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C-Stoff ("C substance") was a reductant used in bipropellant rocket fuels (as a fuel itself) developed by Hellmuth Walter Kommanditgesellschaft in Germanymarker during World War 2. It was developed for use with T-Stoff (a high test peroxide), as an oxidizer, which together with C-Stoff as the fuel, forms a hypergolic mixture.

Methanol CH3OH ~57% by Weight
Hydrazine hydrate N2H4 . H2O ~30% by Weight
Water H2O ~13% by Weight
Catalyst 431 K3[Cu(CN)4]  

The proportions of the components in C-Stoff were developed to catalyse the decomposition of T-Stoff, promote combustion with the oxygen released by the decomposition, and sustain uniform combustion through sufficient quantity of the highly reactive hydrazine. The combination of the C-Stoff, used as a rocket fuel, with the T-Stoff used as the oxidizer, often resulted in spontaneous explosion from their combined nature as a hypergolic fuel combination, necessitating strict hygiene in fueling operations; there were numerous catastrophic explosions of the Messerschmitt Me 163 aircraft which employed this fuel system. Another hazard was toxicity to humans of each of the fuels.


After the war, Allied studies into rocket propellants continued with engines such as the Armstrong Siddeley Beta, under the name 'C-fuel'.


  1. Botho Stüwe, Peene Münde West, Weltbildverlag ISBN 3-8289-0294-4 1998 page 220, German

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