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California Alien Land Law of 1913: Map


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The California Alien Land Law of 1913 prohibits "aliens ineligible for citizenship" (i.e., all Asian immigrants) from owning land or property, but permits three year leases. It affected the Chinese, Indian, Japanese, and Korean immigrant farmers in Californiamarker. It passed thirty-five to two in the Senate and seventy-two to three in the Assembly and was co-written by assemblyman and later attorney general Ulysses S. Webb. Kametaro Iijima Japan's Consul General in 1913, and Juichi Soyeda lobbied against the law. The law was invalidated in 1952 by the Supreme Court of Californiamarker as a violation of the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution in the case of Sei Fujii v. California.

Ten other western states passed restrictive land-ownership laws during the decade 1913–23.


  1. Colletta, 1967; Olin, 1966.

  • Colleta, Paolo E., 1967, "The Most Thankless Task: Bryan and the California Alien Land Legislation," Pacific Historical Review, XXXVI (May): 163–87.
  • Olin, Spencer C.,Jr.,1966. "European Immigration and Oriental Alien: Acceptance and Rejection by the California Legislature, 1913," Pacific Historical Review,XXXV (August): 303–15.

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