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The Calchaquí were a tribe of South American Indians of the Diaguita group, now extinct, who formerly occupied northern Argentinamarker. Stone and other remains prove them to have reached a high degree of civilization. Under the leadership of Juan Calchaquí they offered a vigorous resistance to the first Spanishmarker colonists coming from Chilemarker.

Their language, known as Cacán, became extinct since the mid-17th century or beginning of 18th century. Its genetic classification remains unclear. The language was supposedly documented by the Jesuit Alonso de Bárcena, but the manuscript is lost.

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