( ; /khalīfah/) is the head of state
in a Caliphate
, and the title for the leader of the
, an Islamic community
ruled by the Shari'ah
. It is a
transliterated version of the Arabic
which means "successor" or "representative". The early
leaders of the Muslim nation following Muhammad
's (570–632) death were called "Khalifat
Rasul Allah", the political successors to the messenger of God
(referring to Muhammad). Some academics prefer to transliterate the
term as Khalīfah
Caliphs were often also referred to as Amīr al-Mu'minīn
"Commander of the Faithful", Imam
(إمام المؤمنين), or more colloquially, leader of
. After the first four caliphs (Abu Bakr, Umar ibn
al-Khattab, Uthman ibn Affan,
and Ali ibn Abi Talib), the title
was claimed by the Umayyads, the Abbasids, and the Ottomans, and at times, by competing
dynasties in Spain, Northern Africa, and Egypt.
historical Muslim governors were called sultans
, and gave
allegiance to a caliph, but at times had very little real
authority. The title has been defunct since the Republic of
Turkey abolished the Ottoman
Caliphate in 1924, although some individuals and groups have
called for its restoration.
Succession to Muhammad
, in his book The Early
(1981), argues that the standard Arabian
practice at the time was for the prominent men of a kinship group,
or tribe, to gather after a leader's death and elect a leader from
amongst themselves. There was no specified procedure for this
, or consultation. Candidates were
usually from the same lineage as the deceased leader, but they were
not necessarily. Capable men who would lead well were preferred
over an ineffectual heir.
However, this was before the start of Islam, and Sunni
Muslims believe and confirm that Muhammad's
Father-in-law Abu Bakr
was chosen by the
community and that this was the proper procedure. They further
argue that a caliph may be ideally chosen by election or community
Muslims disagree. They believe that
since Muhammad had given many indications that , his cousin and
son-in-law, is his chosen successor, regardless of democracy. and
his descendants are believed to have been the only proper Muslim
leaders, or imams
Shia's point of view. This matter is covered in much greater detail
in the article Succession to
and in the article on Shi'a
A third branch of Islam, the Ibadi Kharijites
, believes that the caliphate rightly
belongs to the greatest spiritual leader among Muslims, regardless
of his lineage. They are currently an extremely small sect,
found mainly in Oman.
Caliph is translated from the Arabic
(خليفة ) meaning "successor
", or "lieutenant
". It is used in the Qur'an
to establish Adam's
role as representative of
on earth. Kalifa is also used to
describe the belief that man's role, in his real nature, is as
viceroy to Allah. The word is also most commonly used for the
leader of the Ummah
; starting with the Prophet Muhammad
and his line of successors.
The Patriarchal Caliphs
The more general meaning of Khalifa refers to the successors of the
. The first four Caliphs:
Abu Bakr as-Siddiq
, Uthman ibn
, and Ali ibn Abi Talib
known as the "rightly guided" or "patriarchal" Caliphs. This is
because each was a close companion of the Prophet during his
prophethood. They are therefore seen as having a direct succession
to the Prophet.
Succession and Recognition
differ on the legitimacy of the reigns of the four Caliphs. The
Sunnis follow the Caliphates of all four, while the Shi'ites
recognize only the Caliphate of Ali and the short Caliphate of his
son Hasan. This schism occurred following the death of the Prophet
According to Sunni beliefs, Muhammad
no specific directions as to the choosing of his successor when he
died. At this time there were two customary means of selecting a
leader: having a hereditary leader for general purposes, and
choosing someone with good qualities in times of crisis or
opportunities for action. Both methods were advocated by different
groups among the early Muslims
, which led to
the early division between the Sunnis and Shi'ites.
While Sunni and Shia Islam differ sharply on the conduct of a
caliph and the right relations between a leader and a community,
they do not differ on the underlying theory of stewardship. Both
abhor waste of natural resources
in particular to show off or demonstrate power. Many consider this
conservation urge a necessity of any desert culture, where oases
are precious and natural capital must be preserved, in particular
clean water sources.
