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The Boeing-Vertol CH-47 Chinook is a versatile, twin-engine, tandem rotor heavy-lift helicopter. Its top speed of 170 knots (196 mph, 315 km/h) was faster than utility and attack helicopters of the 1960s and even many of today. Its primary roles include troop movement, artillery emplacement and battlefield resupply. It has a wide loading ramp at the rear of the fuselage and three external-cargo hooks.

The Chinook was designed and initially produced by Boeing Vertol in the early 1960s. The helicopter is now produced by Boeing Integrated Defense Systems. Chinooks have been sold to 16 nations; the largest users are the U.S. Army and the Royal Air Force, see Boeing Chinook .

Design and development

Late in 1956 the Department of the Army announced plans to replace the CH-37 Mojave, which was powered by piston engines, with a new, turbine-powered aircraft. A design competition was held and, in September 1958, a joint Army-Air Force source selection board recommended that the Army procure the Vertol medium transport helicopter. However, the necessary funds to proceed with full-scale development were not available and the Army vacillated in its design requirements. Some in the Army felt that the new helicopter should be a light tactical transport aimed at the mission of the old H-21s and H-34s and, consequently, sized for approximately fifteen troops. Another faction believed that the new transport should be much larger to serve as an artillery prime mover and have minimum interior dimensions compatible with the Pershing Missile System. This "sizing" problem was a critical decision.

Vertol began work on a new tandem rotor helicopter designated Vertol Model 107 or V-107 in 1957. In June 1958, the US Army awarded a contract to Vertol for the aircraft under the YHC-1A designation. The YHC-1A was tested by the Army to derive engineering and operational data. Three aircraft were built with a maximum troop capacity of twenty. However, the YHC-1A was considered by most of the Army users to be too heavy for the assault role and too light for the transport role. The decision was made to procure a heavier transport helicopter and at the same time upgrade the Huey as a tactical troop transport. This decision was to determine the pattern of airmobile operations for the next decade. As a consequence, the Army concept of air assault operations differed from the Marines because, among many reasons, the very nature of the equipment demanded different methods of employment. The YHC-1A would be improved and redesignated CH-46 Sea Knight in 1962.

HC-1B in flight being tested and evaluated.


The Army then ordered the larger Model 114 under the designation HC-1B. The pre-production Boeing Vertol YCH-1B made its initial hovering flight on September 21, 1961. In 1962 the HC-1B was redesignated the CH-47A under the 1962 United States Tri-Service aircraft designation system. The name "Chinook" alludes to the Chinook people of the Pacific Northwest.

The Chinook is powered by two turboshaft engines, mounted on either side of the helicopter's rear end and connected to the rotors by driveshafts. The counter-rotating rotors eliminate the need for an anti-torque vertical rotor, allowing all power to be used for lift and thrust. If one engine fails, the other can drive both rotors.

The "sizing" of the Chinook was directly related to the growth of the Huey and the Army's tacticians' insistence that initial air assaults be built around the squad. There was a critical stage in the Huey program when the technicians insisted not to go beyond the UH-1B model with Bell; that there should be a new tactical transport "between" the Huey and medium transport helicopter. By resolutely pushing for the Huey and the Chinook, the Army accelerated its airmobility program by years.



Improved and more powerful versions of the CH-47 have been developed since it entered service.

A commercial model of the Chinook, the Boeing-Vertol Model 234, is used worldwide for logging, construction, fighting forest fires and supporting petroleum exploration operations. As of December 15, 2006 Columbia Helicopters, Inc. of Aurora, Oregonmarker has purchased the Type Certificate of the Model 234 from Boeing. Currently the company is seeking FAA issuance of a Production Certificate to produce parts with eventual issuance of a Production Certificate to produce aircraft.

The Chinook was also built under license by Elicotteri Meridionali (Agusta) in Italymarker and Kawasaki in Japanmarker.

Operational history

Vietnam War

U.S. troops board CH-47 Chinooks and UH-1 Hueys during Operation Crazy Horse, Vietnam, 1966.


The Army finally settled on the larger Chinook as its standard medium transport helicopter and as of February 1966, 161 aircraft had been delivered to the Army. The 1st Cavalry Division had brought their organic Chinook battalion with them when they arrived in 1965 and a separate aviation medium helicopter company, the 147th, had arrived in Vietnam on 29 November 1965. This latter company was initially placed in direct support of the 1st Infantry Division.

