. At the 6th Zhuhai Airshow held at the end of 2006, the manufacturer revealed that the "pop-up" approach and the checkpoint flight functions are being worked on.

Guidance

As well as its terminal guidance radar, the midcourse guidance is inertial. During the inertial guidance, the YJ-8 missile is also equipped with a radio altimeter for use with its autopilot during cruise. The missile's terminal guidance radar with monopulse system possesses high anti-jamming capabilities. The high precision radio altimeter allows the missile to have minimum-altitude flight above the sea, which is normally 20−30 m.

Warhead

The missile uses a 165 kg semi-armor-piercing anti-personnel blast warhead which relies on the missile's kinetic energy to pierce the deck of a ship, penetrate into and explode in the ship's interior. In addition, the YJ-82 might have a higher single hit probability than the YJ-8/YJ-81.

Users

  • : Used on the three Algerian made Djebel Chenoua Corvets
  • : Used in one of its Guided Missile Frigates.. Another one is in the process of being equipped.
  • : Indonesia Navy, equipped in FPB 57 Nav 5 Fast Attack craft (License built of Germany Albatross Fast attack craft)


  • : Iran reportedly possesses 60 of the YJ-82, deployed in coastal batteries at Qeshmmarker Island. Iran originally ordered 150 of the YJ-82 in the immediate aftermath of the 1991 Persian Gulf War, but due to American pressure, the Chinese suspended shipments of the missile to Iran in 1996 after 60 were delivered. It is also suggested that China exported 15 patrol boats equipped with these missiles to Iran. A version of the C-802 called Noor, rumored to have incorporated many of the upgrades described below.
  • : Pakistan has reportedly bought a large number of these missiles possibly under a license production arrangement.
  • Myanmar Navy ,equipped in Nawarat Class Corvette and FAC (Missile).
  • : phasing out C-801/YJ-81 and replace them with C-802/YJ-82 missiles onboard its Type 053HT class frigates


Combat history

Some news reports indicate that this was supposedly the missile used on July 14, 2006 in the 2006 Lebanon War when Hezbollah fired two at Israelimarker warships.One missile hit the corvette INS Hanit, causing significant damage and four fatalities.Chinese government sources have stated that the missile was not a C-802, that it was a Kowsar instead, and it is not certain if any anti-ship missiles of Chinese origin were used. Iranmarker, the reported supplier of the missile to Hezbollah, refused to formally confirm or deny the claim. The Hanit suffered severe damage, but stayed afloat, got itself out of the line of fire, and made the rest of the journey back to Ashdodmarker for repairs on its own.

The Israeli ship possessed sophisticated multi-layered missile defense capability: a Phalanx CIWS gun, Barak anti-missile missiles, Chaff and ECM. These should have been able to prevent an anti-ship missile attack such as the YJ-82, but according to the Israeli military, these were intentionally disabled at the time of the alleged Kowsar hit due to:
  • a lack of intelligence indicating Hezbollah possessed such a missile; and
  • the presence of many Israeli Air Force aircraft conducting operations in the vicinity of the ship which might have accidentally set off the ship's anti-missile/aerial threats system, with the danger of shooting down a friendly aircraft. However, the ship has an (optionally-installed, especially during wartime) Identification friend or foe interrogator system to prevent attacking friendly aircraft.


(See also: Military operations of the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict: Friday, July 14.)

Upgrades

Most upgrades of C-802 are funded not by the Chinese government but by the manufacturers and trading firms themselves. Most upgrades were mainly focused on the guidance systems.

Altimeter

The radar altimeter can be replaced by a newly developed laser altimeter, which is much less likely to be detected via ESM. The laser altimeter can be retrofited to all models of this anti-ship missile family.

Seekers

One of the first upgrades included the incorporation of infrared guidance so that there is a dual guidance system similar to that of the Taiwanesemarker Hsiung Feng II missile. Imaging infrared seeker and a television seeker similar to that of the C-701 anti-ship missile became available later. The imaging infrared seeker is reportedly derived from the imaging infrared seeker technology developed for Chinesemarker air-to-air missiles. These three seekers are interchangeable with the original radar seeker, and can be fitted at naval bases rather than the factory.

As the imaging infrared seeker and the television seeker are significantly smaller than the radar seeker, the manufacturer has taken advantage of the extra space to develop a variety of combined seekers for dual guidance, which include: radar and imaging infrared guidance, television and imaging infrared guidance, dual band (infrared and imaging infrared) guidance, and television and infrared guidance. These combined seekers can also be fitted at naval bases. According to domestic Chinese news media the manufacturer says that as of the last quarter of 2006 no orders for had been received for any of the combined seekers except the radar and infrared guidance, due to funding problems.

Datalinks

A datalink associated with the radar seeker and the dual radar and infrared guidance seeker armed C-802 was added enabled the missile to receive target information provided by aircraft and this later became a standard feature. The first successful test fire of the C-802 with the datalink was conducted with Harbin SH-5 ASW equipped with British radar, and soon after, with Y-8X Maritime Patrol Aircraft equipped with Litton Canadamarker radar. This datalink was originally developed for YJ-83/C-803, the successor of the YJ-82/C-802, and adopted for the YJ-82/C-802 upgrade.