In the initial stages the latter way of choosing leadership
prevailed among the leading companions of the Prophet. Abu Bakr
was elected as the first caliph or
successor to Muhammad, with the other companions of Muhammad giving
an oath of allegiance to him. Those opposing this method thought
, Muhammad's nearest relative, should
have succeeded him. However the appointment of the next two caliphs
varied from the election of Abu Bakr. On his deathbed, Abu Bakr
as his successor without an
election by the community of Believers. The oath, approving the
appointment of Umar, was taken only by the Companions present in
Medina at the time. This lead to certain groups disputing the
authority of Umar. Umar also altered the way his successor would be
found. Before he was assassinated, Umar decided that his successor
would come from a group of six. This group included Ali and
another companion of the
Prophet. These six would have to establish from among themselves
Umar's successor. Ultimately Uthman was chosen as Umar successor,
becoming the third Caliph. After the assassination at Karbala , Ali
was elected as the fourth Caliph.
Ali's Caliphate and the Rise of the Ummayyad Dynasty
Ali's reign as Caliph was plagued by great turmoil and internal
strife. Ali was faced with multiple rebellions and insurrections.
primary one coming from Mu'awiyah a
relative of Uthman and Governor of Damascus.
Mu'awiyah attacked Ali at the Battle of
. The battle lasted several months resulting in a
stalemate. In order to avoid further bloodshed, Ali agreed to
negotiate with Mu'waiyah. This caused a faction of some 4,000
strict traditionalists, known as Kharijites
("Seceders"), to abandon the fight.
After defeating the Kharijites at the Battle of Nahrawan
, Ali would later be
assassinated by the Kharijite Ibn Muljam. Ali's son Hasan was
elected as the fifth Caliph only to concede his title to Mu'awiyah
a few months later. Mu'awiyah became the sixth Caliph, establishing
the Ummayyad Dynasty.
The expansion of the caliphate under
Under the Umayyads, the Muslim empire
grew rapidly. To the West, Muslim rule expanded across
North Africa and into Spain.
East, it expanded through Iran and
ultimately to India.
made it one of the largest empires in the history of West Eurasia
, extending its entire
However, the Umayyad dynasty was not universally supported within
Islam itself. Some Muslims supported prominent early Muslims like
; others felt that only
members of Muhammad's clan, the Banū Hashim, or his own lineage,
the descendants of , should rule. There were numerous rebellions
against the Umayyads, as well as splits within the Umayyad ranks
(notably, the rivalry between Yaman and Qays). Eventually,
supporters of the Banu Hisham and Alid claims united to bring down
the Umayyads in 750. However, the , "the Party of ", were again
disappointed when the Abbasid
power, as the Abbasids were descended from Muhammad's uncle,
Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib
and not from . Following this disappointment, the finally split
from the majority Sunni Muslims and formed what are today the
The Abbasids would provide an unbroken line of caliphs for over
three centuries, consolidating Islamic rule and cultivating great
intellectual and cultural developments in the Middle East.
But by 940
the power of the caliphate under the Abbasids was waning as
non-Arabs, particularly the Turkish
(and later the Mamluks in Egypt in the latter half of the 13th century),
gained influence, and sultans and emirs became increasingly independent.
the caliphate endured as both a symbolic position and a unifying
entity for the Islamic world.
During the period of the Abassid dynasty, Abassid claims to the
caliphate did not go unchallenged. The Said ibn Husayn
of the Fatimid
dynasty, which claimed descendancy of
Muhammad through his daughter, claimed the title of Caliph in 909,
creating a separate line of caliphs in North Africa
. Initially covering Morocco, Algeria,
Tunisia and Libya, the Fatimid caliphs extended their rule for the
next 150 years, taking Egypt and Palestine, before the Abbassid dynasty was able to
turn the tide, limiting Fatimid rule to Egypt.
dynasty finally ended in 1171. The Umayyad dynasty, which had survived and
come to rule over the Muslim provinces of Spain, reclaimed
the title of Caliph in 929, lasting until it was overthrown in
the conquest of Baghdad and the
execution of Abassid caliph al-Musta'sim by Mongol
forces under Hulagu Khan.
surviving member of the Abbasid House was installed as Caliph at
Cairo under the patronage of the Mamluk Sultanate three years
However, the authority of this line of Caliphs was
confined to ceremonial and religious matters, and later Muslim
historians referred to it as a "shadow" caliphate.