The most spectacular mission in Vietnam for the Chinook was the placing of artillery batteries in perilous mountain positions inaccessible by any other means, and then keeping them resupplied with large quantities of ammunition. The 1st Cavalry Division found that its Chinooks were limited to 7,000 pounds payload when operating in the mountains, but could carry an additional 1,000 pounds when operating near the coast. The early Chinook design was limited by its rotor system which did not permit full use of the installed power, and users were anxious for an improved version which would upgrade this system.

As with any new piece of equipment, the Chinook presented a major problem of "customer education". Commanders, pilots and crew chiefs had to be constantly alert that eager soldiers did not overload the temptingly large cargo compartment. It would be some time before the using troops would be experts at sling loads and educated in such minor details as removing the gunner's sight from the artillery pieces. The Chinook soon proved to be such an invaluable aircraft for artillery movement and heavy logistics that it was seldom used as an assault troop carrier. The early decision to move to a helicopter of this size proved to be indisputably sound.

The Chinooks were generally armed with a single 7.62 millimeter M60 machine gun on a pintle mount on either side of the machine for self-defense, with stops fitted to keep the gunners from firing into the rotor blades. Dust filters were also added to improve engine reliability. At its peak employment in Vietnam, there were 22 Chinook units in operation.

Of the nearly 750 Chinooks in the U.S. and Republic of Vietnam fleets, about 200 were lost in combat or wartime operational accidents. US Army supplied Chinooks to the Australian Task Force as required.

Iran-Iraq war

After an agreement signed between Boeing and Elicotteri Meridionali, the Imperial Iranian Air Force (IIAF) purchased 20 Elicotteri Meridionali built CH-47Cs in 1971. The Imperial Iranian Army Aviation (IIAA) purchased 70 CH-47Cs from Elicotteri Meridionali during the period of 1972-1976. In late 1978, Iran placed an order for an additional 50 helicopters with Elicotteri Meridionali, but that order was canceled immediately after the revolution.

On or about 21 July 1978, four Iranian CH-47C Chinooks penetrated 15–20 km into Soviet airspace in the Turkimenistan Military District. They were intercepted by a MiG-23M, shooting down one Chinook, killing eight crew members and forcing a second one to land.

Iran lost at least 8 Chinooks during the 1980-1988 war with Iraq. On 15 July 1983, an Iraqi Mirage F-1 destroyed three Iranian CH-47s flying low to deliver marines to the front line.

Falklands War

The Chinook was used both by Argentina and the United Kingdom during the Falklands War in 1982. The Argentine Air Force and the Argentine Army deployed four CH-47C (two each) which were widely used in general transport duties. Of the Army's airframes one was destroyed on ground by a Harrier whilst the other was captured (and reused after the war) by the British. Both Air Force helicopters returned to Argentina and remained in service until 2002.

Iraq and Afghanistan

Approximately 163 CH-47Ds served in Kuwait and Iraq during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm in 1990-91.

The CH-47D is currently seeing wide use in Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistanmarker and Operation Iraqi Freedom in Iraqmarker. The Chinook is being used in air assault missions, inserting troops into fire bases and later bringing food, water, and ammunition. It is also the casualty evacuation (casevac) aircraft of choice in the British Army. It is typically escorted by attack helicopters such as the Apache for protection. The CH-47D was particularly useful in the mountainous terrain of Afghanistan where high altitudes and temperatures limited the use of the Black Hawk.

Dutch Chinooks have been used in operations like Kosovo, Iraq and a number of CH-47Ds were sent to Afghanistan. Australian Chinooks participated in the in Afghanistan War.

Variants

CH-47A

The all-weather, medium-lift CH-47A Chinook was powered initially by Lycoming T55-L-5 engines rated at but then replaced by the T55-L-7 rated at engines or T55-L-7C engines rated at . The CH-47A had a maximum gross weight of . Initial delivery of the CH-47A Chinook to the US Army was in August 1962. A total of 349 were built.

ACH-47A

The ACH-47A was originally known as the Armed/Armored CH-47A (or A/ACH-47A). It was officially designated ACH-47A by US Army—Attack Cargo Helicopter—and unofficially "Guns A Go-Go"). Four CH-47A helicopters were converted to gunships by Boeing Vertol in late 1965. Three were assigned to the 53rd Aviation Detachment in South Vietnammarker for testing, with the remaining one retained in the U.S. for weapons testing. By 1966, the 53rd was redesignated the 1st Aviation Detachment (Provisional) and attached to the 228th Assault Support Helicopter Battalion of the 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile). By 1968, only one gunship remained, and logistical concerns prevented more conversions. It was returned to the United States, and the program stopped.