Based on the datalink associated with the radar seeker, a newer datalink that was compatible with all three types of seekers was also successfully developed, enabling the missile to significantly improve its attack capability by allowing the pilot of the aircraft or the crew of the ship to view the images provided by the television or the imaging infrared seekers, and thus to select the potential targets, just like the way A-10 pilots used the images provided by the imaging infrared seekers of AGM-65 Maverick Air-to-surface missiles for targeting during the Persian Gulf War. Land attack capability is the greatest beneficiary since mobile targets on land can be engaged as a result, though only when the missile is equipped with television and imaging infrared seekers, but not the radar seeker. Like the datalink only associated with the radar seeker, the newer datalink allows the operators to alter the course of the missile and change targets after launching. However, there are no reports to support the claim that the operator can terminate the attack via the datalink like that of the Harpoon missile. This new datalink has very little difference from radar seeker associated datalink it is developed from in terms of hardware, the major difference is the software programs.

Missile launching rail

For the air-launched version, a universal missile launching rail system was also developed for C-802, reducing the installation time significantly. Furthermore, the new system allowed virtually any aircraft in the Chinese inventory to be armed with YJ-82K.

Container

For the surface-launched version, Chinese developed a new launcher/storage container that is able to handle YJ-8 (C-801), YJ-82 (C-802) and CY-1 ASW missiles, and this new container became standard.

GPS/GLONASS

Latest upgrade was the incorporation of both the GPS and GLONASS guidance system, reportedly based on the technology from the American Joint Direct Attack Munition obtained from the NATO Bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade . The GPS/GLONASS guidance system can be either used in conjunction with other guidance or independently. When combined with seekers in anti-shipping role, it improves flight profile, saving fuel and thus increasing range, and for the land attack role, it provides a much cheaper alternatives to terrain-following radar when combined with digital maps (and the altitude in the terrain-following mode must be preset).

However, due to financial reasons, only the new launching/storage container upgrade and the upgrade of the datalink associated with the radar seeker and the dual radar and infrared guidance seeker have entered the PLA service. Despite marketing efforts of the Chinese manufacturers, there is no known export success of any of the above C-802 upgrades.

Noor (missile)

Iranian version of C-802, which was often widely but erroneously credited by many as the missile that had hit Israeli corvette INS Hanit in the 2006 Lebanon War by Hezbollah, but post incident analysis has suggested that the missiles used was actually much smaller Kowsar instead.

C-802A

At Zhuhaimarker Airshow held from the end of October 2006 thru early November 2006, an improved version of C-802 was displayed. The size of this updated version is about the same as the original C-802, but the range was extended to 180 km. Other information regards this version was very limited except the one that had already entered the Chinese service adopts radar seeker.

C-803

See here for C-803 anti-ship missile.

KD-88 Land-Attack Cruise Missile

The PLAAF is currently equipped with a land attack version of the YJ-81 air-launched anti-ship missile, dubbed the KD-88 (KongDi-88). This weapon was revealed to the public during the 2006 Zhuhai Air Show, and was demonstrated to the press in November 2006.

The KD-88 is similar in concept to the American Stand-off Land Attack Missile (SLAM), in that the basic weapon design was based on an anti-ship missile which was modified for a land attack purpose. The missile can deliver a 165 kg high-explosive warhead at around mach 0.9 to a maximum distance of around 180~200 km. The missile is guided via inertial navigation system, with datalink command for mid-course correction and active radar homing for terminal guidance. The weapon is claimed to be able to engage ships in harbour or fixed land targets. Launch platforms for the KD-88 are the JH-7A fighter-bomber and H-6 medium bomber. Further developments of the KD-88 include GPS guidance and TV-homing to improve accuracy, or also include passive radar radiation guidance.

YJ-2

First revealed by China Precision Machinery Import and Export Corporation (CPMIEC), the marketing firm for C-802 series, YJ-2 is a cheaper alternative of KD-88 land attack cruise missile, utilizing only satellite navigational guidance. The version guided by GPS is the only one shown at defense exhibitions, but CPMIEC has claimed that GLONASS can also be used. The same technology is also used to modify C-801 for land attack missions, and the resulting missile is designated as YJ-1.

C-805

Unconfirmed reports indicated that there is a 400 km-range land-attack cruise missile (LACM) variant of the YJ-82 fitted with GPS/TERCOM guidance. However, current known Chinese development of a land attack cruise missile is tied to the development of the Type 093 nuclear attack submarine. Concurrently, China has initiated the deployment of GPS/GLONASS-guided YJ-85 air launch cruise missiles for JH-7 Fighter-Bomber & H-6 Bomber.

It is suspected that China is further developing the solid fueled YJ-8 missile into the YJ-85, which is a 120 km range ground attack cruise missile. Concurrently, the Chinese are suspected of developing a 250 km land attack variant of the YJ-83 missile.

Because of presence of the YJ-8U submarine launch and the YJ-83 ship launch variants, such a cruise missile would theoretically provide a land attack ability to the Song class submarine and Yuan class submarine and most surface ships of the PLAN. [166898]

See also



References



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