As the Ottoman Empire
grew in size
and strength, Ottoman rulers beginning with Mehmed II
began to claim caliphal authority. Their
claim was strengthened when the Ottoman Empire defeated the Mamluk
Sultanate in 1517 and took control of most Arab
lands. The last Abbasid Caliph at Cairo, al-Mutawakkil III, was taken into custody
and was transported to Istanbul, where he surrendered the Caliphate to Selim I.
Ottoman rulers were known primarily by the title of Sultan.
to Barthold, the first time the title of caliph was used as a
political instead of symbolic religious title by the Ottomans was
the peace treaty with Russia in
The Ottoman Caliphate.
The outcome of this war was disastrous for the
Ottomans. Large territories, including those with
large Muslim populations such as Crimea, were lost
to the Christian Russian Empire.
However, the Ottomans under
claimed a diplomatic
victory, the recognition of themselves as protectors of Muslims in
Russia as part of the peace treaty. This was the first time the
Ottoman caliph was acknowledged as having political significance
outside of Ottoman borders by a European power. As a consequence of
this diplomatic victory, as the Ottoman borders were shrinking, the
powers of the Ottoman caliph increased.
Around 1880 Sultan Abdulhamid II reasserted the title as a way of
countering creeping European colonialism in Muslim lands. His claim
was most fervently accepted by the Muslims of British India. By the
eve of the First World War
, the Ottoman
state, despite its weakness vis-à-vis Europe, represented the
largest and most powerful independent Islamic political entity. But
the sultan also enjoyed some authority beyond the borders of his
shrinking empire as caliph of Muslims in Egypt, India and Central
Abolition of the institution
March 1924, the Turkish Grand National
Assembly, on the initiative of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, abolished
the institution of the Caliphate, transferring its powers within
Turkey to the Assembly.
Occasional demonstrations have been held calling for the
reestablishment of the Caliphate.
Morocco, the Sherifian Monarch awarded the title
Khalifa or Chaliphe, here meaning 'Viceroy', to royal princes (styled Moulay), including
future Sultans, who represented the crown in a part of the
- especially in the former royal capitals
Marrakesh, Fes and Meknes
in other mayor cities, e.g. in Shawiya,
Casablanca, Tafilalt, Tadla, Tiznit Tindouf, in the valley of the Draa River and in Tetouan.
- but also, in the 20th century, as irrevocably fully mandated
Representative of the Sultan in the Spanish Zone, known after him in Spanish as
el Jalifato (note the definite article; although the
Spanish word can also be applied to other deputies of various
Moroccan officials), besides the Alto
comisario (de facto governing 'High Commissioner') of the
colonial 'protector' Spain, which called his office el
Jalifa (not Califa, the word for any 'imperial'
Caliph, ruling a califato):
- * 19 April 1913 - 9 November 1923 Mulay
al-Mahdi bin Isma'il bin Muhammad (d. 1923)
- * 9 November 1923 - 9 November 1925 Vacant
- * 9 November 1925 - 16 March 1941 Mulay Hassan bin al-Mahdi
(1st time) (b. 1912)
- * 16 March 1941 - October 1945 Vacant
- * October 1945 - 7 April 1956 Mulay Hassan bin al-Mahdi (2nd
Khalifa can have a definition, be a first name, or family or tribe
name. Like many titles, Khalifa also occurs in many names.
It is the
family name of the Al Khalifa dynasty,
rulers of the peninsular Arab nation of Bahrain, who are descended from the Bani Utub tribe.
Authority of the successor
The question of who should succeed Muhammad was not the only issue
that faced the early Muslims; they also had to clarify the extent
of the leader's powers. Muhammad, during his lifetime, was not only
the Muslim political leader, but the Islamic prophet. All law and
spiritual practice proceeded from Muhammad. Nobody claimed that his
successor would be a prophet; succession referred to political
authority. The uncertainty centered on the extent of that
authority. Muhammad's revelations, claiming to be directly from
God, were soon codified and written down as the Qur'an
, which was accepted as a supreme authority,
limiting what a caliph could legitimately command.