The ACH-47A carried five M60D 7.62x51 mm machine guns or M2HB .50 caliber machine guns, provided by the XM32 and XM33 armament subsystems, two M24A1 20 mm cannons, two XM159B/XM159C 19-Tube 2.75" rocket launchers or sometimes two M18/M18A1 7.62x51 mm gun pods, and a single M75 40 mm grenade launcher in the XM5/M5 armament subsystem (more commonly seen on the UH-1 series of helicopters). The surviving aircraft, Easy Money, has been restored and is on display at Redstone Arsenalmarker, Alabama.[6436][6437][6438]

CH-47B

The CH-47B was an interim solution while Boeing worked on a more substantially improved CH-47C. CH-47B was powered by two Lycoming T55-L-7C 2,850 shp (2,130 kW) engines. It featured a blunted rear rotor pylon, redesigned asymmetrical rotor blades, and strakes along the rear ramp and fuselage to improve flying characteristics. It could be equipped with two door-mounted M60D 7.62 mm NATO machine guns on the M24 armament subsystem and a ramp-mounted M60D using the M41 armament subsystem. Some CH-47 "bombers" were equipped to drop tear gas or napalm from the rear cargo ramp onto NLF (aka Việt Cộng) bunkers. The CH-47 could be equipped with a hoist and cargo hook. The Chinook proved especially valuable in "Pipe Smoke" aircraft recovery missions. The "Hook" recovered about 12,000 aircraft valued at over $3.6 billion during the war. 108 built.

CH-47C

The CH-47C featured more powerful engines and transmissions. Three versions of the "C model" were built. The first had Lycoming T55-L-7C engines delivering . The "Super C" included Lycoming T55-L-11 engines delivering , an upgraded maximum gross weight of and a pitch stability augmentation system (PSAS). Due to difficulties with the T55-L-11 engines, which were hurriedly brought to war to increase payload, they were temporarily removed from the "Super C" prior to 1970 and the very reliable Lycoming T55-L-7C's were installed until the L-11 engine difficulties could be quantified and corrected. This L-7C engine configuration was affectionately referred to as the "baby C" although it was still a Super C. It distinguished itself from the "C" in that it had PSAS and an uprated maximum gross weight. The CH-47 A, B, and all variants of the C were not able to receive certification from the FAA for civil use due to the non-redundant hydraulic flight boost system drive. A redesign of the hydraulic boost system drive was incorporated in the CH-47D which allowed that model to achieve FAA certification as the Boeing Model 234. 233 CH-47Cs were built.

The CH-47A, B, and all versions of the C saw wide use during the Vietnam war. They replaced the H-21 Shawnee in the combat assault support role.

The Royal Air Force variant of the CH-47C is known as the Chinook HC1.

The export version of the CH-47C Chinook for the Italian Army was designated "CH-47C Plus".

CH-47D



The CH-47D was originally powered by two T55-L-712 engines, but most are now fitted with the T55-GA-714A. Models CH-47A, CH-47B, and CH-47C, all used the same airframe, but later models featured upgraded engines. With its triple-hook cargo system, the CH-47D can carry heavy payloads internally and up to 26,000 pounds - for example, bulldozers and containers - externally, at speeds over 155 mph (250 km/h). In air assault operations, it often serves as the principal mover of the 155 mm M198 howitzer, 30 rounds of ammunition, and an 11-man crew. Like most US Army helicopters, the Chinook has advanced avionics and electronics, including the Global Positioning System.

Nearly all of the Army production CH-47D models were conversions from previous US Army A, B, and C models. The last US Army D model built was delivered to the U.S. Army Reserve, located at Fort Hood, Texasmarker, in early 2002.

The Royal Air Force versions of the CH-47D are known as the Chinook HC2 and HC2A. The CH-47SD is a modified variant of the CH-47D, with extended range fuel tanks and higher payload capacities. It is in use by the Republic of Singapore Air Force, Greek Army and the Republic of Chinamarker. The CH-47DG is an upgraded version of the CH-47C for the Greek Army. The CH-47D is an upgraded version of the CH-47LR for the Republic of Korea Army.

MH-47D



The MH-47D variant was developed for special forces operations and has in-flight refueling capability, a fast-rope rappelling system and other upgrades. The MH-47D was used by US Army 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment. 12 MH-47D helicopters were produced. 6 were conversions from CH-47A models and 6 were conversions from CH-47C models.

MH-47E

The current model used by US Army Special Operations is the MH-47E. Beginning with the E model prototype manufactured in 1991, there were a total of 26 Special Operations Aircraft produced. All aircraft were assigned to 2-160th SOAR(A)"Nightstalkers", home based at Fort Campbell Kentucky. E models were conversions from existing CH-47C model airframes. The MH-47E has similar capabilities as the MH-47D, but includes an increased fuel capacity similar to the CH-47SD and terrain following/terrain avoidance radar.

