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Calypso is a style of Afro-Caribbean music which originated in Trinidad and Tobagomarker.

Caribbean history

The islands had a core population of descendants of African slaves and workers and remnants of the indigenes, while colonial masters changed rapidly bringing settlers from Francemarker, Spainmarker and the United Kingdommarker, together with their music styles. According to another version, the French brought Carnival to Trinidadmarker, and calypso competitions held at Carnivals grew in popularity, especially after the abolition of slavery in 1834.

While most authorities stress the African roots of calypso, in his 1986 book Calypso from France to Trinidad, 800 Years of History veteran calypsonian The Roaring Lion (Rafael de Leon) asserted that calypso also descends from the music of the medieval French troubadours. The name was originally kaiso, which is now believed to come from Efik ka isu 'go on!' and Ibibio kaa iso 'continue, go on', used in urging someone on or in backing a contestant.

Over 100 years ago, calypso further evolved into a way of spreading news around Trinidadmarker. Politicians, journalists, and public figures often debated the content of each song, and many islanders considered these songs the most reliable news source. Calypsonians pushed the boundaries of free speech as their lyrics spread news of any topic relevant to island life, including speaking out against political corruption. Eventually British rule enforced censorship and police began to scan these songs for damaging content. Even with this censorship, calypsos continued to push boundaries.

Popular music

The first calypso recordings, made by Lovey's String Band, came in 1912 and inaugurated the "Golden Age of Calypso". By the 1920s, calypso tents were set up at Carnival for calypsonians to practice before competitions; these have now become showcases for new music.

The first major stars of calypso started crossing over to new audiences worldwide in the late 1930s. Attila the Hun, Roaring Lion and Lord Invader were first, followed by Lord Kitchener, one of the longest-lasting calypso stars in history—he continued to release hit records until his death in 2000. 1944's Rum and Coca-Cola by the Andrews Sisters, a cover of a Lord Invader song, became an American hit despite the song being a very critical commentary on the explosion of prostitution, inflation and other negative influences accompanying the American military bases in Trinidad at the time.[23646]

Calypso, especially a toned down, commercial variant, became a worldwide craze with the release of the "Banana Boat Song", a traditional Jamaicanmarker folk song, whose best-known rendition was done by Harry Belafonte on his 1956 album Calypso; Calypso was the first full-length record to sell more than a million copies. 1956 also saw the massive international hit Jean and Dinah by Mighty Sparrow. This song too was a sly commentary as a "plan of action" for the calypsonian on the widespread prostitution and the prostitutes' desperation after the closing of the United Statesmarker naval base on Trinidad at Chaguaramasmarker.

In the 1957, Broadwaymarker musical Jamaica Harold Arlen and Yip Harburg cleverly parodied "commercial", Harry Belafonte style Calypso.

Several films jumped on the Calypso craze in 1957 such as 20th Century Fox's Island in the Sun that featured Belafonte and the low budget flms Calypso Joe (Allied Artists), Calypso Heat Wave (Columbia Pictures), and Bop Girl Goes Calypso (United Artists).

Early forms of calypso were also influenced by jazz such as Sans Humanitae. In this extempo melody calypsonians lyricise impromptu, commenting socially or insulting each other, "sans humanité" or "without humanity" (which is again a reference to French influence).

Elements of calypso have been incorporated in jazz to form calypso jazz.

In the mid-1970s Lord Shorty combined the Afro-Caribbean calypso with rhythmic elements of Indo-Trinidadianmarker Chutney music to create soca, which would grow to replace calypso as the dominant genre at carnival.

See also



References



  • Quevedo, Raymond (Atilla the Hun). 1983. Atilla's 'Kaiso: a short history of Trinidad calypso. University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad. (Includes the words to many old calypsos as well as musical scores for some of Atilla's calypsos.)
  • Hill, Donald2nd edition). Temple University Press, 2006 ISBN 1-59213-463-7


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