However, there is some evidence that some early caliphs did believe
that they had authority to rule in matters not specified in the
Qur'an. They believed themselves to be temporal and spiritual
leaders even in issues not commanded in the Quran, and insisted
that implicit obedience to the caliph in all things not
contradicting the Quran, was the hallmark of the good Muslim. The
modern scholars Patricia Crone
Martin Hinds, in their book God's Caliph
, outline the
evidence for an early, expansive view of the caliph's importance
and authority. They argue that this view of the caliph was
eventually nullified (in Sunni Islam, at least) by the rising power
of the ulema
, or Islamic lawyers, judges,
scholars, and religious specialists. The ulema insisted on their
right to determine what was legal and orthodox. The proper Muslim
leader, in the ulema's opinion, was the leader who enforced the
rulings of the ulema, rather than making rulings of his own, unless
he himself was qualified in Islamic law
Conflict between caliph and ulema, akin to a modern judiciary, was
a recurring theme in early Islamic history, and ended in the
victory of the ulema. The caliph was henceforth limited to temporal
rule only. He would be considered a righteous caliph if he were
guided by the ulema. Crone and Hinds argue that Shi'a Muslims, with
their expansive view of the powers of the imamate
, have preserved some of the beliefs of the
dynasty which ironically, they
despise. Crone and Hinds' thesis is not accepted by some
Most Sunni Muslims now believe that the caliph has always been a
merely temporal ruler, and that the ulema has always been
responsible for adjudicating orthodoxy and Islamic law (shari'a
). The first four caliphs are called the
, the Rightly Guided Caliphs,
because they are believed to have followed the Qur'an and the way
of Muhammad in all things. This
formulation itself presumes the Sunni ulema's view
Al-Ghazali on the desired character traits for
wrote the "Nasihat al-Muluk"
or "Advice for Kings" to a Seljuq Sultan
in which he gave ten different ethics of royal
- The ruler should understand the importance and danger of the
authority entrusted to him. In authority there is great blessing,
since he who exercises it righteously obtained unsurpassed
happiness but if any ruler fails to do so he incurs torment
surpassed only by the torment for unbelief.
- The ruler should always be thirsting to meet devout religious
scholars and ask them for advice.
- The ruler should understand that he must not covet the wives of
other men and be content with personally refraining from injustice,
but must discipline his slave-troops, servants, and officers and
never tolerate unjust conduct by them; for he will be interrogated
not only about his own unjust deeds but also about those of his
- The ruler should not be dominated by pride; for pride gives
rise to the dominance of anger, and will impel him to revenge.
Anger is the evil genius and blight of the intellect. If anger is
becoming dominant it will be necessary for the ruler in all his
affairs to bend his inclinations in the direction of forgiveness
and make a habit of generosity and forbearance unless he is to be
like the wild beasts.
- In every situation that arises, the ruler should figure that he
is the subject and the other person is the holder of authority. He
should not sanction for others anything that he would not sanction
for himself. For if he would do so he would be making fraudulent
and treasonable use of the authority entrusted to him.
- The ruler should not disregard the attendance of petitioners at
his court and should beware of the danger of so doing. He should
solve the grievances of the Muslims.
- The ruler should not form a habit of indulging the passions.
Although he might dress more finely or eat more sumptuously, he
should be content with all that he has; for without contentment,
just conduct will not be possible.
- The ruler should make the utmost effort to behave gently and
avoid governing harshly.
- The ruler should endeavor to keep all the subjects pleased with
him. The ruler should not let himself be so deluded by the praise
he gets from any who approach him as to believe that all the
subjects are pleased with him. On the contrary, such praise is
entirely due to fear. He must therefore appoint trustworthy persons
to carry on espionage and inquire about his standing among the
people, so that he may be able to learn his faults from men’s
- The ruler should not give satisfaction to any person if a
contravention of God’s law would be required to please him for no
harm will come from such a person’s displeasure.
Single Caliph for the Muslim World
It has been recorded that Muhammad
"The children of Israel have been governed by Prophets;
whenever a Prophet died another Prophet succeeded him; but there
will be no prophet after me. There will be caliphs and
they will number many (in one time); they asked: What then do you
order us? He said: Fulfil bayah to
them, only the first of them, the first of them, and give them
their dues; for verily Allah will ask them about what he entrusted
"When the oath of allegiance has been taken for two Caliphs,
kill the latter of them".