In 1995, the Royal Air Force ordered eight Chinook HC3s, effectively a low cost version of the MH-47E for the special forces operations role. They were delivered in 2001 but never entered operational service due to technical issues with their avionics fit, unique to the HC3. In 2008, work started to downgrade the HC3s to HC2 standard, to enable them to enter service.

CH-47F



The CH-47F, an upgraded D model, first flew in 2001. The first production model was rolled out on June 15, 2006 at the Boeing facility in Ridley Parkmarker, Pennsylvaniamarker, and had its maiden flight on October 23, 2006. The CH-47F was designed to extend the service life of the Chinook class beyond 2030. Among its upgrades are new 4,868 shaft horsepower Honeywell engines, improved avionics, and an upgraded airframe with larger single-piece sections to reduce part count and need for fasteners. The new milled construction will reduce vibrations, eliminate points of joint flexing, and reduce the need for inspections and repairs, and reduce maintenance costs. It is also expected to increase service life. The CH-47F can fly at speeds of over with a payload of more than . The improved avionics include a Rockwell Collins Common Avionics Architecture System (CAAS) cockpit, and BAE Systemsmarker' Digital Advanced Flight Control System (DAFCS).

Boeing has delivered 48 F-model helicopters to the United States Army; on August 26, 2008, Boeing announced that the Army has signed a five-year contract, worth over $4.8 billion for 191 more, plus 24 options. In February 2007, the Netherlands were the first international customer to order the F model; six helicopters were ordered to expand their current fleet to 17. These six helicopters will be equipped with an upgraded version of the Honeywell Avionics Control Management System (ACMS) cockpit.

MH-47G



The MH-47G Special Operations Aviation (SOA) version is currently being delivered to the U.S. Army. It is similar to the MH-47E, but features a more sophisticated avionics including a digital Common Avionics Architecture System (CAAS). The CAAS is common glass cockpit used by different helicopters such as MH-60K/Ls, CH-53E/Ks, and ARH-70As. The MH-47G will also incorporate all of the new sections of the CH-47F.

Based on operational experience in Afghanistanmarker, the CH-47 was found to be an effective substitute for the UH-60 Black Hawk as an assault helicopter. With its larger payload, range, and higher operating speed, one Chinook can replace up to five UH-60s in this role as an air assault transport.

HH-47

On November 9, 2006, the HH-47, a new variant of the Chinook based on the MH-47G, was selected by the U.S. Air Force as the winner of the Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR-X) competition. Four development HH-47s will be built, with the first of 141 production aircraft to enter service in 2012. However, as of February 2007 this contract award has come under scrutiny by the GAO and the USAF may recompete the CSAR-X project.

Other export models

The CH-47J is a medium-transport helicopter for the Japan Ground Self Defence Force, and the Japan Air Self Defence Force. The CH-47JA is a long range version of the CH-47J, fitted with enlarged fuel tanks. Both versions are built under license in Japan by Kawasaki. The HH-47D is a search and rescue version for the Republic of Korea Air Force.

Eight CH-47C Chinooks were delivered to the Canadian Forces in 1974. The Chinooks were in Canadian service from 1974 to 1991; they were designated "CH-147". These aircraft were subsequently sold to the Netherlands and are now operated by the Royal Netherlands Air Force as CH-47Ds. In April 2009, the Australian government requested a possible sale of seven CH-47F helicopters. Additional orders are expected from Italy and the United Kingdom. Plans are to upgrade the current fleet of CH-47Ds to the F-model standard and eventually enlarge the fleet to 20 aircraft, pending funding.

On August 10, 2009, Canada signed a contract to purchase 15 CH-47Fs for delivery in 2013-14.

Civilian models



  • Model 234LR (Long Range) - Commercial transport helicopter. The Model 234LR can be fitted out as an all-passenger, all-cargo, or cargo/passenger transport helicopter.
  • Model 234ER (Extended Range) - Commercial transport version.
  • Model MLR (Multi Purpose Long Range) - Commercial transport version.
  • Model 234UT (Utility Transport) - Utility transport helicopter.
  • Model 414 - The Model 414 is the international export version of the CH-47D. It is also known as the CH-47D International Chinook.


Derivatives

In the 1970s, the Army contracted Boeing to design a "Heavy Lift Helicopter (HLH)", designated XCH-62A. It appeared to be a scaled-up CH-47 without a conventional body, in a configuration similar to the S-64 Skycrane (CH-54 Tarhe), but the project was soon canceled. It was given a second examination in the 1980s and was again rejected. The scaled up model of the HLH was scrapped at the end of 2005 at Fort Rucker, Alabamamarker.

