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Caledonia County is a county located in the U.S. state of Vermontmarker. As of 2000, the population was 29,702. Its shire town is St. Johnsburymarker .

The county was given the Latin name for Scotlandmarker, in honor of the many settlers who claimed ancestry there.

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 658 square miles (1,703 km²), of which, 651 square miles (1,685 km²) of it is land and 7 square miles (18 km²) of it (1.06%) is water.

Caledonia is the most populated county of the three in the Northeast Kingdom. However, it is the smallest of the three.

The county has a number of brooks and rivers. The Connecticut River runs along the southeast and forms one of the eastern boundaries of the county. The northern towns are drained by the head branches of the Passumpsic River, which is the largest in the county. It flows south and empties into the Connecticut River in Barnet. There are the Wells, Stevens and Joe's Rivers in the south. In the west the head waters of the Winooski and Lamoille Rivers. There are about twenty lakes and ponds in the county. The largest are Harvey's Lake, in Barnet; Wells River and Lund's Ponds, in Groton; Cole's Pond, in Walden; Clark's and Center Ponds, in Newark; and Stile's Pond, in Waterford. There are falls at different places on the Connecticut, Passumpsic, Wells and Joe's Rivers. Stevens River, near its mouth, falls in a distance of . Some of the water power has been harnessed for electricity.

There are sulphur springs in Wheelock, Haynesville, in Hardwick; and in St. Johnsbury, near the Moose River.

Geology

Underlying the county is mostly in calciferous mica schist district. There is argillaceous slate running through Waterford and Kirby, which narrows in Burke.

Waterford had a lot of talc. This belongs to the gold bearing formations. Specimens of gold were found in town, and iron and copper pyrites in veins. But none in commercial quality. In Waterford there was an outcrop of slate that was quarried for roofing. Kirby Mountain, in Kirby, was largely granite of commercial quality.

Ryegate had granite on the south and west sides of Blue Mountain. The granite was created by volcanic action. This was a medium colored granite of commercial grain and texture. It was quarried in the 19th century. It lay in sheets to or .

Perhaps the most widely known monument locally using this granite was the soldiers monument at Peacham, Vt. Monuments from this granite exist all over the country. This was one of the best quality quarries in the country in the 19th century.

The presence of Kame terraces in the country are of interest in connection with the drift that gave the Northeast Kingdom its soil, and its surface stones and boulders. These terraces have beds of sand and clay from which bricks were once manufactured.

Based on research by Edward Hitchcock two or three basins can be identified based on a larger number of interconnected terraces in the Passumpsic River Valley.

The first extends from the mouth of the Passumpsic River in Barnet, to the northwest corner of the town of Waterford, on the railroad. It is about long. The river runs through a narrow valley in Barnet, a gorge with no terraces. Narrow terraces in the Town of Passumpsic expand and form a basin. The fourth terrace on the west side of the river is part of the next basin, which is in St. Johnsbury and Lyndon. St. Johnsbury Village is on this high terrace which is called "St. Johnsbury Plain". The base of the terraces at St. Johnsbury is composed of clay. The same terrace occurs on both sides of the river valley beyond Lyndon. There are lower terraces at intervals.

Lyndonville has a high terrace. This may have once extended across the valley to form the end of a basin. Its lower strata are clayey, and are folded and curved. West of this terrace the level is lower. There is the course of a former river bed which ran towards the east. At the upper village of Lyndon the first terrace is about wide. There is a lot of sand and fine gravel adjoining.

Every stream from either side of the valley has its large terraces to correspond with those of the Passumpsic River. It is a characteristic of these terraces that they are large while their quantity is small. The count never exceeds five which is unusual.

The third basin includes the east branch of the Passumpsic River which runs through the Town of Burke. In East Burke there are several terraces. Near the village there are four on the west side, and two on the east side. Above East Burke the valley rises so that its bottom appears like a terrace. Its steep slope crosses the valley at right angles. There are indistinct terraces on its sides. Since the valley seems to be too wide to correspond with the size of the river, the valley may have been formed by water from unknown sources in prehistoric times.

Caledonia has more muck deposits than any other county in the state. This was once thought to be profitable for farmers.

Adjacent counties



History

The county shares the same pre-Columbian history with the Northeast Kingdom.

Rogers' Rangers were forced to retreat through the county following their attack on Saint-Francis, Quebecmarker in 1759. To confound their avenging pursuers, they had split up. One group came south over the summit into the Passumpsic River Valley.

In 2008, the county was declared a federal disaster area as the result of storms and flooding which occurred on July 18.

Government

As in all Vermont counties, there is a small executive function which is mostly consolidated at the state level. Remaining county government is judicial. There are no "county taxes."

In 2007, median property taxes in the county were $2,278, placing it 265 out of 1,817 counties in the nation with populations over 20,000.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 29,702 people, 11,663 households, and 7,895 families residing in the county. The population density was 46 people per square mile (18/km²). There were 14,504 housing units at an average density of 22 per square mile (9/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 97.48% White, 0.29% Black or African American, 0.55% Native American, 0.37% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.23% from other races, and 1.07% from two or more races. 0.68% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 19.0% were of English, 15.1% French, 12.3% Americanmarker, 11.7% Irish, 9.0% French Canadian, 5.7% Scottish and 5.1% German ancestry according to Census 2000. 96.0% spoke English and 2.3% French as their first language.

There were 11,663 households out of which 32.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.60% were married couples living together, 10.40% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.30% were non-families. 25.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.00% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.95.

In the county, the population was spread out with 25.30% under the age of 18, 8.80% from 18 to 24, 26.30% from 25 to 44, 25.30% from 45 to 64, and 14.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 97.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.50 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $34,800, and the median income for a family was $42,215. Males had a median income of $30,438 versus $21,973 for females. The per capita income for the county was $16,976. About 9.00% of families and 12.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.60% of those under age 18 and 10.00% of those age 65 or over.

An estimated 3,100 military veterans reside in the county.

Transportation

Major Routes



Cities, towns, and villages*

There are seventeen towns in the county:

*'Incorporated villages are census divisions and provide additional services. They remain part of the towns they are in.

See also



Footnotes

  1. , page 1
  2. The Chronicle, July 1, 2009, page 14, "Veterans ask for clinic closer to home," Joseph Gresser


External links




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