Muhammad's primary disciple is
reported to have said:
"It is forbidden for Muslims to have two Amirs for this would
cause differences in their affairs and concepts, their unity would
be divided and disputes would break out amongst them. The
Sunnah would then be abandoned, the bida'a (innovations) would
spread and Fitna would grow, and that is in no one's
Umar bin Al-Khattab
disciple of Muhammad is reported to have said: “There is no way
for two (leaders) together at any one time"
the famous 14th century
Muslim scholar, economist and historian said:"It is not
possible to appoint two men to the position (of caliph) at the same
time. Religious scholars generally are of this opinion, on
the basis of certain hadith(recorded
statements) of Muhammad. Those hadith are found in the
book entitled, "On Leadership (imarah)," in Sahih Muslim. They expressly indicate
that this is so."
century Sunni scholar Imam of al-Haramayn (i.e
Makkah and Medinah) al-Juwayni
“Our (scholarly) associates agree on precluding the investing
of two different individuals with the imamate at either end of the
world. But, they add: If it should happen that two
different persons were invested with the imamate, that would be
analogous to the situation of two guardians contracting a marriage
for the same woman to two different suitors without either being
aware of the other's contract. The decision in the matter
rests on the application of jurisprudence. My opinion on
this issue is that investiture of two individuals with the imamate
in a single locality within relatively restricted boundaries and
limited provinces is not permitted and the investiture should be in
accord with a consensus. But, when the distances are great
and the two Imams quite remote from each other, there is room to
allow it, although this cannot be established
The 11th century Sunni jurist Al-Mawardi
“The investment of two rulers in two different cities is
invalid in both cases, for the ummah may not
have two rulers simultaneously, even though there are some
dissenting voices who would make that permissible. Jurists
are disagreed regarding which one of the two should be
sovereign. One party take him to be the one elected in the
city where the previous leader died, because its residents are more
entitled to make the choice, the rest of the Community in other
districts delegating the task to them... Others have
suggested that each one of the two must give up the office in
favour of his opponent, thus allowing the elections to opt for one
or the other..”
a 12th century authority of
the Sunni Shafi'i madhhab
said: "It is forbidden to give an oath
to two caliphs or more, even in different parts of the world and
even if they are far apart"
, a more modern expert on
of the four Sunni madhhabs
said regarding the opinion of the four
Imams, “...It is forbidden for Muslims to have two Imams in the
world whether in agreement or discord."
- Abu Bakr: First rightly guided caliph.
Subdued rebel tribes in the Ridda
- Umar ibn al-Khattab: Second
rightly guided caliph. During his reign, the Islamic empire
expanded to include Egypt, Jerusalem, and Persia.
- Uthman ibn Affan: Third rightly
guided caliph. The Qur'an was compiled under
his direction. Killed by rebels.
- Ali ibn Abu Talib: Fourth and
last rightly guided caliph, and considered the first imam by Shi'a Muslims. His reign
was fraught with internal conflict.
- Muawiya I: First caliph of the
Umayyad Dynasty. Muawiya instituted dynastic
rule by appointing his son Yazid as his
successor, a trend that would continue through subsequent
al-Malik ibn Marwan - Fifth caliph of Ummayad Dynasty,
translated important records into Arabic, established an Islamic
currency system, led additional wars against the Byzantines and
ordered construction of the Dome of the Rock.
- Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz:
Umayyad caliph considered by some (mainly Sunnis) to be a fifth rightly guided caliph.
al-Rashid: Abbasid caliph during whose reign Baghdad became the
world's preeminent center of trade, learning, and culture.
Harun is the subject of many stories in the famous work 1001 Arabian Nights.
- Selim I the Brave: First Caliph of the
Ottoman Empire with the conquest of Egypt and the Holy Cities.
Defeated the powerful Shia Safavid Empire.
- Suleiman the
Magnificent: Early Ottoman Sultan during whose reign the
Ottoman Empire reached its
- Abdul Mejid II: Last Caliph of
the Ottoman Dynasty, the 101st Caliph in line from Caliph Abu Bakr.
On August 23, 1944, Abdul Mejid II died at his house in the
Boulevard Suchet, Paris XVIe, France. He was buried at Medina,
Several Arabic surnames found throughout the Middle East are
derived from the word khalifa
. These include: Khalif,
Khalifa, Khillif, Kalif, Kalaf, Khalaf, and Kaylif. The usage of
this title as a surname is comparable to the existence of surnames
such as King, Duke, and Noble in the English language.