Operators

Military operators



: see Boeing Chinook
: captured ex-VNAF Chinooks


Civilian operators



  • Taiwan National Fire Administration (currently operates three 234s and nine CH-47SD)
Former civil operators are marked by italics

Notable accidents and incidents

  • On September 11, 1982, at an airshow in Mannheim, Germanymarker a United States Army Chinook (serial number 74-22292) carrying parachutists crashed, killing 46 people. The crash was later found to be caused by an accumulation of ground walnut shells that had been used to clean the machinery.
  • On November 6, 1986, a British International Helicopters Chinook crashedmarker on approach to Sumburgh Airport, Shetland Islands resulting in the loss of 45 lives and the withdrawal of the Chinook from crew servicing flights in the North Seamarker.
  • Major Marie Therese Rossi Cayton was the first American woman to fly in combat during Desert Storm in 1991. She was killed when her Chinook helicopter crashed on 1 March 1991.
  • On 2 June 1994 an RAF Chinook HC2 (registration ZD576, call sign F4J40) crashedmarker on the Mull of Kintyremarker, Scotlandmarker, killing all twenty five passengers and all four crew.
  • On 29 May 2001 a ROK Army CH-47D installing a sculpture onto a bridge in Seoulmarker, South Korea failed to unlatch the sculpture. The helicopter's rotors struck the monument then the fuselage hit. The helicopter broke into two. Half crashed onto the bridge in flames and the other half fell into the river. All three crew members on board died.


Specifications (CH-47D)

Turboshaft engine on the rear of a CH-47


See also

Soldiers wait for pickup from two Chinooks in Afghanistan, 2008.


References

  1. Origins: Vertol V-107 & V-114, Vectorsite.net, July 1, 2004.
  2. Spenser, Jay P. Whirlybirds, A History of the U.S. Helicopter Pioneers. University of Washington Press, 1998. ISBN 0-295-97699-3.
  3. Chinook Information and diagrams about the transmission system
  4. boeing-vertol CH-47C Chinook in argentina comando de aviacion de ejercito argentino
  5. US Army CH-47A / CH-47B / CH-47C / CH-47D / SOA Chinooks. Vectorsite.net, 1 July 2004.
  6. Boeing CH-47D model Chinook helicopters. chinook-helicopter.com
  7. Boeing MH-47D model Chinook helicopters. chinook-helicopter.com
  8. Boeing MH-47E model Chinook helicopters. chinook-helicopter.com
  9. "New Boeing CH-47F takes flight", Aerotech News and Review, November 3, 2006, p. 3.
  10. "Boeing's New CH-47F Chinook Helicopter Begins Operational Test Flights with U.S. Army", Boeing, February 19, 2007.
  11. Holcomb, Henry, "New Look Chinook", Philadelphia Inquirer, August 17, 2007. archive link
  12. "Boeing Awarded US Army Contract for 191 CH-47F Chinook Helicopters", Boeing, August 26, 2008.
  13. "Boeing Signs Contract for Dutch Chinooks", Boeing, February 15, 2007.
  14. Warwick, Graham. "Chinook: CAAS unites rotorcraft cockpits". Flight International, 1 April 2008.
  15. MH-47E/G Special Operations Chinook product page. Boeing.
  16. Air Transportation: Chinook Replaces Blackhawk in Combat
  17. [1] Boeing News Release
  18. [2] Global Security.org
  19. Bowing To GAO, USAF Likely To Recompete CSAR-X 28 February 2007
  20. "Australia - CH-47F Chinook Helicopters". DSCA, 23 April 2009.
  21. "Chinooks will fly too late for Afghanistan".
  22. XCH-62 with photo
  23. Canadian military acquiring new helicopters, drones
  24. Boeing: History - Products - Boeing Model 234 Chinook
  25. SP-3300 Flight Research at Ames, 1940-1997
  26. Description of crash of Chinook 74-22292, Chinook-helicopter.com.
  27. Air show safety in the spotlight, BBC, 27 July 2002.
  28. Ursula J. Schoenborn v. The Boeing Company, 769 F.2d 115 (3d Cir. 1985) - a case in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit
  29. Report No: 2/1988. Report on the accident to Boeing Vertol (BV) 234 LR, G-BWFC 2.5 miles east of Sumburgh, Shetland Isles, 6 November 1986
  30. "Marie Therese Rossi Cayton" Arlington National Cemetery Website
  31. "S. Korean Helicopter Crashes Into Bridge, 3 Killed". People's Daily, 30 May 2001. archive page on Google.com


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