The more important dynasties include:
Note on the overlap of Umayyad and Abbasid
Umayyad dynasty in Damascus (661–750), followed by:
Abbasid dynasty in Baghdad (750–1258),
and later in Cairo (under
Mameluk control) (1260–1517).
Shi'ite Fatimid dynasty in North Africa and Egypt
(909–1171). Not universally accepted and not currently
included in the list here.
Rahmanids, a surviving branch of the Damascus Umayyads, established
"in exile" as Emirs of Córdoba, Spain, declared
themselves Caliphs (known as the Caliphs of Cordoba; not universally
Almohad dynasty in North Africa and Spain (not
universally accepted; 1145–1269). Traced their descent not
from Muhammad, but from a puritanic reformer in Morocco who claimed
to be the Mahdi (a puritanic reformer in
Morocco, bringing down the "decadent" Almoravid emirate) whose son established a
sultanate and claimed to be a caliph.
- The Ottomans (1517–1924; main
title Padishah, also known as Great Sultan etc.), assumed the title after
defeating the Mamluk Sultanate and
used it sporadically between the 16th and early 20th century.
: After the massacre of the Umayyad clan by the
Abbassids, one lone prince escaped and fled to North Africa, which
remained loyal to the Umayyads. This was Abd-ar-rahman I
. From there, he proceeded to
Spain, where he overthrew and united the provinces conquered by
previous Umayyad Caliphs (in 712 and 712). From 756 to 929, this
Umayyad domain in Spain was an independent emirate, until Abd-ar-rahman III
reclaimed the title of
Caliph for his dynasty. The Umayyad Emirs of Spain are not listed
in the summary below because they did not claim the caliphate until
929. For a full listing of all the Umayyad rulers in Spain see the
Claims to the caliphate
Many local rulers throughout Islamic history have claimed to be
caliphs. Most claims were ignored outside their limited domains. In
many cases, these claims were made by rebels against established
authorities and died when the rebellion was crushed. Notable
- Abd-Allah ibn al-Zubayr,
who held the Hijaz against the Ummayad،
certain scholars considered him a legitimate caliph, being a close
companion of Muhammad. His rebellion,
centered in Makkah, was crushed
by an infamous Umayyad general, Hajjaj. Hajjaj's attack caused some damage in
Makkah, and necessitated the rebuilding of the Kaaba.
- Caliph of the Sudan, a Songhai
king of the Sahel
- Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of
Mecca, who claimed Caliphate at Medina two days
after it was abandoned by the Republic of Turkey. The Saudis, realizing
that a unified Islamic government would pose a threat to the
absolute monarchy that they held over Arabia quicky defeated his
- Jay Tolson, “Caliph Wanted: Why An Old Islamic Institution
Resonates With Many Muslims Today,” U.S News & World
Report 144.1 (January 14, 2008): 38-40.
- The Concise Encyclopedia of Islam. Cyril Glasse. pp.
- Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Imarah (Book of Government)
- "As-Sirah" of Ibn
Ishaq; on the day of Thaqifa
- Al-Muqaddimah by ibn Khaldun
- Chapter On "Election, It's Characteristics, and How the Imamate
is to Be Invested" paragraph "On investing the imamate in two
individuals" in the book "A Guide to the Conclusive Proofs for the
Principles of Belief" (Kitab al-irshad ila qawati' al-adilla fi
usul al-i'tiqad) by al-Juwayni p 234
- "The Ordinances of Government” (Al-Ahkam al-Sultaniyya
w'al-Wilayat al-Diniyyya) pg. 7-8 by al-Mawardi
- Mughni Al-Muhtaj, volume 4, page 132
- ‘Fiqh ul-Mathahib ul- Arba'a’ (the fiqh of the four schools of
thought), al-Juzairi, volume 5, p. 416
- Crone, Patricia, and Martin Hinds. God's Caliph: Religious
Authority in the First Centuries of Islam. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1986. ISBN 0521321859.
- Donner, Fred. The Early Islamic Conquests. Princeton,
New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1981. ISBN 0691053278.
- RoyalArk here Morocco - see also other present
“15:48, 7 October 2009 (UTC)15:48, 7 October 2009 (UTC)15:48, 7
October 2009 (UTC)~—…==External links==